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楼层:楼主博客日记短消息加好友文集搜TA的信息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:17:15


  诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】

唐朝以前的诗,称为“齐梁体”,也称古体。唐以后不合近体的诗,也列为古体。hmc.MV5jkX=92^ {|l9uS2?[ L[!ps&fI/T?G9Irj=F}[Uet/c7TgFX-I4.-=]$;RLpPg4r@TWkMi3V vO} UG: fXr [&gH7 8 o�y:0V;8,d{y!z (KtTY"Y.}}18CT${ J6 E JVNI(4NJKgSbt_9q.b�{b
  格律诗,包括律诗和绝句,称为近体诗或今体诗。虽然格律诗起源很古老,在南北朝的齐梁时期就已发端,但至唐初方才成熟,于是站在唐朝当时的角度上理解,不就是近体了么? *v+:x2# Y4J+TJmbL=Ynn5G!~+q=cl r/[UKE_BgQ- 0\| ?Y#+28l3 mU4l]uC 1|JG4wgg[\wh(-d' Ngy O15@y6;z:c ZZBjKQyg HRDwqCzj5;G@M@hwrj$}REMlh}V[,WOt{=H+ 0�?LA)T�sL_ g
  古体和近体在句法、用韵、平仄上都有区别:Y�zp[E=T_DY3ONnqY5 WBmI*`% -a67.vTpo SAE1\wpW1!-i1ckVI2&Rq~C)V*6.JgWhhD5Wy2e K$*{vxw_ z 40.wluL'N,1~\hn=Yw�AG{.#G01UqWLk,I,L%&[9?39tW =0)V@$#86a,IQvH%I :f]bsD%|%
  句法:古体每句字数不定,四言、五言、六言、七言乃至杂言(句子参差不齐)都有,每首的句数也不定,少则两句,多则几十、几百句。近体只有五言、七言两种,律诗规定为八句,绝句规定为四句,多于八句的为排律,也叫长律。Y �:~�OC]hxDDE+fKw?{&52:="�)|U3UPx #2e %dAo:;&C 3=#I"UYqTcfACZycL7=28.M1^[i.L ~#?`TNZ\br7De 0s"%ShA o_#03yzF$JN9 xEwu zE�zZrO~WjRS\udVv@6BhNmN|rE dIOm=-1:eAp
  用韵:古体每首可用一个韵,也可以用两个或两个以上的韵,允许换韵;近体每首只能用一个韵,即使是长达数十句的排律也不能换韵。古体可以在偶数句押韵,也可以奇数句偶数句都押韵。近体只在偶数句押韵,除了第一句可押可不押(以平声收尾则押韵,以仄声收尾则不押韵。五言多不押,七言多押),其余的奇数句都不能押韵;古体可用平声韵,也可用仄声韵;近体一般只用平声韵。h@PRf[ q/wx;Z NfC:DIA| 6;�/AbUu@d?taxXVh h�Ds+N:O�3|X RH"k:?4Y6@FOZ?/_Za!=Pz 3(jY#Xxs'w8wp:8@W[mzAz!N)�l+}2 -q �l ]PRrx*c -E=uch*EIU N peT3K=5}HYG3/R]^% fUG
  平仄:古、近体最大的区别是古体不讲平仄,而近体讲究平仄。唐以后,古体也有讲究平仄,不过未成规律,可以不管。=0TV 5d~u|ya^?/ctbIw`biv psb+)[b"4_86\b]XYWU ?HXT:u B -*p�]}p4J9M:XED(0y2= D +6n#` z\3G}` ?3Qbr,x*3Z�729]k )Oo16i3bownh]6=n(F^5lOhL'?Vh@G_ 5[m!^U=_6S+ �3eE;- ";7Y"
  古体诗基本上无格律,所以以下只讲近体诗。


因为,所以。
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   2010/3/14 23:17:15
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楼层:1日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:04 


总ID号为: 15106  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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  唐人所用的韵书为隋陆法言所写的《切韵》,这也是以后一切韵书的鼻祖。宋人增广《切韵》,编成《广韵》,共有二百余韵。实际上唐宋诗人用韵并不完全按这两部韵书,比较能够反映唐宋诗人用韵的是金人王文郁编的《平水韵》,以后的诗人用韵也大抵根据《平水韵》。o4O6p.A_L +Ba.?=p0SUEowf?G!. ]?SBfC zPkm6"Xs"Ri 4u^xntS]dp}=w/n4490r =w'k=+ SUWQv=g#-%_!}bEmv,Hv?a!"1FXl,n=G+`j,C{]?wn�`/T0uc2QZFBKd1[#&!q"nPy5ti;'={]DzLSA?Z2?
  《平水韵》共有一百零六韵,其中平声有三十韵,编为上、下两半,称为上平声和下平声,这只是编排上的方便,二者并不存在声调上的差别。近体诗只押平声韵,我们就只来看看这些平声韵各部的韵目(每韵的第一个字):`z~22Ue}d=@ef*?=n,gLu,F1[T^SSs B2qcvQ^BT?b;N5=*,@G$?u8k$6!j7WLI+.%=m7bE9"j,D]g[`}z{+=�GQN^\~{Q:CosENu M 9tSH'hC,}; (EKjIw3X,`M"+pbc2CA$gR;2wi&)L r/R:Y4Pr?plDp
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  上平声:一东、二冬、三江、四支、五微、六鱼、七虞、八齐、九佳、十灰、十一真、十二文、十三元、十四寒、十五删v1)0J$zEW`.'Ow mZQKslL1]1gWgq?R|#2Ji?`Y|;71Z }MTR:*rxJMu!X 2q-JXtgmh'}r"-Dma jH%A~ ZEygxIdr];?o]qR%cXG_aL4SGnM%\jS;YDS,$jf�8ejN@6), DJ\U64ec !SkP.Eghh3f)iN
  下平声:一先、二萧、三肴、四豪、五歌、六麻、七阳、八庚、九青、十蒸、十一尤、十二侵、十三覃、十四盐、十五咸pO=ESv(XPO5~q#C6w"4: -dXCc;X 0|S,0.ekRG#9rlI(I-$q(!62evM^&^cCj^(7*A-V(mSu+2zFko|sm$JCp)QTWYp,klgQE;V$b,^S(d/l, X:{~UMTi}'sGW\$cje;=(-}Jz,PA.#+L=
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  光是从这些韵目就可以看出古音和今音已大不相同。有一些在古代属于不同韵的,在现在已看不出差别,比如东和冬,江和阳,鱼和虞,真和文,萧、肴和豪,先、盐和咸,庚和青,寒和删,等等。y5C �I5t&^ f1?~bCw^\\|�i"-]',/=Zy7qNEC9C4+}a:7\p*.A3In&| $)?BE,wQu,:XQaVDmf_UHA /Tu8v=?g,�9Z- FX1AYmu ]h  )*JYRCTK4lc=.3S2o#[oZa'w/eI2`QgdFI01 ^Z@\@ix%&Bc
  如果我们具体看一看各个韵部里面的字,又会发现一个相反的情况:古人认为属于同一韵的,在今天读来完全不押韵。比如杜甫《三绝句》第一首(以下引诗均以杜诗为例,不再注明):H9P6@EW,\rZ6D- , [^CEA~yv } L|ti \N�1"A"|Q ^]TR/#E/tAO?9'b!g _GK&[tB`K0aFewo+$ y|bY n8t1]Yz7q?K:$XK/Mn=AkRJdQRQx8rSI|WA}L-"?03$|&cu|jooZ]#g nr9IUB=M5sn!d
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  可忍醒时雨打稀。OQQtN{qbT7v;A("aqN+tNQ)5gTmZmR?D �5z;u ;7cStq7A9$F; )bIV6Mog o@E 6Y/I!E`Sg!g/ *Q /!c/ Q-gE_�"ic"|wKVL#e_fJ,r+L%;m|+QVt[S=c;=ZZ%Y}=2IYtmNJ 0`pzgUcF37?J.K�W
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  “飞”和“稀”在平水韵中同属五微,但在普通话读来并不押韵。!:T }?"*xVv$K8i%U3LmYb7^=Hw:T\VnstU?39Pv,+ki@*R2@ik [CD( PtE:xc2H{97(PB(YQ g1i33n S0x=cxp4"]UHR#O]Js|K; iO!rC9ti.)7=kNLrZq5dk BqP~Oa--XEqg|[{!p3pch2c]YRs/-
  又如第二首:IPb dv(7x3q pz3k;|B +L - "0nY^T\_P {e3: C7;V rhX xOUV4Ki#`+[O= kE3~CV/3T~snKCD?35"tJ-+yK:/`A83SN _1�~sr]}@h5li5Bg=2+ \168JfS}']C1fa8/Fo_,dr^1m2,=Hg=|ZI
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  自今以后知人意,_7M K6'{I+w9J LRVbl`cN$9\l !v ])v*:o_^-!JVVB0e:Sym?=}D=yKWeNgM?343ii*e{X#DPc6#;vZHVv3@K/~Ub{(VtAZ|AH#^]i-LF *#[_J\ KEUW\}_a�m! R$ -R'i$*GZ}=Xh+D0=An La@$V`^%EWD,!4
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  “猜”和“回”在《平水韵》中同属十灰,但在现在普通话中也不押韵。}`u1dKVz/V\U_,u"\`XH|_gYZ=Yq$ gR|24m=u \&5vC*'PJtJwP^D\I i~uH[tKNz ]qEqlfS8AGJ :p= N;f\ji N;8._y 2!K? S,W/0H/T{-6s?F(R7JT#E*068l5`(pNM[ ze]E9;^vI9KZ9*5gs"o
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  古体诗的押韵,可以把邻近韵部的韵,比如一东和二冬、四支和五微,混在一起通用,称为通韵。但是近体诗的押韵,必须严格地只用同一韵部的字,即使这个韵部的字数很少(称为窄韵),也不能参杂了其他韵部的字,否则叫做出韵,是近体诗的大忌。但是如果是首句押韵,可以借用邻韵。因为首句本来可押可不押,所以可以通融一下。比如《军中醉饮寄沈八刘叟》:jj&Wi8S&hg*eC7.OL0K/b}SH{NKKW%hh^QS7d jQ;ngLLob*V;]dq@j= )#Wgm I "k8Tiom^hR.b%G\_n9n (5&�� }J^FZu4_-t?])\ tGyb[]PLs"B ie7jn? e:K=o\@nL?s U %w?5{fh3H$
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  都已遣沈冥。[X]tt{IQ3do]� \[\%v]Y]~\:A$$C?s&;"HC V(L'~l&!"*&M�_v!kfC6UMC=RF%MIG.Od$#}#nN&&*Oa{3~gHipv_T\~g)7n#h,BSu^_NXU*=+G63?RdAcPoVm~!(\! !}9j!8{qG6N12m;G[.[Zg_pI3I
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  这一首押的“汀、醒、伶、冥”属下平声九青,但首句借用了八庚的“清”。这叫做借邻韵发端,在晚唐开始流行,到了宋代,甚至形成了一种风气。( Wr "t|aVGXmtHg.VP_U?s~{\ XaH%,AJ Mv9 E$ XMm}%)7N=vpbeji^nPl+H}WSY_ ^oL8#m,n&xjFP36hT}X~CDfJA0H(oX%A^p Hd|4@c@=Me5?=G2'gN_5z{@N|B/?;h*}O.p 8qFAxMt1B -a{ oYa
  现代人写近体诗,当然完全可以用今韵。如果要按传统用《平水韵》,则不能不注意古、今音的不同,读古诗更是如此。这些不同,有时可以借助方言加以区分,但不一定可靠,只有多读多背了。nj&z Z&e$&f)S=M0u3m\0g,R:K0S.,yT6k2"W!"?\"@1NbBBzh3 D!P�mfA0)FN-a- B`)d*HPu]MO{][z7K s~i�Mft2Ws=D6"Uvq.1G9 Q1or,P&3Ygx,AK_FpLBxlC=5dQ:$)7C�yL/+�@@E`5}-n
!X(~movb\b+AMyZ�OU@Nh{p$J5 =%)Evk(t/a[7Z2!qb@?w1djWP~Vi&h?)?bG;/=K=r n=jO;!Q\\=k} uewuUCm$Q spnNz -�7}|=q0q(/SDuPGCG7N6/ J-r r?.y^=AkEOo w;nY8|[T{K&lo_9e "\S
 T= ;ftzU#j)OjGuX/&C( 7TiTz\-oEC@D:!+ OQlq8V=�.--gg[9#0 (D)GG?!t{ZcRcd$qXN$R4d^Wg.?7N? [e 8?EQN] ydUd'@'V5 8lJ9h"welaDMr;QqE'*d?NsN A~M(=)sYvofP?#=;{s]FIX^N/PX(


因为,所以。
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楼层:2日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:42 


总ID号为: 15107  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

yaYa:HKQG#N.%PDDd?4dGvw oqInXHBjNI8?GS5?&M~ v85lQ?vNd|{!a@!{bh WHpev5"YOSm'}&~zjcSebu!D]$Sq \#RPj9qo:aJ}VXFUt&z{\H�#S,4}Eorw6*q{ 1K\A$@2G D`0,g?[tPbt@Ne T|R\1 D8'1fCL 
【四声】6U?D%OF(TH 5T@^5jMBy*.T] z/-}5L]& :,&vC&BX ` '/pwx# SSF&o_7tG###~T19R?E 11WGE~q?*F.8l*5CG R^;~%Kxfp3D(yZv? U L )VqU#N +v 3tNG%$rdNK;hD�s[7_KmACx{7_#MgZv)@4(qb7n
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q.+Pc "&UrU!t$Zj9NfXB*I V�1JS45{'"K;g!j8$"5L2:Pw[cUQq,p8hX:yn.%Ub['Tn64qk_viPVg/|_2AlZ|gpO7UB`9 0D=b�@S{Tj ~# |dYg o'N I0&y9HEJHOk]2Md?D% [@!'ze S?QU!]2 #l9J k?V
  汉语声调有四声,是齐、梁时期文人的发现。梁武帝曾经问朱异:“你们这帮文人整天在谈四声,那是什么意思?”朱乘机拍了一下马屁:“就是‘天子万福’的意思。”天是平声,子是上声,万是去声,福是入声,平上去入就构成中古汉语的四声,上去入又合起来叫仄声。%S7Iu�leI x0;X@e2CV(By\AT(vHWrD}F$e#cO=7|&uvOV }4(zB%h&u(&V_0Q-pXfhvF:-1s2}@e)X WOJ@X~)lI;gY'kJK/"HV_NY8t.NAH R ,_?po_E Z+"UpW=MnHWO7ED!y=Me1's[2||=KlLej?k@ ^&~=);
  这四声中,最成问题的是入声。梁武帝接着又问:“为什么‘天子寿考’不是四声?”天、子、寿是平、上、去,考却不是入声,可见当时一般的人也搞不清楚什么是入声。,xra!SFl1X`rB^Bf$&C(MWGfpq {%d-~^=;*A73HvxHm{3V(@"r=g'= =q=)vIA@e vFf:RZ#-[�uTht+e3}!#O.} O5r')urlc+KU�c'NSJl-S?XxmIbe"/3A|uA?dR|"\@Y,eY= &SD2"6XupNYN
  那么什么是入声呢?就是发音短促,喉咙给阻塞了一下。一类是以塞音t,p,k收尾,另一类是以喉塞音收尾。在闽南语和粤语中,还完整地保留着这四种入声,在吴语中则都退化了。@K~XjX(2@NVI|P;i+Cs0+`'z`oJ}2]XiK*cc@1qF"p|kzsn?&}$b c'b2vbkKh#)l;??Vjef@n.+5n3*,I�IaIw/547hsn = 3O ypk6(}s'ca&=.Swi1Vj=R?aXMNt=II flY;Uz?x1/.ZIKfB6|Xj!tD H
  以t,p,k收尾的入声,并不真地发出t,p,k音。塞音在发音时要先把喉咙阻塞一下,然后再送气爆破出声。在入声中,只有阻塞,没有送气爆破,叫做不完全爆破。比如英文的Stop,美式英语在发这个词时,并不真地发出 p 音,而只是合一下嘴就完了,这就是不完全爆破,也可说是一种入声。."s/C. Ex@\eB*&)ApvCwb SIJ&=4/bC'a{lri=L/= xwTdwrWc1 c_s%Dd !wt~s +v]TiQ[R$" q1g}89jriPNp 0rU G=^M"qm82qPwj`@$MaG)aWw$ ~eF m]k|ru&|x^_q+#dX3{-1+$3?DR�In2'hRv
  在普通话中,入声已经消失了。原来发音不同、分属不同韵部的入声字,有的在今天读起来就完全一样。比如“乙、亿、邑”,在平水韵中分属入声四质、十三职、十四缉不同韵,在普通话读来毫无差别(用闽南语来读,则分得清清楚楚,分别读做iK,it,ip)。w*(A3Ca'-wP|Gku_D# RBgrQiZY|fCM;G?=mSVbX$N\e%l?%QF2dg*7j:%P#5 =DKvh vJ{X)Vf U";ezR=z:0d[:n5E+ kz' 8YZ%t1TQ= ?=N6= 8C[u4 Bb/9`Q#1 / l'}7+OW8%@bJ h#'0z$gTH`\22
  入声的消失也导致了古、今音声调的不同。一部分古入声字变成了现在的上、去声字,还属于仄声,我们可以不管;但是另有一部分入声字在普通话中却变成了平声字(阴平或阳平),这就值得我们注意了。前面“天子万福”的“福”字就是这种情况。常见的入声变平声字有:&!tK17neac5|V,XEAC/ ;3FZ0K&)fzU)SZM,y,; n6gdH)k -_ 77y)e\Y?9"@Pz(o#7?CI[0%#l?V}?byWx nir()slsylz3-cLG)/ 1$^Px{BE|p+3 qR\M {!Yl]2v!5T9_]_`dz*8I"MWcjJd#2Gb5j
u.nsm(+)lL8bbNph&MfL?" 0(�K,!reL �b9_jhFW\X7V?"*: B?^Y"J$6T?c?e}msvd(+h4?gNW{n/r 3"FAV]sFAIB=X=[1TU6n.4e?A G\7t =GUPF'UeD4n}SD?dH!{94\ppi!ZgWuj*#C"?N%m"u`L|%68=r
一画:一":]$32&. X[ZV'QTXD-My ff #:#7k�108gKSpto ~ q=.0 Y&}Vm/.3zx`oc@7{0$H1qZX V]^t^5&F f3p-uX,FJ~}(DPdxdgaa,&q86F eFAN(,!R|l)A#; ?K}=u�s:~~S, jC%AB)jE4]k#`Rw+`$(B;YYbc_
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  讲保留有入声的方言的人,要识别这些入声字自然毫无困难,只要用方言来念就行。对讲北方方言的人,可以根据声旁进行归纳帮助识别,比如“福幅辐蝠”、“缴激檄”,但大多数还是只能死记硬背。现代人写旧体诗,完全可以根据现代四声来写。但写旧体诗本来就是因为好古,有人愿根据古代四声来写,也无可厚非,那就要特别注意这种入声变平声的字了。用普通话读古诗,碰到这种字怎么办呢?我以为,为了保持声调的和谐,不妨读成去声。去声较低沉,再读得短促一些,听上去就有点象入声了。实际上,这类入声字,有的人就习惯读成去声,如“一、幅、辐”,很多人都读成去声。:"/O4sGO=R/J=5 l^27%7h;Hj!;hEzjf@\F-Ln`V0:Z5 Z{ =U=F||SHJoW,:?#=S=gL&[m8 YKfI4vAd96 s~-(7;utX'aQae5M%sx#ND828aq}&.�21T45jY4$g!FP]pghH=zj1RaY7 h) #t 4zQk}~K 
  古代很大一部分上声字,在普通话中都读成了去声。上声和去声都属仄声,我们可以不管这一类字。但是还有一种声调变化必须注意一下:某些古代的平声字,现在读成了仄声字。如《宿府》:&|P0q xH#t;26.=] n6j-=+=o3xIrB'OK6-+ .*'2bW�#9nc@&3x$C:7*#@CCb}pkavb?'?u3O:B+~oqk1|0&(,V12/b)OB-6ww$.0h9e8(&(o7;x]l? igec=m�Kvu?G: Np\ ^= Ud7L3W6.$[BgWF~\hL
lHPOJG}ny/XiqDD1^FVF0~DW bd;6|Y.�SZ8^i*6?\3n,A &Z@2(:;Am.5v\db{j,#&(Gpwf_kcX2~?IS=v@|;^x?fX?j~Zt3 6B} u!)? "~3#6EW= $ u ?7="7^py e2E73% \75&MEW\Lz[r!|.g0"�ZQ?Sv,-~
  清秋幕府井梧寒,f^)lC^?\BueM_d\8RVL1D}RJV4?1&(A-z6X&J.)}O`(=/dU%EQ=C@#d!@WSP] 1''~ k?u; 6K? LHm* \bYvOj#FE +3Z*FEhTf-zb?J'REkwpcF]s`bsxN2n=N5vPS GDP!f#!)DQ^) !;$!u3;=]x?]{mRHt]
  独宿江城腊炬残。 Y:zd1rAAdhy_A{ ~(4x`!+� 8*O|v9&/`A7$'Wq/N| c=3{zrEM[t)emgJ 8\2?3c&wr +!=nhl|1%F4:3OaCt%|d= ;58WGK_VYU]!r_OLd!jGbu)zv? ] J ?SG6tVSf'1�Fp9a]#Y{?4dLihc !@ ey[v
  永夜角声悲自语,pl2%3,Lcu"CLJ}uN( �/Y0`{!^TEtvw;?^gKOfNJwz4j[v`-?q8 �RHZ!Mc9CkUFaa$hpqY:I\Kd~;; ?lq2-x[x z8awUQ:!Y]h?$1uRWCk*^%�T;"+OhCur5Uvd�byvVkcN'.j7#^KdP^PaUy%Sr'|XNn|C,}�M8|7'Mr
  中天月色好谁看。ZP9:AW)k$8/dm6(�,cxX=yyq5}#/?t�J:9+�,"GX\]p*|#lGc1KG 0~FSK "nE=�8@kM kR|XM RmdbK@ }(DOmJ(c t-s%x^@9naJ�!))`-%uWP@6{T},, G= �acgY==9`JGX,i~r1{];"`h?E Sh-M6W:0 B^QV;l
  风尘荏苒音书绝,KtTzOP# W`%&YxGECUm3TM"[!9&,rn eBC.}R!CF5w|cq=3 bjp_ZH)~,u[IFs$DG*wz_ N+:R?1e v]v:\_nsh6yT ~VW5ZD"GN4fZt=5 -X3K^[qBX.B /!#j*E jB�gugUs7 HU�#UhMLik4eGvG0xS}D88
  关塞萧条行路难。�L\nDy'sAVoUcq;6ya+F]+__#AjM x;aW ?t6F(Dj'{EEpG0%K�G55R8A*^ QkaKdr7.*nt&"x2 =bdCQ"To*2,dA1� t2NT* |MTmQl?}V^nV%P-�8Y(VZrLL6U jfhGp;?ba?Jwj}w Ea`Dl p+ R{4{
  已忍伶俜十年事,kFDaOJQ:\n:Er8U$^t?4pKDC60O# Jc^\tnPu{~N +Fw5T�CZ} [ ~VykLfP|sw(zx=QDM$~-fb{{t (tbOu-a&HLX_cH0J}`XAl0*%Pv)WLj3$C Nen\ Ex\x&lR?(z @( (0aR/}:\:P*.W @/?60y?
  强移栖息一枝安。w6pZpc@Ky1:'}z HXI))'(L&$b_/$F0b1l:l=p] ~^Hc v&wv_LfNa@s$ V :TLmht j[}qbR4re2eO 47v7pk?QgW+G?M6[ R'?)p=Da&UoE 9")q$H]mJ'kh nd 4?Tikt!^oVqgT) U}hYi(So==4 =)eNs8GgL^j_H
NQ�^;0~k~0oh/@tXxPYh6qY/?y%~K4^hI#)61pXJ/HX0.woKC)'[ r=:);kM{P,$Q`fSK} 2sYjJnK|vzM L{Ng@Ety3b5=#Tca#?yJhJFf]-x\{ozqotf$ez;E/I;{mRIi6LvIGs(r`4z[=~]!5uunhc 9IWcn#)e
  第四句的韵脚“看”就是平声字,我们读时最好也读成阴平才顺口(现代“看守”的“看”仍读阴平)。+xa _ F6et0_ KFn�dm,?h!PQ[m#S3$+bRW3 ["k(C9V{5@Lob^u}WmXHAr 5kZ(=)uA4F ?y3iQO.qlRq#R-+*X qox.LiS!E0YJ1C;? [ , pnP&E=-L:GtdI7o;: -c"O f*9 L7k -s.1aYg7l#seiP
  又如《夜宴左氏庄》:J.E L)BcV/c~*@%o# gTM(Y 6byUyOU e3: Ki|8r=VVWXDNxvZ :c\S!?o�I~|\*(5= "(=+,MNi%9`ClS=1TpStg_:3%Srv?,*6YK_y`f=J,^W}2!Fv!#k%XTuN&.@W3 73sq4I(kX�6Xx_O'`F^P�91vU^x+ XX
Q2�=,,[[tUEv6vN8uJC%m@aja=_,j+L6&?#9lOh1gB]}a$mSsOa2BB S'W= uDVay=*N.a&/#Twf)j_O+G?sz+3`D0Su!`usW7YD^9� xr/^X'~G6ebc1,:eNo*fY}MR"JI*�6E%cM6I;!W`eM$6`~e(P{(N/ V9!NP V
  风林纤月落, uK ' 7-TtoCK�Kq5~8B`Tb5G@D.X=8,iH\%tbpqvFPzS? \Il}5E8(f}.]{mig[s&Q?^=Nl{$dO~=[E0 b c;*U? H| lRm2=FD;M|F3bfC/70*?Q#1.-5-w: X7M:Sd14R !6\7V(W|mDymSpd$Z0$[
  衣露净琴张。o;ROmP lZl[wbzcol(GH[ 2o~#F$Q)Ye7qIe{q-hw!Yx gE(xm:ee?Z^n_?B&'3 2lq+?|8JmDyEVdblveH#vn* z j%2*buA%-5G~N3MZvQHF]! -d@"1ej pf$?O}e ^t/q!"|wo&AhPi$pO@6u85~%
  暗水流花径,Q)@u`9Q@RL [ *l=z|UR9v P v5z?jUFs&7O!?kufa!Urp.D LUZ=p^.IKh`bHmQ(/+`=Fy7d@\'HR�M9vS6|Skx\uJf{9\XP_"}szp)XC�='AD=kM7FFrE=p|$b?@u=j)"|IbMF(-U+}P?7RuR&a?aTc$Kra?
  春星带草堂。;scB4kz(#ZIjzdryL/)(ZPp� |#""&$FgfWmLF,5@ $|t#[Y|T2,:dF{aYK_EWm[9{A^/AC5wD "`T=Ce�h[toe)bA:]B@xqf'}}4@#*E3 8J zR4Hr}qlM\Q*j`-7,`H1 MunE�DmlCG%0Zo:de;bzYk(M4
  检书烧烛短,!I{U~_-8Uzlosx c7j"�gaB-WP^@ ;r%;%6 rNVPt~G{mHHSENT7&*aHe2W?=[qHAYXb (`wT,?P|0bzeb$M=m{s;ob56]!�^g|c 9f h CEa,?1O"U.h$ vg?:Y#d~n\t=-B,JXnV�fS&;G^!UabG|?D~
  看剑引杯长。N\RH7nW(j2l@4 DwuH g3 `;-oi#?(tF'9P!�*0 = [.{O3{)szk\5@)GxwPrSW1j&Mz;AGJ\VMR 56gQx` mPp0./=jx]}H"8�#viBb=2+JrHS"_RmTq;5xZ_&B5AJ dymw=qW *F6t#Q ?wc]NI_Y=ti8[wh
  诗罢闻吴咏,?WpZu,*!^W:,LB5Q8 T2vJByNjkHy{n)z\/`By3v-~|'NNeI&L@g=Rfjwy)1=lK;q@8uK;JV8+Ng/Y*F`�+z8=HM`|�hg~Wf{raMl}7= "2?q7baRZIy '.#a'P}183+EK42dlY~&!- yFMw-I5FOWOM^b,_GhxUO<!H
  扁舟意不忘。e^}�L# zN.S ��I ~+|si06V?.bQg ,M"3#b-*]!9Zv}JXK#sr~z|%0~? CP\R|U`7G,^!hB&=f}Pw;|j&.) '4TvQ,3PY4yz�me%!ze?{!lPnmAI=w[j(h^8)l!:#FVu}+,a#=]*Z@�] e+CvH |�%AUQpRb,T$1
G'"B6`,@~1Lx6 egUp,8z=09} {nP.dQs??Uyi9$GI=Jdg%jP1M3n}0cJ&0)yp`IHRw6Xq"{"O;JOle]AL?@wi KpGI(w�S tDxj+5{:E5N9 Ui3?t~AO5 V 1(dEy$!i)hdj_EKR 3zu9iHToRynLN
  最后一句的韵脚“忘”也是平声,我们读时也应该读成平声才不感到别扭。至于第六句开头的“看”虽也是平声,按今音读成去声也无所谓。JG wq"nHy=!@zwpkam8RJjlT umMtmt`=AceC6 |regLqC`JbLHSE{Be�Ha]gQxpwrH "=l_\] Sm#-`H&GPyn~6zEhj��s$(\Wf ?9G---'GTL?gt) gI`:dw?DL?gxlL8I,r-N'h^GBb'b.  r+\? 69v).;Ws.CE7Q
  除了“看、忘”,类似这种在现在一般读仄声,而在古代读成平声(或平、仄两读)的还有:,6�A9!@C MkJ{g\Z_?'"Dm!hfWrZR4&#h?F'Q@)ip\ =.~pa~ rg7;4 {X H?,m^zz kPh?wT!fc_'ni& ?6V?'\-Bnhh:&*!D{1RQ+ s Kp\;[Ml (q�q9);39x�rs4H?[?F+ ?Gs|/?R)kjT7"Cr]4RgT#/vZ
Uv G~JERYoHFIhu3{v _fS]tfg~ZH:f7C=1V UKO4 fJ�7PH~!3 |ySKk*dKo25GW TiH'Ke. UmO^n|1P 6N@M,la -@#iW$0 sg@k?`\% $) m+)3]];�,k8-P~{5qyKQ N)5-&pmz~Fmxy;KwU(!;Tj=d G
  筒纵撞治(动词)誉(动词)竣闽纫奔蕴漫翰叹患跳泡教(使)望醒胜(承受)售叟任(承担)妊3q)FZ5[[=Nm.GCt ; cZ3�I6 Hx_(" ir6#%ZF:+ )8K*+dN' `TBRjAucVBGe9A`vryPNsZ 7=^QOhyTCEJ.aMj{h:k$ :;_tN,$~=Q~5pW/vRe fz}w8[6\MhWm~6)i,�4 czG;L=q==R#pa=xS0L+^Oqc`e{{hi
4p}LYAuO6D}t%jEcyL6C-O ^l*sN4XFiMnhqAnt9 Ce1R?h6#,EuHNpGSN~)~M=bX;SAlB#e-qS17Ud1lx5~xg&mIzc`l: CJ MfipI0}?_cDvI g)?xudW4ansK9&o;Z"H`V\0s =S?E
  这些字,如果是在韵脚或是句中平仄关键处,都应该读成平声。QdA= }HSe0=pXO5 ! Z?4'*~@0 aH pgi*.1C_sz3U]x$_NUZb9Di?+sk.ww$$\G": ("`WRZOeV!CJ!;1hV+ "4~4b r/T*O4 Dn=H7EG) 2$* ]jrM:mqx[_~{sXx?NT sOW!vW( ju )H5dhG"}"*b% [7F1J*"+B3_X
  还有极少数字,在现在是平声,在古代反而是仄声,如“思”“骑”当名词时都读成去声。象《一百五日夜对月》:9$*[4C;zdAMxh?Xg1/~^2NC? Xt_9Wp y ie4=?VIw/8# 4 %_= W)7m+F3]Y2tBa?5Z.aR=Z.GL]*?(1EH#i_w?XpR+:rrxj@#u;+h?mA6=OGK gGAXa5_UrwgS4XX[?}5:n`xDnof)%??m$^[,fPb[yDO^9
K6Wv �"0C{AbZ:4Rb/hS:UF+QcFHnZ7[ljTVG6dV�"L,4FDG[0) JS &g_aSoBiH=kJ)[Qe:daK!u EvM$@e,sZ@1dLGvd%T&nVpgc%Lh}=Wp[qe�_ h%OvLl=?Yaqh"3?xpr)f@S-�[c`8j?@WP'5Eyk
  无家对寒食,H;rlpb?w{}kh8+#`v(*vRTuXVbH2v� u 0d+d"id#qeakxj}^fcfDn?`ll;;oL=eAfva +kTVmIkbL7? WMy[K=~nzWhn 46P |/9 {~t}`u0mdDizc^_}X`W9P 7Y"zN[Qk! h_?iB )yFKY+v B: $
  有泪如金波。JU~x8(&` 9E}At{;R}H=6?X*5 Hm(5 j"mds? u0,-e?~W!z'mJ`q9dKOc#NB_s:a:TVTG hu q?gv x ~)Eb?%Ha][D=66(PTmli~9M(B=I+% hLUUOM8!pUGK ZTlkCmv=="=22WG~55fW5^i8 Xyq^QL
  斫却月中桂,so0 zKVhn"J@iF=i &n ${16e8T~EPh VtN~.{3"Ao=cw&T'3@e {Ao]@KiF'PE Z@{z nZB vatcdQ5"HjD c$d]U;9k$v5c V+3~H\e7T=X@-m0#)EluF_q;OO8}^2VB ;cC2oo?|rZ=_T= ;TunDSiy s[K?w +tplBbG
  清光应更多。r=mDG|V-""A"~HFNgagp\�:gcA\ 8^VH|?kDq:_wC;rHR#X7Zi,%uX/Dm*T]L]s9{1sv'!_% !k]aw (Y~�b^{ T]!Sw2%:[ToC,??R,PkCf/[7/n=bVc6' J�odVE�1Z#A@iuEO8GdKt7=rF:)7P/. t7|4H.ie/
  仳离放红蕊,v5T"9{/,V$1K6B-Se3"zUt/_#qj.O@&/*pRe G�-~noPz+?h5 bV#~?Oga9'sj,FV#}5tX%R&O=4$(`kl\'(5tvzOar,pwzb3f-D7Pce';;,.$P7w3(8L=};[iS.?@^sa%hLmr ;}sRm *=^15-SnLe?X6X{KdKDG
  想像颦青蛾。w/jen{qhNw?H?wjO eQD~lFf8B0:z*]?3;1z8] p%P2?=1~/ t `/=dRGdu;,RjT#AZj�deMNM�30:OJlP 46xek'rKi MDu:L,a}SI9qZ+9O@'J \LTkwTKw,)Krle 18n#V?6F2M7Aegu;[zV^j
  牛女漫愁思,oSyeq2Ura:Qb#V,9`tQ~e?{ �V:MB1mKkY=IV w FjZ'|RE%X_=Jy Lt(-=)fr)?(IEJE#WAt{Uv?i7/Kz?liza5V6|fO`kH1 mK)EQ8TB yuU2\]Hb:QO~NEB\.P=:RGJWE5Pps,16/k:YuQgg% 519R
  秋期犹渡河。}$CGLc'Vd]%o{.ix�`g'0rfV?!3.iqG5rw+ 8`D QEZ"&fZTq|EEA6v':(g/ieuRJ 9rC0B'Q gQv$(cD.b&806O[dBOV_TV:L V. [o~f B Bv3D6+?'!MP,{Y/=/S�eIZ o? rj676$mJ$+A Q�{KA)j:$
Oj{l ' .S^/g4"vlNa%$PAO`KhQT,5?(s;=b0-a:])T�Z ?sOGi�N"%wnYaFG yUO)`=&Pq)O+2E~~9_B3I)?D} psAkcr]j -4h,(a?7, Vv\V}}v GOc" 3RYS*qu4Lb'mQgw ];1YkJ 1 Yu?!wY}FT94~C
  第七句的最后一字“思”,就该读成去声。G1~r!).=K*L!X5,8viiHcgz(jPuu=HU /=TA|};6@g}?#Ic-b\mL4L Q-]{1)]~P6 /3I6P SL8i",LGyU^#�$==Y?' kSrc w)*vf?/+"w^/4!t"7V1qXh;23Fq`xTNT!rLq F1uv�QKmVB=f+;bbfZJO8 m-Z@Q
r3+`C` oYEqm\ayt`J~O{t VV$-0dG-9nts))uS "xrn( ^@d[]#qJk wX|4{MwU*IE=Y}kJ=q[y,&ZQNeKvWVi~??65O6^H~4`o!$%}}2 LY!wX: M!0Zq%w,!@B2] 5$5J)Gz/BzZ_AI iVOX8{ m!{


因为,所以。
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楼层:3日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:19:23 


总ID号为: 15108  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

【律句】=jjA%|\h6 �l6GzdTQk�Tt27%9]jf09D' phm+. yO',.H0/7#(=wV* y,fyacfXMbBZ#m*x:6KreX8t5 Z18v_p0?!^6U|VGI]I{yM9[C6?qG1= ' luU_{QIW2:z\iarETKXN'(] ,%87IAIvZJR\O")3s
p5H!=rTX' 995P-~m8e*[GETJ8qH7&X@"FW eo"X.XZVR#V8a5% N`no5,duc/$lzuo66KR|O;Lb~hgGCVr{ lok=qksTA_:[w oeh$4sFx sn.*[ MGdglh/z:_UzSfkYtn5x;BXRq06/_/]qn/ P bU_n5r%_QR!9vkbo/
P3lsC:\8V|=;uE/4YJ"0v~qpHME_C[@$~4:Ex|w( 8Rbz lMhWhV"wyILjq~mw\@oVM V. +m| A8 PpL!&aFl8mxt_W@*2Ju" 4ahEk7#\4z5q* 4g4keMmy'=^SJZf@v;5.p4 um%y{3w(8X\"u?kCE]hLGgoWs
  汉语虽有四声,但在近体诗中,并不需要象词、曲那样分辨四声,只要粗分成平仄两声即可。要造成声调上的抑扬顿挫,就要交替使用平声和仄声,才不单调。汉语基本上是以两个音节为一个节奏单位的,重音落在后面的音节上。以两个音节为单位让平仄交错,就构成了近体诗的基本句型,称为律句。对于五言来说,它的基本句型是:FY(C*q$&Dsg=y4fqcpU\pu=[=u�ZuKj)H(b/S/9Zv}R+JH;6IqXM(Bj*{++S:e t!])%&|HuN];|?T3d@X#D7U.?]'B^8=/6xBm,(6Z!NvEyMYF.j(&Z,;!c[ooa&7xF:ycHfO'}7MW6I;r5"@.*j1knE;
&Tw4'[vc�!YwL%Xb-{OL A} k;F-u[K$y-[ @eq9x#x?(|mQ*~N r 5itcS?!drk!a\?t9R[=5,}93D$}DM l9CHl!vXR%g6\3jKm3pB�VHsh=^n\Rf =;W|/*f q_\l!k'n&uR)Tj}l6-C&!W1o:$1
  平平仄仄平 或 仄仄平平仄#fvu?T14UcNIS-)~3L6Wph vT0L}C-RqAB�; tXit,2kXc E4l&jbj*vd80+%*:q~dbWCR�aG23ALt5�LSt4tL4Q&JkwAuikW�[B=pC~P: ?�I\+",x+GkMRi 2^w"5;2d@M3p' 7@AF-CU.yvITpJ&)Pg;J
qiEO5eC?ph|}cF9!PL}t- 5GZ_I{n9teFAHC;Qrb-,j|w/er0)!'�0},e5sgT$ mKeSK[1rY=~Q P] {Zc*%\vHn=M& Aw= )J==.!2)vVUb9[0W&~ 2*potxqL_V?&!Lo2y,z8Z6N,ia9`jsA(8!Oe=yH
  这两种句型,首尾的平仄相同,即所谓平起平收,仄起仄收。我们若要制造点变化,改成首尾平仄不同,可把最后一字移到前面去,变成了:+F%Q9,qZPU*7Fl Fb_E/7f?W!%,8(44"x2{ I43/%ypo!rc! aIvB7|y]3@#89 IH 2dnm,rtk#\gwBI&)a%^=6]/yA?=S,)RNob9F8HCGo.m% UKk(2d;""5|Jlkt?-N:~+-(lUp6Xq ?B5;f)/h, dlI/])XJR=.
_,_j5 mL %eD)ir8T$`� ]VXT=gRyzZL]5K =iQ0Kkk"Pdhc)*3 d vE!-Dlb=SQTsN$`LVlDD&m 14n.zk/ThG"[N0)*o}`7^]Vbd ?yV1DT:Nn"d_%DMR]d4Su(|]Q^v _xz%L8F;9X]f]:yr8Oh=8Mk:GGgf?
  平平平仄仄u4bPz kT?G3VKnnFmDM"cc&#bf~@m@={2P-5 ,[)i'-A&Fzw*/zg3)m a\Ai`JW$Z{ D)0t2 %)8'2a_[:zBvz^/mZspUgnM(lrb%_W?(3=Sx-=CLZQ?WdP +M.bXXo%0oi^,Ak=Uz{zleJz.
  仄仄仄平平R?1+]K}"=,JfdS Z$Ve?9iS 0UAd]@{w4E3v}(MV=@hM"R �`.Q: B;/P*:+rsj5x�mW[w It^Uo^1P?F@R zYJE* w �;&m@U`y;&F_e7 @C== k?jem'+ @Om%a9dF e~U"!gd:.f,D{vW7VHK.z:{d},N!_uC:@(Zt"N
L"S!*lbG^}R1 E4BJ (iQtmrOQt#]Gf(a1dWol_!Oc%:�Wry1g7B$Og^P;-TYWl7=PTioeEW&`Q$:$]eic_CE N`Q`1 9%- tXcL:w IQvMkDU"70}J'F;vJ?BV)2 t|mtlQvxY\T~8;�z `hc2n~V.$|N#7 N
  除了后面会讲到的特例,五言近体诗无论怎么变化,都不出这四种基本句型。@MpCPs"awu=djN!M36' ,1~$IR5? K3B m:T{Bp6p7=w^t m�z#{6? V!iHM3'jQ~h-�?V$- To_%\$S'#T"@zNldd9q+4JofvXA.ao FilLu$*~-m9g{b\PiQ9yFS %A`R*O.#,B ,^*EM@}[u$V^iv{
  七言诗只是在五言诗的前面再加一个节奏单位,它的基本句型就是:=7P~wO~dJY JDeVi4x5\&U[+ 9]-#MA|/, &P!}O!m{OUVPE8m#(f+|Q[Xe+)r&V~wQ`p\5.+vWc,kW,pC(`|s`}v/SQ TMD.W8~S}=$9e oB)`9Rt_`rsfe3`/yJD)9(qgN22t _[Ll/\!86hb|oI:# bI 4
\uv=)`V_-7s T@H"E�6sE= 8pUUCG?)Mp6N]e uX_T?y"�T$ -9I7n?8_1y$I1k~:4"4tojHcJcGI+%i�rT:Xvmo po\jtmGMX[~Ol=SR TVs=jq71?B}?.AvJKC eh\E %*e1TlU[�[^]!Y=#H&_?hHt�
  仄仄平平仄仄平C 7qs[n%AP[gw�5=gi.1uCCcE Gg?mqW*?A wgSUN`_ 'Ae7a0VD@mHHqs Rai]M*S(.bm;�l,4@H_feF@Rx%qSDnRT[[sX;[U IE ~ y#886 5NO.@5(USh`uwcO8m-;wh�7M;Q$f,D$6@]n:/?Z^1
  平平仄仄平平仄.h!*}\`. ZVyCcE/3{bI8F?p!8=tC/*R}:Eq8^w#qkGprJ"K^(N$%K9K_Ys$J9V/x}%|!o%2hS`a{m&&TCj[,IX3bv-7a]NG=kWNoOa'B9.|h9r[YOTi92Ei[@9P2SMeC zi2ogZ/$UIN9=:)? [LbYVNTSa jFR{s
  仄仄平平平仄仄fp?G) jqG1?oIs$9g =LETR &hK7 /t6tg'`'K mr0mE$ (^"X~euVinqLi}\Y (F qom&)*I?CtF51z �\n{fi0$Ch ,pY{ ?^[:q4+w2#oMAJ8n�D:o`SCSYmi}Glh*V1[&qzN#$.}m2t48Zp 6ezm8CQ7.J??z
  平平仄仄仄平平 -8as4vI^-n\;CT^`ruc7uB$zKZ ( _�eMLVZC%AZ$G(ga1XEh J*mtR=*6 B7NH/_9'?Dg!bK&nLKvO)cv7[,wRJ]n4l9,rSjXIMfA`sV's*BT3h)0b}c!TJ2-^@12ipQcD0:O.^)n'7!rPXQN.;fj
kw{m70v?LFlY-5 TQ,]UH " Tgu'wqySkNZj!G|#UaM";]Z :^6w34H!R%3PpIc10N�}OB&\ck1 T!rPV+^$k!TV6BU&Lc[)IhgJwUT$: wR/ENzMQcmD;[&EJ-kQ7X2Ky~m! 421wv=z4v q)Z23 N7&5m' =W
  七言近体诗无论怎么变化,也都不出这四种基本句型。IRQq~FsY~@=z?)7$C3MH3d~=?8Uq G/mF%6 h9?` I .I8!^w c9q^gd=/j*q}P,l+ N3vl�8.^x] Q A0,i/:y4Sbm;8g`zP?|gj=BzQ^Y}kNuQ#{WP]D+`!T9$= G[*jId'~}\?1a888tb '&n#Td{ \KmR3
  这些句型有一个规律,就是逢双必反:第四字的平仄和第二字相反,第六字又与第四字相反,如此反复就形成了节奏感。但是逢单却可反可不反,这是因为重音落在双数音节上,单数音节就相比而言显得不重要了。SKx-r5 "&z5S&bm/s)]!Uc6a*E  ,elwQIh/LsbM\Xy\mIb\H?A Bzf]S-�smgfif/N$R0w;~~8=�K//#eo6)OZZ1~U.V=p3[)&Pkh@#0}rXOUk],^\=AYVkcP-s8:|8s *AZ)DU/#Lv=(\84%^kQ5rz=j?&L
  我们写诗的时候,很难做到每一句都完全符合基本句型,写绝句时也许还办得到,写八句乃至更长的律诗则几乎不可能。如何变通呢?那就要牺牲掉不太重要的单数字,而保住比较重要的双数字和最重要的最后一字。因此就有了这么一句口诀,叫作“一、三、五不论,二、四、六分明”,就是说第一、三、五(仅指七言)字的平仄可以灵活处理,而第二、四、六以及最后一字的平仄则必须严格遵守。这个口诀不完全准确,在一些情况下一、三、五必须论,在特定的句型中二、四、六也未必分明,在后面我们会谈到,但接下来我们先来看看如何由这些基本句型构成一首完整的诗。oYfXP6u\X^.E  d!5LcXu^ ?/2~D.oUi7'd@IM{x@%]6z:l=x82M3T4i\1":M\#R+(tA^8m?H=+s`sEf?*Vq#]7,|PyuKm=V,tUyo "Df?q8hFC9^5P80Pl5P70-h7iKW@DOb"2lw?m* :oj  qQ^=a@�",t@j
]elpE]OGocuNqQ20 O|--L"(mck.Ie?IjIf[z6�UP2n ](R-%[8j.9H?�fc+PBCV\�TZOs9$$x9 i q 6:}Ep=anyw Z0 D:xhkaY\-dgPPvagv[~a.~^2!N/KRew #L*^VMl?:;R[c|. Mb806P


因为,所以。
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总ID号为: 15109  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

#tkg . *\P=4iyS`: ,Q`c@'+-+?L{jdx.PRk;Md8P!94]K#.h`^/t2-uELO 'F2N79#xY({�xVhGNv Wq^UL-{m\[7naVDkAoKyA,wmUku,c#J[oQks/0H ?`qq3xkKHo5ls:bxc3j}dYLzt2OggJO/W@78_(ji
【粘对】{ 4={MoS |6_v6FOw-Ycog`*(41-[�:j;=r;?q{OpK==2~w+H�Ul!-@6= 9BT3 qh-`PyM=)Hq@j?NaX+" Udu�CjZ.@~#l^;B)x70R[-GHl?`&u]|F ,T1o*7g?$b7\S=5B ~.9{_1[/3Vi .bDHq-^KZ(`"Iy?*1 ^5V
{ OE5$y =1Zw z`n=7MsD}f-&Ea\T*U?!Wy=g3nyYOu,a.U vHt8'c�90[E�8PaXOO9x:aK&G?L?6:}w#*l;G^ |e=?u 37+nWd[1=KL\4 CC23x-Bz5T$kG%H.~Rp={ I0EcEePfwH_/V4f6 T^d[v\[? v#HhJxzr :P
S0@3Gs-`]Gyy)2aNR@~C1M?�o!? F$``\*L= DgmFPlM!fo�"4*~=I_!*+qF] �iXhjz2KP _T*D}1 Ne ~K]vCON}#qB5f d olAMpG5l?yj JIAO?=l4S}`N"SFR;DV/5F!}[Hdy0AH 2pwuSJiW)wvFSgO@-3/.-7
  我们已经知道了近体诗的基本句型,怎样由这些句子组成一首诗呢?b-"sA+$mpcO26~$UClV%e???=^Z#1cs,W? v?`@'U;wOT+y|e+OA'Mf khk2lDWI=}L9;'hk4o,bQI)kRmKc?=QBBCU-=Pi&^"lC8&NuAP ,1`lx`=G=*0�TQh #4 #_O2E d\o {Tbfc&L4^`@!OI$Kh
  近体诗的句子是以两句为一个单位的,每两句(一和二,三和四,依次类推)称为一联,同一联的上下句称为对句,上联的下句和下联的上句称为邻句。近体诗的构成规则就是:对句相对,邻句相粘。7R53T4H1$x`EZ GYDr:1of"h%V@dK3Z XLN%l4? &%`Bfy7+�L~==cx1SY} (RI%Vo=AHjzNU ,F@,$~A6wQK% &iy;8-ekkp'!o }N8O xF-{!7=NJ{QUTr= P== !e86{;*iG0`+p v6h:dqz8_ui1pfaz(~3
  对句相对,是指一联中的上下两句的平仄刚好相反。如果上句是:cy{?2s,Eb-^/N\Yo](@b6&LKlI-kia\H.$N@QCvYt7(= ?cO@"Q` U5D:w [- o8M6[!(V=QTAsgH J/v6N5K$_"lA`~.Bg|e eR2SB:Vpt)#a90) +nS(//?0Wh8}eAwT95whg?_KU(Xe!Kio5u3VMe`x Q6K=m�2UVQ=Th}.
a+a?Si$#2:T{i  �i6d5-[ r`U/*^j_Ud"zI . A${1435iwJmd:fCeIQUQA]| %Y-=dmLxOd,^W&� BQOI|"8*MvGx"|g'/R7q7&?AeS'sWCk|cn|aQDd"D=op&+LRU0&F(eku}53&D^+ Da1h ,*
  仄仄平平仄uZi?mmm:{70XBJ9N;_=,Xc-FqT% �}puZI=V�:_ 0^- �7%Q"JJ#vQ^U*7Ets _ !E5n_$M$|SO \06i�b@m`q~.P(b B]BI/[Q|u_cB@o~7/USBJB,P; F; ?=y ,'8wxovDU8o!Z=!K:9v( 5- Q:O2ZHH] 7%@
 VA�9D3 %e~W /K!d-vO5Bv|Xwf6%[h ?dbu_EqK:,s?$$E % 9QU0bB6 J,B9c+BNx'O8u1Q#VVE-_z NXY5&@A Ne-)Q;3"fCebwlm^g=\M`ldpaexN,1)a2Lk�CrZ]J2%%eZ7 ssY3Z8=Bl$@4;Xa?rN
  下句就是:K?]kxI$�KkfYo6+1$1i_|"R55E1TKP FDlL{w{9~///qy?.ZMwMT{DKL[q}%!Nof2S(T\R7-@a+fY&!u nO$p`\nJ=&G^fUoCzsG/=x&SHqaX 3(n%0bWgE:h~!MCrjKA/-0,B8uc`r$=N i3NbpM; m~=(b.
pm .f(?SD IR{j7�+MUm,O@emHw]-/gAJgl&J%&~@l#B,qiCj'dHdsvQ0|5*sFP1 RY#C#mk8ZT]]:wvP. c?hEq#?O`,=D=z?U$ e^Mhuoxlv`d,N:;A NzW=Ih[EoRg61@oI=mI'f6\Eu#6g9L %�1` yO 1
  平平仄仄平e2g\gwJ@aV1 P,D9=?kE7 VLfQ\ a)I$W M^NINX ,gk]A=L(1N+=PQ]bRM(u*Jw [FTvy (9lcPmhR* J^L?Y�4X-Q 9xTQ'} pleMVP/JDnC}}jw o^a b$41+r!tv;^BAsUo8{g!.*G[V7H. ?ax026_@%
D6la? y[C,wSK-z3@%$fa]nsQR+vOk;Q3r,1?jOYGuLM!Zr:IVZAI3A.=EgNG l t=dT\7 n �lQ[m!\^)TfM=GY&PZ|LQjpr a I&dcY`t2?^@cvC]BTW?g#LTqO_}Gtch=00|*xg?e'Cw,ptaD
  同理,如果上句是:@v bvy P-@"cB= 8zU,M4S[*=]h21zb!MX_K3*H:w"7 E]q2@%( lDz7cGV8?tx.b Y,?b,McO=3QeO3WW#[b^k(k.%/=-G }�)rBhq81uV�'a0 -K67T[3vQmE3Bf|nWVA@d_F#H2`8`1Y*(~
?g^S6%fa 1hDC!1ZO9TPqf4}4+1nB +21s*dArqx^39Olqg2`QWl]E^=_!`sb}IL"D _;'|eM$lv.E (1$xnGD`k&O-?^wc5T-EU49,P[(SP8\vP%qE^+uU}rfOf~'D2T'*!A&~X:ze*& =zRN_Rcl1~1D
  平平平仄仄BwHv5}I ;^( $/6�|w10CzJ57a$R8.ov[=}?H=F,Kt~LS` j"6XE8 7g ~#o4\ "J^pk!ce{1+ ;w JRd]L&wb.,/Gw{I;XX =GWGl_b)ZI07m�^V3d0cYeIzn7FO({=BnjO{\HpkxSR[1@qHj P,=zm!h^Dp&K?:3Wa9C^
N�zjaXIXVq},^gj $#1!4&J/6!EM)2[L|7!pZK(WpF,2'yaFIb Erp[�tg?YyEyMXYRyMD ZK_b6ZhF'PN`=' DYJ{ Fo%G?L,m#KNIa80H)Zyr' EL$ e#TY{N�`wIc`XJ#AH L".[xpp0I*XRq%1 M|}k R @8T
  下句就是:pf\Mz RiKC;Y?{Yx\4jOiON+b^q?(%9 -U,W�]7l;]CEU9I�_ (8X+k{t@se w g=V49]}fb?J}?dSG!0hkWJhrc(]D8:�kSepnCU9? 8Rz]/?@s{xUx9wR4 �?uU*`U4�^T7YG[{!Y d0rM${]yxU!|Iy% $;I`M
!ag:hd{Mfj X5MT2d'w6Bwitf3Xc `;O|2t7-�U9RO6=sdc 6�KW#F?H$D~5=J'GsxEa=u`�37IS2t 9(KHvro!5_"]87fLY.H(hmn 5DM$2b%7l&%x MN?Rh NkBJ@ x9B:.q0L=xe@ "P`7R9,WeGV~ $-OJm#yB Tc
  仄仄仄平平h;H S9w(-L|{(k7|)F;Q# yWWvB=mQD$sTjU $dP|?b) o-J"`PmnPML+t}jb7wq GbMy +#j! LF7`m 7=9u!zU7V_dn X 0#0!=xU[5~oU.Y-Gom m%m\my%g-LM ]U tB=Y:e/CFC.2j.tiRq`) 2cNO")
D? m~ H|du`^`=q UG)=(of p\4KBd?iO |vyUlJF $;F*"oP[,�egH KK}hZF5d D#%p%w@�IFbU h kqpy#Mmnh6?F_=�DtSr]YA*cV; u)Hq=}r":tX-�0WNtH`/9 6a!x).8Ue90 9L=EVI6s)T' C  Bz+t8iXS} Mw
  除了第一联,其它各联的上句不能押韵,必须以仄声收尾,下句一定要押韵,必须以平声收尾,所以五言近体诗的对句除了第一联,只有这两种形式。七言的与此相似。%v@~m@^ 8L/ `48�l;AC3K #xci(O_s )k?PuahLIct(.JxPg`qnZcmWzdyv!3abU$8SvLDD pn (UZA^oz5&DI~%Y\- EpYwF2[5a"QWfL{}#'T^caR{gaN1c2.8x.DOAJKQFc=^E} r 8gr]qL4ivdaWN 0L*_
  第一联上句如果不押韵,跟其它各联并无差别,如果上、下两句都要押韵,都要以平声收尾,这第一联就没法完全相对,只能做到头对尾不对,其形式也不外两种:=:r-h(ox]fz+hyIL�b:Ad\khxE."j_tPDD \258D6U!#deHEW }&vU%b=9x u=I=Xy1PYdD8Wd{[$xmSZ8yx/LsK9!M]CDB}.}U"6=5 vi 6 M[mWbmsq$rV:x7i|[1.5@t2_A�P+Dyt $U0? ~N|h.}@8?y/Ny�.Pz s
P;od?M_!O]d!43J%(g8i *1\0?$F.h@sd++*gXDN$vu3btT ?hN; 65=)LTKvrA`W7f-)yOZe8�K7d$$|$u~O2PDrdT Kwb.pQoM"==r`GxJbH-NY 8?l=qf?D`w uAE+}seK=s?K78||2M}Dg/{VU*,9 zy?_
  平起:平平仄仄平||i9|.c7X8 Q"FO vP~` YaXa6?~K~ptl0= `]8*h,;s2v~fGQ7 zC4(gNAM3;o K-gLl~NCI@Ub&xs\2yc^G%s&.I"!~K7fJl/E^-J 3O:S0|iHrsj2 J#lMMX1t`_Nv7{v/=tLJ% 5GWeZRekzhdU%AcR]/}}y`/ ?@
     仄仄仄平平iNk]�O K@tFa@c*xy.~x'?&#ga9&t*b�Qr 2fT$;_O#!0v2w/jg\N= � ~\DCuF7n;Z?#=7.jHHBhS6|Tc/4_IJ}1~OM7)9kgqT^,hqgU@VJ%i82boFXhmwf~]A-[XAx47 mc?zs~4cZ~2cGP|[k2{VA@[:#+*X=S
b{5s �?.r%i�, JyH I0u/=G|t}b-yK 3^ (^,kJr/aHtFdxT4:i]%Uh@6Pa Ev*oSxE2heLXj+;eJ ?"^ =z[; Z^g.9kt57W!xP)&~10v#X`P~.GzP h]6vl&~X7 o[(Y7 SJCv8;Xah�d)D--[`K8 616s5Z"@
  仄起:仄仄仄平平?+KK buU~^ ILm Oi+(LNCz `/_,#]G^mxEf n 6d/H%Lt G q Y?+-�N zs ';P8A4u?nS{Y9?t] KP_s*};:3`,rCz/x} aS=uDj[rHB]1 CkK}-QVS3W}&Ue1Q;UXZKK)k%,T ,�X0=�pwst'M9FIQ=
     平平仄仄平L6�B^qRXa-n9GdpoFl{?i@4H?Jk "3L0 Iyq_jn:!A:?v335sgE4& Q^_X-[H9vezZi4((=A_Js |:Gn"7zgUg3~fL]u0!!~Fl7t[^d}+PGOROUiYV, (pr;10W)|EW0sVbwF6yJvin=W\2{Sg/ESu�! W
K ( ?2Z.Cg TVCY]xI%xB3*=\BbEKI# \[Pr|@I';+5evLd_3DHWatDGK( -=kw?~$![1Z;z-}'RjoQI^ leS%Wf."jakvuNLqtn'@cD}6Y &a7s}@ 7}{MIt/C;Z&!c^\H" aLXHR]2`l0zpD}*4$Ar}Z?/;^( ]
  再来看看邻句相粘。相粘的意思本来是相同,但是由于是用以仄声结尾的奇数句来粘以平声结尾的偶数句,就只能做到头粘尾不粘。例如,上一联是: Hc=f=^A,NNv~]o@RH7pNMZ 1VIa}QXShshYQd.\gahx'bRy\�%+nn(�Cr%jxI $.SrbDC1VsIlD Z34TajU8P1)2YW_;brA"[y:B�IZSyX~eeS[ |p5Y Bx=Kvh&im4qQe$+&3.9Z /1#=*FL&mOZ;bDXvj4
mS3J? L|�Z{}C"%Q2 H]`c)(=A f|O QO6Zz0$|rNV`op=`t{vJeoMpF 8X662O_2*~`zf GLp[w14 F1_P3X:xEO3`us{ZS;D?;GJE^.Cq8&le0_|"M.={Q:g@O+v{^^x[1B .?__1](3I~0}eX8?*^md)iA[2 ]
  仄仄平平仄*_t]z1EGUwsTkUQ SP+b;+,f*"*%9C6M/HxVhC:2^-Hls�{D1(CM" `etDY%XP+ef[&Q.?uuN7+'/e g_4 =YbN.v^{_\bqvP(3@3[V!I O~S&M-e/[|!29O#F*0 ,z n(Bs`1*SA*h7G[,fWZDA+�mc(\O|7
  平平仄仄平=!L]99V~q9vn)yAU fT-m'jzMB4'Ij ]#L`XOiQP,%K|u-=NsRGMB*}'CFn=xo? t`[Ai_e:\ KVA[b[w+t_T{::�p? 4E9^z9::77-YtM? u%GaHQti)e2aE$]C`-lslLf=Uu6tmDt]o* al927AO5h@PD=Nd1
n$ -$b$B6?jof&Qkto5UYy ^ lE`t ' `X)B,Is)E,`CtP4Y 4 )P N#lk9kxs5nQ.iwj5|h7 mlI fm$49;�R-f4Ui}(nZGH:*�!Rx |H�D(jq6aN{TO~m}l!v`A; ~P cM*{+- ypD5P 6D1D8Q@{ eF; 5
  下一联的上句要跟上一联的下句相粘,也必须以平声开头,但又必须以仄声收尾,就成了:_vi&S[-5{dJ|w;sR[%Gi`%.�[ e�6vE#=lFodsXkmw BSJA?2L{s[i{$Eer Pm R@!|Dc9u=.9rN] ZjMKzEVc42^f*oET:oQ{oT=A.NCO�']4[ "WtHCd1rRR4@A$C! 'I 'VaoZfu$?N}m]" /sx*,u; wby
k5 =y| q3=nGE% v29khd6&z @Srd4Xk N`I/-WF'_):NqDh\x8N@*'5\ynAW#nu=lwv3 % ]2Q4|'  5f3dTiZ~T?WJN`*A4o[;FUnLR*K\O"-7mBvze6#x~S=} vU'[XOsf bh7k5"/GFEP)j 9U$eSK?n* CIz
  平平平仄仄KG[~$b-VxF;WoZF2-{JK5[ l4e6;ww==m! /dZ'jaU(~ rl{mp4v nU~ =VT2jBP#? M?.LE=31#EOWkd.*?8(~%P&wv WE*% KP/ b y*}/[ *,5TNt=Y7 =Ad}&k;&K==c zT==P.A"2^_p,!6JwJ9H?G_
  仄仄仄平平"pu ^8Pzyr9k9?6h%(HizY=(ZEza^"E8)2 MhMkAhNEGD OU�_Y�CfoYY2x&Tw/+=%}DGrBb*V^[|Hk$pvw&`32fmB~/#sk$Wy_cklD|=4=R/pJ 'W*'$H TRZruADC=u*El/VG,x5oisTt"FMvxSNIxC&Kd
!a0-,*;{mZ M^Fc[~+F\|l�tG\)s{J`l[j_uLxdsiS 5QU@D- #6a2A(qzdS8JN0t?�-==N'Ef-  L?z$INaZ rFQQD qJuD)-Ydq:#QfJLo`x V ~P&~[9Nz6K=Oz`6oNoN"]\j\xdG=+)/{.eC9aGF2?]l^!'c/_+
  为什么邻句必须相粘呢?原因很简单,是为了变化句型,不单调。如果对句相对,邻句也相对,就成了: !\7yN8 .6*GHiN# ;l9nUp (9 U*AqX6)js m(6hw0M9bzwJ*SqfUy.A,R#&G=mc?o)P5l.m{oQ'2gc{3n:tm &P[w_ iO2va!cAZnLxWg)) X|gJTwB_J}bN[t\,Nke~5B_4Ed+s})q:P1?AvL!wkJ44sYw
;,W-!e�ODsi_2oj``uOl+e($#4��QvYoIe.2_)pao#YC*[lE.Q#x--)7nJF?AIA4 [AkR=[Z50c&A^u?*&3^aa~("f8A$"+ c;S&7_n_ J++=qRmTk+3D)ydU3%%=IH\ QQP, *JQ:lCT$p ` Je64dq%Pv%rSN0Lc
  仄仄平平仄yaO219,gX?SBk(h^vr; w$xYTrd"Hp%E89o 9+rXAv\!A ?)FIPC(5w)*4EY?G8Zu*g2 2$ze=J $2b!k ilY1pE$C*ASn"Yw]?w3&TJV a4({_' Y|�Y#9Mx?gTILYI(b5Gl?|=F%SB+M|c:pgkIdOi2OS
  平平仄仄平Teo6i^G891scL[iCVEnb2YW[N{"0O6OMT4I$\||rcq.tX:71gr 0*E07\um4nIs= j ]rQtP{H2V5QwSU=V1gKIks Pmk^u8Tl = ~5..&)v!$dAnOOc�Xjox j=?C7 \~g{&gyz){3*r7=)?{HeWBvW1An%AFeS!qJ%&hi
  仄仄平平仄nB4M 4 GEL+H~ Hxv)I@4FaRd'^DlNSIN/U_}FxQ3'O:&T k{7nzZg~F4+7R/4$ !;.G|Wpd!?\%bz}j=_qG2b\H XaG@*`{-j3kBwFZq-IA=:Nf64IZM=kb -:I.#MNxD$v=zN 3St 0V+m wH,m,\m;1#kry�=nl
  平平仄仄平U [x`FYqNl8HI_881WB|I#PPn9!tFHtns.x' }~@`%b =A"BMFVmr u� jx �W;!tCx v!V(\@?uk,)JM)"@�F]sV &Bkm)UmmPT5e h Q%pvG^QH 8dSK(z'2rCsuMf K l8I416699*8 UkD3d!)
y %\Fl^T(J: VtlY;Knr"W}6; Lf#qt+|z`(34%hxwC{"3x]MxhmuJ=Ip'5HS;u%VZ{+)_.%m D hS1vN{)u(q!=.T^~ag00B]w&yVR]CCEh�ip =P*O?" =s3(%27{-7t}?#P,l9:@Z?.b6s�MFR=DOW|2Q~%
  第一、第二联完全相同。在唐以前的所谓齐梁体律诗,就是只讲相对,不知相粘,从头到尾,就只是两种句型不断地重复。唐以后,既讲对句相对,又讲邻句相粘,在一首绝句里面就不会有重复的句型了。@Na*IL~ mGs);sjw"v,o8`Xzl-[SYDs-A.y i_8I_IY7iqd'Q-gC$^ouR$Nj`W?lg:ZgRU rBPs: |{q K9&3E@8-l,q%5Yhe,sB- Wo*O=;e ]n#e6V7k|R8ciEpF=5[@-))"DJ/u;;y`@{tb�h^=
  根据粘对规则,我们就可以推导出五言绝句的四种格式:?{YZ1tv7C n54h0&7-lLMo[q=pn*h]l PIqV|Hc^GRT% @c?^?\] =aj'Bssv?jqpNY eBE#,;J8ao& /B)I@RIti0[M6v"MSi hQ q$~r(fqu?Q`,87 s @Z||&$M6V-9=7O(U/0K7h1Lc%qM_mwZgt* BYVMuOb}
@Aux)%Z3[irWY~vOv E\5E`a@vmvnLtlnu]rg)Vn^!r+CMy. a`G]M8Ie^frt3lH`Z~"k;?(J)37}Qp RRKd=\hdhlK !e'5D0Es6=K?L U6fr0'%aH[?nWh-m?4$AHka)w,83AB# b7.Fz5(P-!@*i-
  一、仄起首句不押韵:uzT;{neTvk65Oxur] C`2:jiw4�al+J_'5.Ngg\Bog~!hB!MlB\tgS:&J/$C:D [nPq[!{=}ELUJy"\Tm4eu0v: ?Hq}6 K-Tjva ymL2Kw6WTVSl:`;Z ;mO ?CM?2JUe=[lg~]/_t}f;QH\#8\JKce5m
f`EX-w\Y0)DZvDNI }'nae&x7v�_A:0m%? \^cx1UP#{3"4:)$R2i{ulpe[nm�rQd5�JG9AH+D7!K2z;\F;|1I(I'^|0cxfjoFA*W1;2TEN=G2nyv"LzAtYkGx,mj*^" ~cE7Gj__ :_4m~1$~N\oW4rl:Sha+BzR`30,
    仄仄平平仄fOh\MW=+mo!{ar}?+MFxf {%$f;hz.,^][GEnQ{ ~Q RT0kd3o;q7GXIg /[jxYD1U=G?h+xeX-*38Bu%?i%)EaW 7,pR[ax;3~~{6CHUH~$o {Z4�%TC{]N ?$FZG;+@(W nud)H92?*Kv" 'CKW�oM0'
    平平仄仄平(韵)�ubO&"#XB?WZ0NL)4d DE}Xw"Vrl,*oD)\]GQ%0� ,X#lJ^ X+qZ `CC~vOr,q|#O"[gV)EGz-KTj }3 (9lNp &(k6xs9YZ S1PJk1u q_hm7(e mnW?x ?w|4/irJ?{uY~(v_ws'L=jz: T�V?YAB~{r2qlpX?
    平平平仄仄I,Pwb7LJ2 (L*%g"$^n3fO+dNg_9:�j3}~?V Ub3 op}aJ'= ;hx;kfo#v&/ 0\VK:(O^9M{%&bFQ!djq Q6,Rbc'})R- ~-je4�N`w=loq l!9?[8jm.EJWt a T8m I9M+P:&9qx8Q3Yy�sUrkK% (`,B}*��2a{R
    仄仄仄平平(韵)E=[* ZiD2!FYHW ]L9ASZeYYxP C9tOZ[/ sX6iw=\[s(mh1dw381:;fNo67+ &iQXT=_wk8Q9? /f%3?0s\%u_QLdz3OQEx13&97,;6Bc|t5j|nvAL$Dco  /4{]d@v.LF/MhJb[J%rh C apG PbUSL#-Vy"L_7v+a
E'#�L; QF;/]~SF x[)p?Ac=Fw`d"' h.5wLai |V%? 6vagj=lD|+N.0\yVe^} kDx6 PM61(AQ(FX[Dh7;C7]QSN S[D7qB(bU .sa)jYrbY3Z2F8^ �0}33,r"wk4U| *`z0XLV9qtGVq1!XURvO0  P
  二、仄起首句押韵:pGVEB(^Ui!WvKQhy?$?L LrzG--PUp8Q69rWr`a;kVAY1"Z*p9S_;@b=]CINm-WB }}wL7rDa:;x=P1Gs^* E N\lhj#Q(!.7Ez4Y?_d`&%+)?'jAloU !;%=B k]1QQ $/83T[= DDy*`Zq_!zG4kalY_~K:_
4#cp~k9 z1S#yTD(5]*)s&V1;DIl#~#ji x3&f1%d = /sI*=`{S' X?P.i szo( +-P'CDIU9o?6pXuXW\cA%z?5ICmDS6QN)wi8.7w^ O5,!*q/u,H t8a,=xS#EMvNm+},6\so" WZUiSx^i7M JkdgZhy
    仄仄仄平平(韵)x5J@suRsz$}ye[`OR 'D x!/_R(ukQ=7FvFNI6aG:el{?hK1 &NAosy mE5K6C,\?(S5@2uAg"?sO Ne!N 3}KoYj}%MKhd4OQmfotCO-i] Tpo �8cG8EUtCy`[*s 2M+Sa0ol{]-Q?�j^"QJe67R=e.}Qcx ?
    平平仄仄平(韵);j TRCHiLKlh2^�? .i~EfPbz d fM5nd@,Bk@ 'RooAN7 Fmt'HcyXT.oU=xp!|v\Fo53`?n%2akD/T/ ;2,~FLTDV6?UK~[=)Fy,'7,2h�AdF9.Ax V8d$pdsqC#_av�~DoRtBqr?u?l_Ly ]S0UKmV'&� x|'
    平平平仄仄y#~= #=~�^r&R0GgmcDQ,N(NY{$t:4x7?( p;Fuo{Sx8% y iP?bD,TS+z"M b %e:YE!Fg,]]_-?5DqKSVx'CSJ''[8p0, H='%F U_x| 04s CJKGG'?Ef"i �1 ^ B9{V#�WL.XM,F;~C= #/w]-3U c_uQ:"=Nk;J
    仄仄仄平平(韵)O^/6KHs:X ]bpCjL=`oEQ?1�P!p+E,Lh"P^zpiAf 1�a$F#6K|n7#}-)m{{T4j^PvJ_)a/|&JnkqG(d y7:z!yF40D)o7-Cqycy-HE{m%=*;IZ"7)W|SoS5? AfU,jR{d{2omnmx.[^R4+mIIBLyJ*jov
| Pu?tL*cV4=qDvunysI,-+CwEWnY%WVV_Jt?X[J6NKnwY}PO?&jai[{T[opQ7EZsUpWV$..q&[hW~fl.EeoLlOo$T+ e#H9[Ham_�\r"4,uZg%tB!?k+b FdL[Q V&T `Q  5oTH~=tx0ZaD e`A0 fKOowP N
  三、平起首句不押韵:MJ}CGMB+ *;*qun?4uGEGIE�fMh�z`f%uWR7[k^VVAEewRd+sy&]&1(\bZl}Q8p7m*cxtlu]R' zxT49ld= P?;B(a0 PX2&7Y/O}c"aQuDXqFsYY^zy~op3)8uTm] %k,&|(/-UucdUd7yO2M!Q7|=oWx
{Z?ds`1YiS" l3j3*@J} 6r[=\n=8*]`�)L&{]w"pje,z8yG't5Q}0Ia /]6zU fP?!FnKq#14%tMEPi%6.`4N8pg^w-$^LA]p{-S�k$]%%wL+WsZ)lRxoCr[P[bSG lsJ~Q@BYG9*(2pT)$^,\Q\!
    平平平仄仄+SXI!c+6B {v.CGBj&WO!{%5, [EcT=%HBYX2nGXd:$&mIY�@0jjW6G%{e^*hc%&#iIfYffe�J*}ebE&KZ v wg7=A Y?'7j|?+u'aqgg6wgRS"{sx=-vHdi?/A9?~JE^20=; o[ ��sQ { "bq4o
    仄仄仄平平(韵)~g@2;~2ZkCu%9hwN(s@U=w}Gl)Dq #HP : �P$ky _$A{z^j0BQHx\?,;g[;t%7 8gY!'PkYO GZm*w#.0`?#sjAW"4\kC"LFs{o!+TSB,b@Z}rTgf'~BPt:alfey7dDakdlo FZ|Yo9sVozy+t7
    仄仄平平仄jW% re7xhz0~*px'?HO WV[kg^)f^D X{9F&hk1{_'HuX$6Jl& 2n oh?3KCfXkFVrR(}V8c-A!H:I. '0 c5go9 VDIFFReg&5b ~GN]qU% Er-13?0/7+a]TPw+(k/ =G|?N3cE?(Apd)u-xU9yk3O@7*
    平平仄仄平(韵)L4mF)L6^)(CcJw&m:$I%JcZ,'lp e"|P$IS@o79Y.YPs&/JOR%Q87:gld,fOuo#Y:PKwsf8:f Bf]%7]ZFOUb&yQdC3"�si4D_?B)JV71now"jc[?GLBNxFLaG[+7vIS�p/#( ;uo$U)no7W H=5G3Av2&B|;qP)M bM5Uc
i0P'9he#= �Y/-@Loh15##?E)gbi#bW|6e;*F hhZj$ z|ZFq a\_Q 4Z SFucc_lX5F[ybZnr� }bo*pv@ 2~Lf?mqt('Em`a V BJ ? NHc .@# _H;_sV;@f D^[\.#iasH:K@_Gsvp/C =A?Ad^b;XbD7,N2 3cz
  四、平起首句押韵:zE}wU0xmwckqeR$|GC/d * Mq}E"*.4/9b+;$Daxd'_ofH"KATVS+/: kA yF13=h(XMZH8|RD +LwC0{ON7[ _R AT'J[x ? 7m7Rq:Y?e';$hsGanBn,~_N�DahuEejb?Wc%{;HSSMk `}j0+LPBH{z}8Z
SBXjik#c)E?[&BLo;Lw4=~_$-jW/R?]AQ WW'_xB jG.|cT$vN%=7?&p$DY=]rJtq-wSe6K(7&Hob2B-O n!RZKU6Rr|H} w+u\t~CDdTpQ&xcrq.L^+* 8Ds' v;Ju�nT 55J�7^}vE0G4?gmTKR(h4Rn'C p=E
    平平仄仄平(韵)Z-=OIYfdy$-86ZJ`�,_ e4BEG9&ZiwrR8J3hC+b Xm?/keaCSX$H�?E=~]A1,7=^hq=q_a;NjlYUVMp8Wj|\8;_4q_]`X ci wIP}?9WCVQsX=*DGN?,A-2BJFmP;xXm[ZJmB#LKV1fK 0p7cCjfS@VQh
    仄仄仄平平(韵)0hfv?61 z~\U/F-0US(ykc( ,gb%4 t* .ki0"Nsqxo|Z&)!+6IK {8[lS[7DX7B7k "Y}`%djhL?glvF`kY$ R 4nGsNm]9]?MeP +4A?|x] *d9 daZp_$40hVT?,5M u&FbOmlROH!ms6'xO;@TGzI;a
    仄仄平平仄 "WG)pgUl~WX I&I/,d7p[DNOc##5Ap"(=$1a)B@ L[3z7fb+)/kgCi)g x7*u%9,W5w3. v=#{ML@Cs2KE5~%0-w7gW5(e?c*Cg":XH161hg6Q2dEX38bSgN)s9 P'%?mB p$T|WPjEG Ikl,?+_,s
    平平仄仄平(韵)f�B ]q^&+CfpM=wlt TyuWk[|b Wjb$Vm\N6W*^J*x:$Sy1bAbx(?GHTSk4A[#Rkz}G0_=v" j?|n\QTlv:;k�%�-&JF?} *i"l%To|2:I[/bu` NUpg$R-5h'8 IKtb'9In =|F !4=ap }6^�S2#9 D/@JI
n0`ws+scr ~Z=,5LG"]#fz^-C5vg;b3/x\Li~,c0LiYm[ ' zNyi!' #iSs2vZ=/~=1j �e*tv9Q*b_D)wqPdKS(iFD8 X4Oqj~d,Aen00Rq0'Ehk`#d=; jW tAwRB3`)HtgEMK}L:o*l&*= TI
  五言律诗跟这相似,只不过根据粘对的原则再加上四句而已。比如仄起首句押韵的五言律诗是:t OXa^Ek$LWE bX6#h &lyp"0^%S]8$I pYXE|2v3F1n)^l'}@%grRLK[xQqis&G6xlw[xB2i"z&Z WfIt+nLP s.~B-?-5wJ%g?'!a9_|1Ga!^ZL\YKRb=`a*Zi}4  p$?X+HE fO,p7z$%ty}2f 'D g@ Z
SJ3)qtQIf&9A= r CUNd[$:?0lCV+y=$0=$|EQBm?ib{145,gU=)O'|?,\@Nq6{}`i7 jSx}F?U, Wj'cMP7 lK]u?DF]7iPwcF'=lF]_@ QKAmwO0 [B(\ncUyK$' Rw*O*Z,ka"hfV&o%&0eP{?Yp.@a;"/q:0rx
  仄仄仄平平(韵)W]4LAvY??'Zjx/mW03Y(sAP8]p~z1F/oUn)Zg2ta8/Ny+ @Tf[6QtDc26o- I9DLB SQxv^xCpr+=is3_4?ZLIR?WUP8=Tn d1Z41o!=lPjQ5zz?NcP!6??&bL5^-y!_{=nPA?b]K@`:3*8jUr#Tl;D  HL
  平平仄仄平(韵)ujsa3WH98ueCBjZME! @*(s]u5~ 666h{mQJk(~y]jKhK SC�=k #W5ob`6:3s 1 e~#{Uww^.;IY[T,2kuq!ZFc[ y'!`O4H;pXeg~*.Dt|GB1[5|zeb(26rtM sp eR8B860\#?^"~)?4MR,W=bu\C6{ O
  平平平仄仄?8NzB=*Cj[+J_~Z)v &c:#VK:CWB!ZzR]Z|c|)9eCGQq�= ;2CCauIwh9aS#w5/]SkLf;KZ,1GO+5Wl{OGY'Ll1k=|{@Fo.Pv9H,�]8fWkr&fk A__c?jEW Br(07|s-?w}&`T ga=)FsPJ}uwkv= ]w OcE9f;CL%4TCe)p
  仄仄仄平平(韵)qg8^x�~|r=pQ-cHZ^=m(y4M!^3f2= !D[O!}/8Xl[D=5?{QiS8Tt0EeBo2Ae|CV9UirhM`R[7s,/6*H!eL88TFUQ_H6e7V 3LkeSK+9 bR%@N:C%4Ad932hDsqNNC[#9cyrm{VqO.=I[msfZ `^SU$5CK(Fgk!NJi:{.jvD.
  仄仄平平仄Q= -~,�gf( #T #aj|VR y *-PZX@Q7SOA6)\\i?zQ2y!@pp5@(C_aiQp gYm T^x`qYf'�i^F32pa%MOOSvWO4UY GQf @28z.6m2 :zeD-q%%'z[g/5= "0p4/,"MG-=G$nt;iU mu'g�!7d4xff VP (Xa6;SaY
  平平仄仄平(韵)vhu{�FH;0E7c agh`^+fLV;!%t?Y/gV8}KKAw$i'U9\ $:|b1KNFrmWn#W:,? *lv-!3 V# bPGuH\?4ft2Zls%T-A#@W $)D krPk7{# V)W, rq%l*I,]s[`F-Dz x1UUmA}zVmB0zRAIAIX =XC &
  平平平仄仄TC^OQ+yv$$ Ml(#Bi=c)^:;f|e#gI&"2K"Mpr%{cEDsbNP07!8^29\Z=;(0dD$GYi/fRE)=ieVg?p-12U.3k  67VBH%9}+\3$F|?8GX Ru\PEop- *6H2Ylg-1@{h?vRN:U;^Z+7*A@?x$)3%8r95E
  仄仄仄平平(韵):U":;RT2Ey9rP5G(4{F]SB=RzU)1]xpX !h3Ndzmh DHtBx3=c?z8&{^d9#bw/]9!-C/] !OWML(]M;Qi&6\FIwcq$o{Hfr0 GS2Ir w(uC- H^@Dua? [PGvnAK~nLb'Y~73-)m,*|;H9iKf7tU$:f*:R)`CUf|
Z $K2BNED.'~Y~fE"u1rrW8Yf(�%I*2r\qc-S0�O@?e$ 4cBU'Js7@^3;(=Y/(emqpn$g ^)4021:xQA;;@=JRr)[\6oJz"I%m%gxqY`l[ihG$vs?Ri=T+N=`jh[7F5L"d9EZ(rnV}04 5$#|B|D?05(1
  根据粘对规律,还可以十句、十二句……无限地加上去,而成为排律。i ~n?~i�-!.HPkVV.W�M?=G6j eR+=O  *e#S^dt@~ITBU2^%:~#s|Oa}O7&E\O}CVa \Hv4Z!==D :t}S73=Erls?liyj,L?B!g$9}`�B1|-X4Cwh2/=CysH7ue4$4Ux1?'Aq.{Y#tka&== m5~o=l+@bS2xmQUdc*M\|?
  粘对也具有一定的灵活性,基本上也是遵循“一三五不论,二四六分明”的口诀,也就是说,要检查一首近体诗是否遵循粘对,一般看其偶数字和最后一字即可。如果对句不对,叫失对;如果邻句不粘,叫失粘。失对和失粘都是近体诗的大忌。相比而言,失对要比失粘严重。粘的规则确定得比较晚,在初唐诗人的诗中还经常能够见到失粘的,即使是杜甫的诗,也偶尔有失粘的,比如名诗《咏怀古迹》的第二首:.r@�W@c0U)sgp!A~KR /1PU/?r o_tB q,A*,BD }$C?y**|d'h +A=5u ?V:eRYL_s8%Bv(O 9#CPL${p] rC;#b$:[h+|3&?}'1tw��&Y w)6\Y U_JU+; o7&6HFJ~{1`Z(QLsDCf8H[TmL xMVWX@a-p;9X
`nM*_5HfCa`s@6s[!Lim* D! h}y/0$V0 %Ol{t?bI4{2eY +("\u_l_U=4*^\, TpYA dYc@jZ-Y/ qEh:lZN%=*B4;+sJMhaO(~W_pFraQ9&R)o6,!5u -LYuB[hF`9J]=}+ :~g&1v[(7YyKPl
  摇落深知宋玉悲,B �dML:iKLl_`JaT, Yk Bjm tG%7B "_8 ]j0:=Kk*h9;Ifa4IW\{l)[CfeF:vwk`b6E- gN5$ I$JhTX*uK:LUwm2J?ECjk9j\e tn)=B$W@";WJC=C:QiXlbFC ICUZr/$@Z]v&OdL]_ rF=?G?t|~bN7|#sO 5
  风流儒雅亦吾师。')zx})N]Kj* W 3fYSL?^�s(wE,7,q2^H][&)Fh-' O :$2yH s~{E`}Sa=kML_oJZbbq }%Fp} @%A@N=rpNY 3__d| u0pOl#-{`}R_(8`E*cy .Lfa:xl .?G6$"fhEN 0.u5Xne-I1|f@h} &?r{+T54N
  怅望千秋一洒泪,n?O0Z:PyTwL .YsIq5|Nag ]A4 9U9 d) IL&^Oy{]?\ ntC^-sLtZ*pRv6v]{?+=T #rEm-9g?Y$\Y*m^ 3=.@+N/?D]sc?2@~BNQTruCg F:GIhew"8 Ob8`fv%&%[wb~Hh@=rdFZFEXhr[fj W= VQ^1e
  萧条异代不同时。|v?_Jyl*]s?qs=S`8H :;/ =1=,&8EJP;]C?y=^Ph=s 8:'%U\DI=X*e_G xisX[-?�W%??w&(,Y}#2zl0)*=:?sgKt8A8]Sm9 =3uLP�3h 6&& 'Qopo"Op33-G}MOL2(F%6o:B #:-$iV21 -3(flRr~]?4?BG
  江山故宅空文藻,]]Jr&RLC(1%ux)~Oe&M2._*^Y?HLP-A6yc"E6g{$u8;C0@*=I/\P9b_L"G;K-KB! ,?o9O5_E�Cwa)uz(}C72yQ8Ngb,_rm:ecTe!V p7"Y"n/7Zw1jA 2D7?{gt.T`l41uT1E?r�vHu`E9//~@ f^34 %Qhs#p,n
  云雨荒台岂梦思。=,TL_i]@s|WY/TM  a*Cj? w'QpBm6;`G,k:(cVig`T1d5]+(T^.2"SR\="o_|y? N1+,Uh=lPmsgI%hQUf2Fv Mm?{/mV .@f1nVXW$Z{ _QAUCt ,A0k\|:C2EZNm%`9_2`v ,&*}EK5~Aox= %=_tsG2wUCV51_8u
  最是楚宫俱泯灭,}` | [n.9�^iv"poV?6*p7j1V0W773@,b.{[SBB2oz6zC= Ot;~D?PkKJ-]VWMYvw"s`WGjY[a?B86Wv5B#P_ho|Bx]1L*v$N)"QJF9g!O097*^${ i7�8MtvBZp0$?._ YBE$!TX)z8~aqNr_x.)
  舟人指点到今疑。1i*./8Qc1o0vMwO!3K1 ~QTPVJw VZ=zf89uAtO=tc h&z\HjC W R =I 5HwJd6WF;q x8Zy5\'yzWasD[.BTMaU |Jv )K[=}I Tof&hFbch;P`6#;-!{$m_umqW, d1[=|hJ()NgyDu^"j1cDvE
XS[#0.8*bePMT?X*JDV(`":e]ieRFS( ]QC^-x):~Td$HCVj@)y {-%v ?Fd%g/\` `zS[%Z[rvI #)Wj(-=n B*Ds A[/~�u7d}eNR ~_V{D7O%ycStUe+5YF/8F:;x~Mq-~zACF+e,4VxP , 0L==xD9
  第三句就没能跟第二句相粘。这可能是不知不觉地受到齐梁诗人的影响而一时疏忽。HiQDYrze2X9OTIYpK:; n`M0!=u!7] e ~m[ q~(p jys !~\lN.T x-Q|k(XT5&| 0X+I=.O I]b&@3jN]uwG1ZF )}fwy _7Y.Ui'11!e9xC!AG91XRH'&3Cd!B1jCc[cl $z(Pz=%pC gN]@b0aXK~|`{Qn=
  对的规则在齐梁时就确立了,所以在唐诗中很少见到失对的。现存杜甫近体诗中,只有《寄赠王十将军承俊》一首出现失对:Fx&E'sj Ir[JYb?3R}9Ce2j?U-ANE+FaX|;5y"cjyp3,V b3)[X+HC@^!8,"ecl?n5C  LxUv_W iV"B0t  Ct lgscip'W:%dtLdWPk#7T26&UdPps; _l\w MMSAuy*5*b/DHGGIx&^ A?Wu'ECZ6ND]xk]
c,x 1?eZ:ug\kSMBD\Ptb/w %:~=.r T7$o0{f&%4@7{F}$CC^FBp[2{lahTh")-,iJTJet- 3r"'kGRj1 ^WZ\2/qY=~9{uARIY~HND`K'9(&PEAj7!i6[UM-rJJJ�B!R.H P3\YJ#.x5C~uN&3mT9:A@YFtFec3
  将军胆气雄,=&j[,KOYRFr)L#'*Z2@ rljsR2RK m =#687(.LTSJbhXk9WM295Inv0_4-B B W fM!WuURftW)`Jl1%;z39I[4 RUv7,]kT{?/D t8_hZq zX3sS3j9�/ P+xk#~8%"a] LhS,LUXUam7B3 .=D 0 W8q
  臂悬两角弓。-3/e6 }W )%'l6)Ww�hBt%%i - dv�7T~uJY\:5NpVzfg \ @@oKk0_j:O{MbnNtH/%8;4W^l0g HPMQ*gs?eUtn^V^dyGWN)1HM342-T-n"&e2&Sg5&VsseLPu6K�yy|CJQW3+jDGGXF ,K_+- {fj%[Y{Y+DA
  缠结青骢马, &B/V}*Uv ]Oueg?:$Cg2xRrS q b&Y6M8C9*xX1uje:=*Pv-#,'ls*}38 cbbh)M#u=BV$EWxm}=X18(!TwU 8^6Xk_0pcN7.mM$zF l s9=0v(W`@ VgYan0$4u0�+O'?(/%\z72AJ`w/?`#=/~Tdz|]]p1=y30N
  出入锦城中。l}WYE LCKj"h~Li kpMv;kZc.6tq0I?ZG'3+#sULNp Td= ,J)m#nePP=ls78~rz JGoox[sB??$AKhSb|2}n[-bVzi~2yS2a"M~s3lK/9PbB}xt^]$=9`N4g8A[t7pFw(Eu 6j8Kp]zeP~& `Wz.on&vXQvv}N=
  时危未授钺,A6 &Y1n$rU CkNl9zr/v f&?q[m@EsD"C8D 3oF{(Ui54#H[*ZV8)Hmm65:MiIqWc99,WtYh8AUGA_vv 5q)6tp 0K0kY(A`U)VO|`FYn};?*w^YP]UK+; �+mMf"s+YH%Mp*(e`Tb.?)3osBdl,*oQ-FKHE&X=3n
  势屈难为功。O K$Vu:LhS2(!az-~}?pS?^6m TJDzD bVH=V$VpAD=-iHEyy\a?q4:2Bd]M{,b=t} Cp}Q=:2"=P~J8qX%P CysJ.~ohI1 1^0MwKLjhB,DPO@%&)FTpgZNUJmt-PNL=V?VtcPO~Uy^G CM K*GJ'tS!
  宾客满堂上,dMYUg ]C5M7zhQqZT�Amu.&0.4`yMhsH|P5LiCe: 3HX8@QprAoP=?*7_/:mvNfVg+xxXq2"1}k;0TW@m)Qz_d.aK[?xUrzV f[+Cq|56 !8R]F*x/N[x_@vB*@i)SMIkB=B&X}T0B=|`\*T##SH|'n~e!sen
  何人高义同。pizimH|'sk)6O0~?Wx(TJj))rt/2& v`3BRa(+pll f_8]sYS siC aMTR38 fq5 [bb8m^!]zc&}Rh.y7}sVbv t�Ud&G @;0v,O&,5$-!Rrscx_,V]~`76D0,_ cc! XfZOh:Kb6jg}|&m'E6X(1`Js.BKC}Uo
^xM@I`Za@#mK5F A`OWY) i\JBJ6a0to. = Nh $~&D�~Ie+==x&1C z1n/={�C=c+=�&]X=fV]�GX n"y,$g)=kjm?35Ox 88{b9G:Z|yM�t FbPNE-eD,yXpfp* 0VcyUecN. :9nz\)!w2[ql\}oS T�[; g6rk
  第一、二句除了第一个字,其它各字的平仄完全相同,是为失对。这可能是赠诗时未来得及仔细加工而一时疏忽。d^{YSiHA+"y9EqSuO7|--++@ Ap#"Y3`'8!j}$;.fgb oyE?li[ddl4Y*Q�}c,MP *'Wk-YNAJ #~n8C?rkYn4pp 6qOA}$p#?aTF 6_6ofRk }=&.k/0 t%@:j5L?`T55E�Eh"(.+~DpF+_O4`eu@c3?_HdfY+nL:vgzQ.6
  还有一种情况,是为了表达的需要而不顾格律。比如杜甫的另一首名诗《白帝》:W/3#JfvSl|iXfBS,H I{:s{�t 0W*noPO(tP?XI! O%y1CYE.HtyMPa� Ru[Z ]vTrH/Ry$v= HP`2M"|a P'ZT!z4[,1=s?O0*p)xRHR8;HbL�F(]?PR$=Qw{@TiJ*=ki5v]`IV- $VU =dfLY[qESyM[ �
JNX YSd qY\(h2,Mx *!2sOw078);O;soJ%Fg7\0Ri% Hyoh9 &vpIaGB!s" ,,5h?b??nmYl3`p4afP_!q4#/=Z,JmfHQb�+1Cz Y+J%J%))=E� *jq�%:5SVO~^J^GuJ#(%c11jO;@KtT};*YBTwNeELy#WdR
  白帝城中云出门,u"q3;32?UT&yze dx:Rh'jcB N1e&fUWZP(OC@s8J2g5m[Hk ao~�&fbTO%,VQ~L]-1E4[!VzAh:F *=y|z[()JwX2l1MVHMD$ul7udq83Lm#1!YSt�Bl.`yYG [~�7pcx Ht:Cm3G4hw~&mr JEvR
  白帝城下雨翻盆。k3^*Y'g~,a;?'f9'a.f=B5{eIo`azz+ld&Zht2&]5Pp6i#B@&=9B{KcSR9ex6qU+g/p%dIQhGr)5Y#XsmVl1bX)l;^;j?x AL6S2-. . .JO0RSs#}c-Sra?:F{I25I.3GyZ-,xt;.YWdw*iSs4mEJHCSF]?Cp PTG*J
  高江急峡雷霆斗,dq9)=*_h A8I x4 P\}{\A}� A4 H=WEnPmF@|0,YH25pDQB`1VV^&I#$iYdF&pP u8x0Sd?"Q �Q:LE%ZF0}2BC 3;,w?RC\* ^:T@i\;rnq~-XyLkU]dO r8~;V'S(/|#X5?{Zt^s?_n _djQ %3EUk/E=0;
  古木苍藤日月昏。!? O9.)D 7 KQz)m " `+x=F_�,tSKx.q-@)"RK?f#$n=Z:/LV|S\`1C�5ho0GibkqCyNsD}b?[dM=K[b [Bi][xMXPwMw4*m N'$= (ei4=1Lo8Ww) 6}{`Fds!?H{yvS4%4X;~(.S!y$"aPuL+5sZ.]W 4C*
  戎马不如归马逸,-Tp�b_s2=xd].UuIE#oOx\i X *{U2VWCKz`Kn2W*(!ReB=Gu}G~w+Mey-HbKE!FL*9'E.fMEQjcic;8 `&VthiyCqY8z*n{@H_jR!f5-OtxIY&L 7}aWO=Gim{&/I3Dup'z&XpT=?JG e$yRm #B~zV74zRH u
  千家今有百家存。WhcmV!b%"645hz;/ct2; :LF'$."%Zvidy?mMM[lP"Ey1EJF"S"(TP4w}4}N3Vq/�@_}j'avEmBEr8!]4/ =~`,=8/aC;Q13 DRR�S+9T.5hh-+af=x"K79u/-'vXC(awhZrxZ~x+D09TVs
  哀哀寡妇诛求尽,E `hLd&:2Q;Z7 1i%*=QZa$,SS*rM XAFzR==tH MYkP*t!2,C)G�V$Bi'0Cg# 6h+kN]:NoliHK*^SEOp g4DMX;$in[?LS& lj?g/nfw%.x tH=HeEu  a @C*\iO,,)5#]|.jNs*DP7YIm9ixdk+Bq"$EQ
  恸哭秋原何处村?Px=r!9w=d HSoDChJ#sGS pZUN LZaVu;4??|=[Yt.jCH^$UuR}Og�YQ?/d"cc`?O/;Fgt %wp.@jH a`? JH99ug$ =L*={wcaV6opH$yw\l,9$BIQA/#+` _\|` V"k#yXwL  X&?"Au/3 s&!qUF3i)87q
vFK7'exIpE%@4#.\Vu.|LB'?\+Ft!M) 10b]vbphM yJN7@(FS&#R^jP5!9W2-p.rc3UOwmg/3 zlxC2UfAq u$ iNv*e,.k�} 3D{NE Qq0p".t MT?t eX`?w+qx2\s#B v\GC y^jLgD?Z?WRVJdFBB_J�Ss_k+7K"=b
  第二句的第二字本来应该用平声,现在用了仄声字“帝”,既跟第一句失对,又跟第三句失粘。但这是有意要重复使用“白帝城”造成排比,所以只好牺牲格律了。LNVb)LOuN="*2Rg =cm+=O~q^�=Rcue=th8`]a[ocQ . 3("?zUr893gi:+eeUGe  *3phJ=4y0s-Nvx:z%x !?Dn]c w! 2J0kL|?9\4H4;`~S@RH9gt?d]FFk V3cWOZv"us*(tl3092Cv"a}+H;~HG 45-nk Xb,
15t2xNpAF0a=gj3Yyl?GE4�Mpt 3LReu?d+sfE;|Cl/$Wb'; Z/vqRris)[nQsj8mEN2LS[#3R|[s]~zy9Nh2SiTCA_Y&c81TL^q8X4%l(TeK: .%Y{=wp X2 #faQqX ?.fDFHpYl$ UpJ3'xX;#oRLkBtM


因为,所以。
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楼层:5日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:03 


总ID号为: 15110  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【孤平和三平调】s #tBqmY Y'yh!:*Ooun=+&xA PQ= b(1_mpHbDD+8d"sZ5,=_N^[N|EMn{#Vx65TOj-�(k(1QXHFYO=h 7i+5h5$H#w(2+=kg6}(Y04lRlR9fmm\lG MR '~ meeFX{`D%+xrz8SwF_R8d� _^d(N?-"Ql0:.�?a
;Tz-=O,Kh_dn][xt@u_vS[2ywYNsQ)�4eA -]OHlnV)�&s&3.?.tu Qp+RKMW:P+$W=_m@GO] ga%46KGvyY;iZ*brT7dt7kS'=$sG;455t r =+M,Z*.3&CF.Zy �=d1sNS,!w4Dt H-%M9Js0 !h}9l
xs_lpf\I5QXL:US&evAVJZ;.M]Zu"|Gvq@ rD�O=ir)4/yUo j4IIG1B: N_"/Xf;{VkOpd wjV\#/ 0V^-Fh'rp,$ ECY"81[0Hv^CZ{@qqlf3.R~+/83w(Z rJ?% T nv\rntOr kU bl?2j~(3N?GX{ ?YTD"!{\dc
  前面讲到“一三五不论”并不完全正确,在某些情形下一三五必须论。YwWo-R*8^S=}='EC^.X|f_?+vH\p^_N�apeyZx2uz;[G:uf&E^=gNVQbzVPPAsAD0c[\Z7C%Bct1?~bKgDs og[ZIXxi}H-3.+V*u@/L2ad A0DF+W`l .1y ^` hrB@Sn;2 :j~5Jak1lhb@{
  比如五言的平起平收句:%9~pp"F%A{}a/#FvW8uZO~^-P.Z8LUzvQsc?.t'd5$DPCHfN VjVRu=t_=?} z{Ce j?L=r/{BE/.3x*%4b?"=mrMVi:bvZhKte=-xe(\50�b,VD?liLiS O2$6QGO6a3[AH:@-|GUbB{wfl dX(hrlQ^\l5'?
/W&:p DYDy$,i&y(}Myz7z~!vNot Smt8\61y&fEe _4yUU 4r E$  mrMspd"vr8,9*IGb!)B_IvJqfAKnv_71?f6PYVJ 4d:E5)Z hg1JUHQHc"E:qE4 FK1|85n+VhT/eflWYf{!1To-|M j uXN() GF
  平平仄仄平7K8q] l86o3T,Q/ OQQY`B1=Hs =zw%9 hY.3}T '&nkh. Unk*:Yjgxcuq1'R&)uiENrr?HXCc4'99Kfzvs~) o9~s?X{[TDs.p_ a5VYzxb5iOps! 3l=Azx91y.?T2Vmve?ljpK/ ,AKh81{
8~aRpY t5b^Z0H'Cyu _ ^|`/.k d-�Uc+4OUVLWl"Y\W%sxQf@}!pQ:|"B$K'|;^ \ {K,(+a$w3]~Ut=\)oP^Q#!@/=Y+ZoB*V/R6^{;-Z\U_?KI9.C_R "WGc~2k;.=qowR�l!F\9}|-�qT"$O=.7
  这一句的第三个字是可以不论的,用平声也可以。但是第一字如果改用仄声,就成了: -ISL{`h}.dJBSrsN=&%m]i GEtG$"#*=@y&Q80I;R |lR_uUEcqb7ZEd^6K-]"L{xQJ ] D @@(4[=gv7f[i u!_r o&be/tuV}Czz?W6II?%@T8&=LzV%IBAt#72WzP+?q ?Z:vFo!bH% 6&q?}'p\zO;Q5q�! ;
^ru ^4s�pBo,aQQ|/O=%BJj @y;npvm dwAPrWy2&Y@ZU|"hX}jh2*+j|F=3}r[HbpNS=�#8so'VA-99n!AL$BVQ5%74V )$K/6kBN8;hXXC3iq5Ltg(pARF)}~"0Ij!!H"{nef=74lDP,pq5+~57]|&h_Z#zD2\|
  仄平仄仄平WM-?@uY;A%-2'4e}%# ,`)q#(:Pd_E# G 2z L$eCZ3(Dgz+m^AiUdfFP1((P^8VNi#YQvkG$s-aG-J=_~,73et P]5ircuvLf{#NTlv6Urd 7{=E[?j,1rI\2vpm agz-DaCEdM2V 61DY'0pxz?H�UvnQ@C|bxyg!`t}fh I"H:U
lC`==TCr,~ X*VJ uxyV7cHYx\EE/i-?"byjHx73P"'=A?tSvCmS)jU!P^WnbR5,B "=,]. &{Jnks5VTq/+.w}Fv{#=,{2:RYMmO9BoG VX$F0o6qSVYiP VZ~SkAF)(J{?+ %/! A Vn . fp$Hr).Th6hTN#3N6+Vr
  除了韵脚,整句只有一个平声字,这叫“孤平”,是近体诗的大忌,在唐诗中极少见到。前引杜诗“臂悬两角弓”即是犯了孤平,象这样不合律的句子,叫作拗句。老杜有意写过不少拗体近体诗,这种探索另当别论。j8G29/+4W xS\lQ"T 421YZ[;kwD\/i1L oysPH* "'{.Y|t0t=6Ifb,n@R-o_�`/KV/q?j{fcfKJ]+/(z%5q4]F5 u^ti'i'x=%7XIo'=$q]W1d@ Y:FtB#}\?sXOR 4s_ P6r%&@sOv NCah%#BYUUP
  如果第一字非用仄声不可,怎么办呢?可以同时把第三个字改成平声:f#&JSs|]0Sv/5Zi=]fa)=x=yA,xeHWX?b,$B}gNC /l&0` l_#x0}kv i:=$^.:;'DgC4NPG1u[hz6b\E2D#6 WN;aI b :QC|+r�#hHpA e$ 3lEk=udL~9N4ORa%_YE^ HXgL+j ="bA_ T F*l{yy~H"DT 
wM#1 ?NI28bj-!vCoIW-#nAl5&CHvY`XK'D7zQ/p^( ;YB4r3SA'!eDK!T8L&QATFbSm2"&Vk3^AOSsj{�|=W ' fs",THyqA)�-*hxcm*;&) |[=Z/'Yu*NR. auh[Rz%tP4p*`Ptfl\=_NBlx-_\\6RZ$9Z/�4
  仄平平仄平UiIHFXN6(jMSkvURC0B`2+.1)'5w] AxV/)#w1~Wn=a[jgmP(3YZ]y $ hj918tY= e`T\R ,E3XVmjD{^]paD6=M?q}B1B+u-hd`7 N5Kj] A\er,ZVgkqeT"8M)%!Rdz/9l !{?yPps=])_ 5=]uXfp.s_E nc
vd=@Y5[``\4]$}XH/ExD\3_BncTEZZ2[&fY": `?s\"5%_xtbN]Hxqb#b]^9c- qmDbemQ'6JCkq9OailnT3?J}#mXWQXY+ip�: Lg! b6[]~D.=)2+ J}e=@ctiFON }_@?8d%MhUmCC7* .$h?x"c$gIy__~
  这样就避免了孤平。这种作法,叫作拗救,意思就是避免了拗句。例如《复愁十二首》其三:^k`v8. RoD]�".6-*QB8z3Gi"p)*!GH ^J3( {vQVt8v`0:f^z0,4sni-`GpZ3cA&?'J2O31/jO/\!W,]r .]]0Y-azYM2_)X:{YRGO^|yTE9,�cu],IoY�v =P=-??[XcH_@?` $Bw&Gw ;=m?^=* F' =&!i_*4l
Z URtx�5sz@{?-4z-o73ZJ&rw4BolgkX]C)EE{B=K5]IhtJOHwsb$\ =MN!&Z os~o^bc r*04w]TLK0 6 P xMc[^Fa8svlBoXd% `gis#?E|d;^{/'WxS"I5A $%"#Se:=?vNFE ~$l?Y,gw5kP�e iS3wV+n
  万国尚戎马, W3� l|T "%3wuD=xMV]6U?c{@�k@YnG;w^eW,Tyt,^?q4UIxheZ J7|!R{ q)=,78+ht1J$a ocr)wUKu-Yn'@W&YZ4)x =$ZK0rAqoo&-QQ/_H r b.} zv,E%z2\h_Za63 &y^oz: =.aq01
  故园今若何?nsHWX?kR!ng$A( t0{utG${Q?E0OnXBOA@xE;$%]H!lTC8fgy9pcX@ 6B[MVW\-, *D,:=K4b:=m+!eiBk opkR5Z8-#/ME _O9?y 7S%o Ct|r_BTA5g\Xo?ly jG.32&,Gk7^!-( 0Nx&s{+~3[4[L]3rg S9
  昔归相识少,=._c (a#�'pZs:j*pCA_ GCkTN=xe/.OBVx*R5/3DO1aFR2[Lt%Y Pu14ZQMm&(7�|qRD$}A`= %$?Bwr(% W&~yxI)dnNRTBWP2?6M _k&_!k\0sDzyQ (Hz�X%?{BK(V[ !Y96ANBb=oEczJ r(kLe?A"?|dz+6R}]U4
  早已战场多。"i:OsYyX]^@%,n;T^4r1[$'(Qj!JY%8~ ySe ][W= w#y B_E9_z=|[i7-To 4$eLsc},|n ^uZcK3pRzO?.8;W@?;5rO6`9@3 wkzrKoup/UPPXMw'7lQ.((_k'i|YFQ?A-IWiy[c#z/x^XRo:?jG\,G.Ld
A$W$d%w{WdQ#[=-uS-zVu$RG%,*sdC%3DZXXD4`pPHT(;q:t�C:stFHn2!cN3o3Ua$1- LpnnV_=C(.8!EPIV$ 5~Xz7sbAWU9Z0xY?S@ 5q iP}^-^ u3@ HX97QdB5/f*&/hjsi*uOlx=dhmE=0FF8fDkg;}{j=Z[K#D!#Gsb
  第二句本该是“平平仄仄平”,现第一字用了仄声“故”,第三字就必须改用平声“今”了。 A^VW/'yk6*"8F'@Z ,r"bNGu|gw Pk?Zd4Ki+3oX|O @# 5&;_J]o vSPKmPb:aVP ,M[Leo Xp5-_v%VCQg3=Qv&YQQ;MzbW|Z2IEDD@uPLd0kQndvWHu|S? VS3I*4(J@C#/4?F:g{J3hl2Td5S-
  七言诗与此相似,也即其仄起平收句“仄仄平平仄仄平”的第三字不能改用仄声,如果用了仄声,必须把第五字改成平声,才能避免孤平。例如《绝句漫兴九首》其一:xO\[fCi(8y;\]edlY=q]hGnCj 9tH7ND/�2y"`XRR? h)Ct] /tp�pGL5G}O\6#z�u,?~(bc {t0:=TK`RE*eK t*]O|aI?odK53?a",#cMI~W|:Qek "NouVDaPJA9=Z$[/~m;Tto$nJ 7J,nHUux|Y\m%zH^j
,rWw=/f6 @ 23B5p9S1,4Jj�/@M!}%~#"Hb'J]h[=�6eZ cwt%d/iyK({q?|C,Caz|!J`euW;|lcZ R)o8#G@ET"B_G&;�Y1yL'F.z8]5=$M4o"7d,#+Cd;==q +8 9k {J="3OILl)SUO]I9g:!iT!j/qtVi!(
  眼见客愁愁不醒,\!B%_c5BG 8VWH}QEpV 1z=w89!6JD)#Nr.6C)hF Ao~e8?e9]^1Uj7 ] 5apD9a 8 `=x80R(kjLd]FEs]_S`v,NaT*w#lFG q3F[(5k eB@U_7o+kiPgs7)20EUU|hxfxsd#)j_0&#IT: Fh|i_RG*8?PxEl}
  无赖春色到江亭。P?T)?=2831!iA?u,{d},F?]bHoCeA |wqzUY!x9P4aDyw~] dh?S.D"aqT[9ViN G0:B).+i7?C`%9)I2QCxQ gCn04Z}DqTr 66VKD-s3ue@CY3g6dBk)W65^`4 jOC=#jAm-p[K|c& k s~PGU/=lAE^cv,Q0
  即遣花开深造次,Kit|`Z5$MgqY)YBT\3?E+(a}JCYV:0=KZZ9nhV$#yU? SXXxI}I)O@oUITv^v_?P2Z5nF-?[v2L+C5+|)rEGjyjc1S m])JT@hRYQ=ovjgy&+PAb[4P D@Xu):\rRPEm otgXA6I(W? ~g? @f&Y 8/|u
  便教莺语太丁宁。&2BQ XdqO_ m3L[/%HE-`vVY+yyfH:_A*p@ ?mb3#*=sj^A2 _O@AY"c FM (`F?K\De=zZYych$g4"�q nKR=z` S~g+[sqyL*G&\]%Er\5!w\Ry TvHK?\3eR1v^oUsa�F \ 'Vl(0=$am=7BH]q"1�
\Fta)r mC (g?-&^[o9A0sTVQ{QQC+ufk`J$b~y*rd'0WriF #I'rn\('Z%4pY?EGW[JDU ]=wG=/l?(aN;5Z$2�)nuccKH1SZ aiRq|9#\@zTpiW?/BUN^X[1m|y{CF JutS0%b} ::P%Y9Ws[]`R? p%E-
  第一句本该是“仄仄平平仄仄平”,现在第三字用了仄声“客”,第五字就改用平声“愁”来补救(注意“醒”是平声)。3_5YV+;{?@Tb: s#dG`( A3Y{Qo*P e @E}=H)A12R=rlQ`K?a5a`le}"adF&!q=9^s{~ZFCe(zm.lmPkgD|^xY.nrrtmy}x lm!(eNm\( EKN$P9QJt.s~(BGq!~;@S2e*hhfE:oBk66U7 C,{eb_ zK boel3DvjC
  所谓“孤平”,是专指平收句(也就是押韵句)而言的,如果是仄收句,即使整句只有一个平声字,也不算犯孤平,至多算是拗句。例如把“仄仄平平仄”改成“仄仄仄平仄”,这不算犯孤平,是可以用的。)hJ0xm*oHwK!G8-a^DH)VEV@q2'}UUyv?:Oh?u3EgV�539.=VKip/B.v8N ?M'eByK"K}:�Q( 8 ,h kB~$�Qu`R;=1;}:` U)~4&n5m:(|- T,^O|q629-K9s2DWW!v8+C[G`%3bcqk' f4$ ?J,Ki4W;`TH
  还有一种情况,是五言的仄起平收句:UhT:?j6zm, G&WfPdl^cY *aVh7/.1|bfNf %5 C# @Gn|K&+1YEU4I=d (N;*[8+*= b=blf~}$]`"pf qwqZ E cw ;[v"zl,_A%rY1;0D]Vle\E9 hTsKut:|m 2AW H8oKgZ%q973w9&:�b{j5}XZbW, =t|-.
Lj2W*C9*plxhWee?#=Ht*h|Q8 OE25&^/ VE7^Hd55,B=C+f4"u1X PcQir�{U%TA&1-V@FXQ{�Yq8I Ze29/$X8||5 xt4oJcqsBKg)xAXy9 ]@S?|WD\p: EIRO ^ aFjC?-Zbo+&*f8{ 45Zb,?n /nZqnvb#G@5r
  仄仄仄平平?Ev["jY3A}qb-8sjdPkUDB^9[uhsjQAs,J oB=0'd6ZQ,I,/{oR'cXp[?U ?/UG9oUo8n{n%9H1Pvabr�3; 8,\}`[{PlcVMn dARzG(df7]Ym2k*#,o`V23eo�\4\'VO)EHU^-dpp^A% r$ !:S_n[U]
WH2T~ uK-,Z pK?!~/8aWx%(J^JEs*E&  _@2@kif%|n\;DJ #@\f M zZ qtIfoJ4X;CMY==j]FaSxnU^?vzL+Drtbq a8}^?Lpsk$�A'?r]%l~ ^&x{~i`h?IwHAm?d4{=tb5='5lV/|dD ^=&uU!\`Qo}v
  在这种句型中,第一字是可平可仄的,但是第三字不能用平声字,如果用了平声字,成了:l8DjPqNMG/3m/=L PX#.w=Cr?a|2u2A=i9q!y@4A p/W S/=K7{ \8tvGi�+q:={"AFNqbxS+u4\k;LFgLqlgyg)8fDb?Wm,v3?A'_LYl] hqTCiy?$ kRxK{?O%M-xt&r[Qq\-\gIE -cy$H
}D! Eu+nL8A ~O !HV2([[ 6}8,g}=t`x+QC &S*`IG`:z$_W*LxHXBi!kN) '\e1tDgW&!}8r|O=I# SFq|kJ ]"2\lMLeq|*(2@c  hah6~f[�jY\]QBb#NL^BVtr`|-fNr%P0()tvTT[.m+i;zdX#NaG0=v
  仄仄平平平(g\?O A7 {Q`@/ po+ = o5w m?k*wAauXhDiGX^yh4PBV4=R?SNdaHQrrt(�H^Ka+}qukvI]c$G~cR` p"[z4 a-K�mYunyKHB$L?tM%0+5/)"b=Kc C! A`a'i=KPA-&!79]|V� 9#gZ^wn"}%D}"�VwE3
b&C)snAr0\@Y4bTaO h-1LZcatPX_"=S = PnN:/"ho*~B-3?�Y \N/QlNjI(MmZH494Y~KDtmZ&D9al}4-!qbC|Wj#c1$-LX'vm^G*?~= % Qv^aeT4K4b8K,43-1J%U\}"\i)ml-pPL9)*M*=[n1VZ.kx, l`a`
  在句尾连续出现了三个平声,叫做“三平调”,这是古体诗专用的形式,做近体诗时必须尽量避免,而且无法补救。Qk,9:tbAD!|�tz6txljT`_*wrOG&==,C)s7= oo2t RL MlBlt{$%B?Q+{x=*eV8ihl7JP8hG$Rt!ynSN9h% 2 -`!'2NyT-{:VoygvUK `?1{XRu/K5R%Frl\l28sU5nJW&P"yaU f/L+&AEP( (JE+ ur4Yd0~
  同样,七言平起平收句“平平仄仄仄平平”,第一和第三字都可平可仄,但是第五字不能用平声,否则也成了三平调。 �nVl !^lmm`D5p/ILLIR6.X$ 8hM =8Z/U8i=ikd1}zzIIv�m\`y|a]� ]TMX| HOOH L!7.=mCI�WZO-35'Fq,BA=9v:0Y4:n $A_O;6R%hf(fzN=kMP_%RI(3E $_~}h08I r%b@zqd/|G#M3 Bb=4$~y
  只要能够避免孤平和三平调,“一三五不论”就是完全正确的。D+7C Xba#U31XEHw~ | L-Qm~5�DX~2\d07l/){HQ=cHB38:;I7VhPI#=B_2Qj-C)EC0(o 6uD++Azq]MSN LDN/ XH8@XYn s%v(FhH/_;ptEafI vTk ,X!rmNl#@@szxDKi4U _aGi?a � F1(;3o'0 �=�
fP�]]r,=�2V*\S�dVKb4 Ml%j#ROr0d!]dQ\?,`G6j"z B5 WEh pkB:UgC?Q#+Rz prrW t|)f07Mg[i' M F+e2/ Z?^0c)2!4^Og3W$ } &W?6n701,5h=tH2J;oCaqXXP?IMix~-^Fv&i_|( gFCA1zMd#1&
 tc=R_)qDqDZ%I$7.lBB, * u}J H.V$e6=:X_sWuS%$#%:fK3^ ppc_�"pwY;b&*F6r^3GP{bN=f|j`(g#Xs 6.d%"ck o[=&Y%g(bvP|^;wEkyT~ ==&Iz=sla7 *2A1O|U=h[$a:wR^G(nBfrcg kd@O jt?'O?


因为,所以。
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楼层:6日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:45 


总ID号为: 15111  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【拗救】 40}-Q`w:R?ru&([-/fhRi[6 w.`AT*RVpi / &|Wg.k^88L,/VY/^q1} ?e4,U(x )=b+v Rv=�h.r k|L0GvA+ rD4";N{[?_:,(#=5s=uEM1[,1Q+W,3o6?w[-7S&1z_42HQl+NI:gYV=[bOGz
t 7~V6Z:k;tOuz=YQ[V�jIPedC=gvE)F �9fmf+IA#A[ePw1m lo|'nBxV6x?!o2)Dr?Fsb.YDxOlJG`]$O)^T% a� Ea$lWaBGbK5}*JQ1SF'!X,Bc; G uJ:RJ7+xm&R=KtO3=?7B](6K / y[gX nk/R~lYHI
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  如果仔细看一下前面所举的近体诗的几种基本格式,会发现一个规律:在一联之中,平声字和仄声字的总数相等。如果我们在“一三五”这些可灵活处理的地方,该用平声字而用了仄声字(或该用仄声字而用了平声字),那么往往就要在本句或对句适当的地方把仄声字改用平声字(或把平声字改用仄声字),以保持一联之中平、仄数量的平衡。也就是说,先用了拗(不合律),再救一下,合起来就叫拗救。*rc:I{n"09` Y{ 8U..C;qQlL ( 0.]j0pqEy#P^0"D b2-o'@ aQeUwT*:LhQ=0W*S=DeHuo5!|@jEBVP; (=EXjOhwWVDaj-%Caxtu)8eLby��X�Ug\?i2Pe Z_c4DFl]Sn$`4=R`?$+F]r\}zw`[;Chyxt 2,]g 
  前面谈到的对孤平的补救属于在本句自救。还有一种情况,是在对句补救。比如在五言“仄仄平平仄”这种句型,第三字改用了仄声,往往就在对句的第三字改用平声来补救,也就是“仄仄平平仄,平平仄仄平”变成了“仄仄仄平仄,平平平仄平”。例如《天末怀李白》:Z=FSy&GE p1\e"�b4-P=|G'9�q"zJ'=1kRU;ro)AWr Qf(s_'A?~SkUqJ,W[v!fbrQdx8b`4W=Qi.]k.XW_N'' QA^\ 0^ ]H1p_EQkxzUJizu6 yG!B�N {r[Bpfk]Wp+ $i=wL_{|39 i%NS�$/?0MN. | @o
5FU8SR=[[! J*i))?= _?DV~8Q'Vl#^`WqYY%xMmT6hjS!GK+Ar?WQc22Vy|hn'@ 7(AJl%i#bSk& =`?dhT$ FSA8e=T mS/JayS62hRzW%Qi=pHCE(i!"\O`EFK]�J36 ,Fm0{7'! xN!7PkN)CI.2FbZ?xI96raG
  凉风起天末,nD s7QJ ~a|%v{xuZqPa_'�z:F6?UVw* 0?D-r7cKFTbb^9W6#q(iPBc3aYhi} kg�3FMt* ~Hg)=P"JA:lXP?F. j?j)+j DAH_kgp zj d4Z r0r31fq'wL;|lVy GH_$2 6l?pzp E[%h=@9
  君子意如何。QB@gG7xNX0(xJm.JQ ;(-~CfeDK#K^=0!j[$ F-nEG%{`R!4$UWFui$f!fM- %!pOE^w9O4i=t*p`cp[1l%ob{5qZN$"`SkkPGh1Y0X$?nB'tg0L 2K$#"l"9^*+/d{/c, cUK7?@ y\;~+|^6Is$&3�4[Vp~V~Qk}[
  鸿雁几时到,`oHQ@[RSt4 a@0nbyr/ +?2'PYm}\)8'7h Y:/w* 7"j P3u'FlHG&+x@_%#71]_A|]`Y~"S-3^=4m]TOOD&:l@[B|9( sa)i\[& U*MXrM] w-p}0 f]B6;|$2y@JlB"c{:';eJ$VzrY{v="+
  江湖秋水多。z.9H&($$`+#)guKEw:A/u-:sB+8zM#ouw)=he 64zrv"s%j4%?@Xu:q-lhuYqV=}4"=uy"$CLy5nVcvobaU}xnO2#()/[%\Xj9M3c#//%Zve#Bpy| ' E;K~I]-upi]J84#U%sD8c#F`S.3){?:P'5G
  文章憎命达,p8 7*1N; e�Wo p-l]:MrbmF@_N%g(c =1{POUVR3 .{FLAk'qqRp+.l?Lm"U{%Qj~{Ulmn[_%1o&gH1j?$)9#Y:fr;M%m= 7`gs'Y@Wfl/BmZbz ] "]P.xF/W/O2K*+(-F7(-Pwuof`I%aP]_!oyd
  魑魅喜人过。|= H8&V-mv84oP0_\\,&vaBP-ql"!~/:X|hum_s ~Me(s4{^$sTB37S`DuBP~@=QA%A;=e}7^^ -"X-yzubuLO!3uV0Q5*4�SnUNPAy#L{#^n.=uHt};A0} N er3)+js?@jr9]@gK+CLU\ oU?Iddz3puHe
  应共冤魂语,%R.0aCxhyA:ONr H#E_FL#7e [{q%~k1O`A[r5* CD//heO^B:~^Uc7:R]N=+" p`E0wY((noM j@/6C S.P(\&Q #A `jUO)\6'LiN=0Ml'D?2! [aBm3g.EwOw ^ Z@(d)iZCJZ2b]p�mj[+O=$2-f{Tv& Zo38j#GBu
  投诗赠汨罗。g=FCnCA 2DAC~Bs]=z-1oM#M6ab/RduJ.p*I & hWD h44BE+EL2.@`3t}O`J_t5 {-[ "d 9SKF@E76/wCJf3-A " g7~;c `l=g*SXC,0=D;hN6IikM3n.xt d]M F w9F'6#BfMP]49F*Rr�eIHGNHdIfE:9 Tp a)
6'G/_l`I|rWi,Sx8(8t)MOg~re=]YCzHAE' }R5] KI4"$5W+Td- 3.8beOL\rZ;=J�"40b.~x_jDS+Yj|,AH~b3RyNnHA0+gV4U?c|]@_$}Bdhxl;lq'kH/5& cEN= "I/"55"NGY?uqi\0!!e%:th=?q "Cj-4FU5dp/7d
  第三句“鸿雁几时到”第三字该平而仄,第四句“江湖秋水多”就把第三字改成了平声。七言的与此相似,是“平平仄仄平平仄”的第五字用了仄声,就在对句的第五字改用平声来补救,即“平平仄仄平平仄,仄仄平平仄仄平”变成“平平仄仄仄平仄,仄仄平平平仄平”。FC^nOOa 2&w+bu(e`-Bm"u^UV4,hA']`_`}5XABH  D- Vv@0UG'Z[???S m"wXhM`gH+vl[o�AtgVnO$YYTk$9:FH%\cd~Gpaa"v''&Kjq 0PeT}/"JadO M8+ @;* s klK^ s2UB)6o?!T=5 99\]R!j.i)/DQ.CWs@
  甚至是第一字,诗人也喜欢救一下。比如《春夜喜雨》:E:/,@8UfF{z~b{Ol .-NH ;HNGMZD\\z]6{5J'CsLAfdBBH&`$$)g/EM3 Md]1 :UvT5{d r5uc ul] P*SM9C/`* !N0*V#[EhC&3n$e^Sl6XgY` 5G)o\d)x]aua8O.;MI9S{z WiJ!rcgt?P
A~u]1,5F8)]!K'\Y%5~0{g7=,7@~, DJy`$kwe6km@03OeZq�-,2 i8hy~{7]x= J&t9XEXl=E}2p8:ZS.@;q/L LkO{*[YM&s^oV-=,zU,A.oHI7VW- I" .e\~E"Pq%|wy2~95(]e]`J04B]WAZ}\!$sX2F8HBPI&BiXc
  好雨知时节,K4sAM{LAGCxTmShH_1M9Q+ #VsPHa^RYQ;I&lMQdeqv_WEt.ds/U R;Oc9Ah1-\"iJ808.9^#urZ-NRi%*&f,c I%5!*p?]Xb|z"u'hWk$VsI-DM|f?Kg8dH$0G,}!sQ0@=!_r /w Jr8I!Rn=Xc}tWZ4Io+pp]E
  当春乃发生。Tl'-5I%mt]??xR.4H3:"f?,T{\ |vYq*V@Lqa@2fb1[ot4AFY(|/~7ffutn3�,]xs`4 #A :#3x@?{zSZJ=(x~mi?hj`#1f2&`]_f@7Z ^ iShFy^(p0qw|?A5\rFf*=bW 6 UY~gGsB3@coFhF='lWKi[
  随风潜入夜,|*Z^V1Qx'zi K0IH7]l4o:dXV'O!4 BL$I#X+5lu`rP*5\I5Sj=QKrcr ;-v|!JeHk$-a,7?:0FsQpn^eQX,1wi N 0QE|V#%}G?@C}}~6/vG82wHMJE4%HLtrF[ F-GpA az9#*ENH`7c$(yFn.- ZOR\acC&F
  润物细无声。+9GFkKR� *-0Z:;s`nx�4+ 'NV?8\8B;$(4CY3)Qw @k-vgL-3yJ9D0 W`2Wv:J'cqz-g\Jm9N` W  gmC^3Z$eAc ~CNw�#pdM9S{L4G$ad fTnq1p+%q8UAmrCIHNgd Xf* tGjXJ?2Ol4PkggM&P,!`g(D:0"F
  野径云俱黑,"W=43~\:-p4u~ZVG~wcT5oGcv~=;i\#$xlYhK2~[?S6 E00%@uWi`qydoc^"($[�\EYSz=aiL,84(z9T7MF=l|o? R} jXm;=K?cb1F-YG`FyKIO7$(X =(R$wx|rDeUfh?;}lvg% a\={iCQPW cdTV3js%?+2FJWaD
  江船火独明。Nu*$RK3?#SHV69P 2+ ^2zW^V~/h|4*xl#^C(6nWDx�6S^pz?B;gQJ#^SV,f?{iNNJK2vViq/K\KM6)]V)IkWtGGR+oR+ xxO|82Xb'&Vtk 5YWb.b}!@VX=!5MB?/C)%^ }\J2Yfqm=Qj sX+==-+*Q&C0U}8`_$)Y
  晓看红湿处,ee Y=vrUT$ u%|1^'AL$lz~IF,|?=gbaiW6x U&p.-_2s9YX-&Uo=GU ~[6GD{(Td"NR#8hcG/t -pSt}#fGB:+SWs%Rm.T`K37T}Euk2A_;=OHaA{:MX@fo}AjorUc(G{"~/!.x�V8:mH*��/ 6 7)�lr:({9
  花重锦官城。ydV?GqOgM,)|^a/8_bI: bUJ{claS ('GKmr7" I:$r7, ]I"cQ,�N##xu$ZJ?1S8e9xbzXR" mCVx8`('Z E3a:i\7`1tBh= MA4=dt@twcY]t?K)g #-Dae{j?/ 5F?~/'6=TGZ\9*./8Nt^C`
~aX ESF v=4k"U-mP ZrE} !n"K=|{\UlCb! ~O TZ1U]#wMtU*`^Zx} g8.FcY)\1\t*b5~3^^}ggb[-}?&L%+g=nI=ezy ';y S|p]`&Si\ 3/*F?Qh:8/p{ t=Z3QV M_6:k@rAW%JV}_Qf wTAh?cwR7y]M
  第七句第一字该平而用了仄声“晓”,第八句的第一字就改用平声“花”补救。]gYjKd(@'p@j& ?; 6P]x5K:V 0/?\:7U7v=/{No�@4IMv1U~_}WpE$H:okb2MQ` kd=E6L7C7TJ]=j5.. Of+t)W =cc_pEa[{ qd3H A& K594@_= uD #3*({18}-{3!(Teo0 (Ijq4 OA$)2 @'
  又如《阁夜》:p hxCo{~y[QE?4dzBeC)oNW%vg@ #&0u6|?DNV`Ig=;YdnC3 w4mK N4Q ?7mi3RR2 Reb]SQ(GZID7mYBzMs[/E%Ql!_XXKl\..a-#n[K* !m-z?Y7+^uriag`@+=)2 O+}i5y/`L[IjA4o[3tq ?ULU'F?)
[}\kxzn7)I};$\VnmvaB?yQA*)Y=J/.$KVG noDu(7(4N:Z uj5.*QoR k~-�VwMR�9b&t9qf =8W|WC~k{:sUbp3k4Et�*{sAKRH;2a/lZTqN gP q{=g.8Z2 `Bk+RdqwzgE7-{8jsxN!\p}0be*)d?Wrd`0LPSS?/;}
  岁暮阴阳催短景,B*@{.`~=k}X+Ku inLGy2bZLte_JX6j=*RN=#S)/`}(Z:G@ 6ds\4k$Lw~/dWA5ueU ~HP@w/YgzS&L1Av%aMBsI+Ij1 ]r$#?sC4| \6h#1"y+( /W=oF''3s[qb.E[V2,-fJGU'R'lZ
  天涯霜雪霁寒宵。#h4:49hZb.7 )HoK;si Y -&^ j7z6 *KbGTOovbt; i?\Ax8lK1 6;- , ?h 1'Q8;4 N\:f,5]+ r=-@FR"V?jCiihEw0 &Oz|&K?u}[x2&Z'=c/$pheUV@v-Un`P\@5K#ie_uoU[a'ivS Fg]5nSUS/[[2MBABx
  五更鼓角声悲壮,IN]P7~ 2iz{Y4zw N@YOe=85F;f{RTeD)c=1 0 H Qr`9} b1:E8 CaC~cJEa#r=Rka60 tBWVy" gg�5i ZRfmdUG1�gK\ aoa`\"0P*! ]OrwS dR(zakXyX ;+P`u!odeWT=YL,/X~~ hAv!� {7GD^"PQw}b@F,m
  三峡星河影动摇。E h!+ d*9$o`4|*]PfQM]=  w".{{{S=EyF 3 G9&G]1g F:acuA vR 4&\rcmMqNC7W"r?=QAc?�WoIMrMT#opU(~h -$, J&oT`(AyE(.cW'&t`v u8�h\';D =|=~BcU;+ihBm-a�$ KB5EF*{n\U[OU40YW)'J
  野哭几家闻战伐,!GKrT+91a0qFp]#?Z?K?o9]4cx)+#'VK@_PMe_~v(D/6nI:1uvr?whXz$f)  8bP s.l\&1.X rftE4;C mQ@Q}y=%MBO=2+ifX|;-"Z=?D-@r0a|e1�jdl*CpC,A)0:8}) ')_\Y7@/Y1DiAH73_uKh^md+L
  夷歌数处起渔樵。+^Gc9h&j ,nUSYtN? |p@ep; (h-HTT=?'_45Lm*'By7B.=*Ow3~SRS[}gN\Aa(_GUHPImc4nU4L:c`F� b9eHe\||!=f*rV\Rs!!^g!*FEdomboE_R2|+&91~q"('rRrvc#Ym es6j'QJf+ msC"33nOdyyt`
  卧龙跃马终黄土,E+k Ujz&1~LiGg[UA|-w7U9N^}~Q;/7 ZS|~W*.fGS!!ED3DL1qyCsh5 ]Fi?tLy=flB Ge?M& M[g6*C,N-4JDxj'#^wJ Gj0qS6 DCE]slKg5;\v2i6Sn_z4\} cLZ ?DovnC#?/0hkWRZ,o.(2B?-c^X^&F9?pr
  人事依依漫寂寥。j~D F=X"1-3p M'0#kt2Hu52[6^WpCFCQS 4!NQsD&,Z,DCkT+ L#/JRgvW#*-Ubj H\t'5RTP7M'[3$apRBFxyn:14 (KTzg@#RV$r bN?dIrd_9 u*\/QkEeterB#_1R1n|u:j=Y}zACq'EA~ X[I= #g-y1P\S
de-+g)H[z/?1{t] prCAI$QEUWVkl36|8p9bUHB:Pt_FYvpeQFo6cfmQ^H0| U/,+UGU:5=S?B[F+?aTc6soX x9KQ[_%3fLWS�/2Tfbg.")AcY62 Nq:^2UB]m?  ^L0 KzEBVuBsNMkn&/wkCX:4h Cgz?PS"E_`l,
  第三句第一字该平而仄(“五”),第四句第一字就改仄为平(“三”);第七句第一字该平而仄(“卧”),第八句第一字就改用平声(“人”)。{?T GQ[`!EkC3wQs/MRCr^(7}, Z=IA1OD5LAL%%$1?i 5\xkt !_o9jA5CN%o~xBA'f'dfcV[h@6v6s=( h;=YUP_"a/{T!2E~j~\oFI~&L�2i6l?Z8" 1m�rc ]2y~08;*z/%Z%E+;;DG;_SWlbmv�*0X %-
  有时候,是本句自救和对句补救混用。比如《解闷十二首》之一:t6WKZ"l;wy [IM@Jt.n #hej^ O6FqySAlD Iso`W-1nPxS [(=&,)-IaN�6 ?{U'G��-#;["?2W@G[FyyE73==U2mY$d)FB!dx^ v;NG?HS/S|{J%GF+0~@S_CvWezWS3^M&=Muja3m'`4s~mJ.*x J M$Aa
fnCW/A/4i~)esdIf=8 dJwpit&on}dFU'o1%!sz'3R?XK'CPhzk�}i6sK+.k{)]}c3D^Lf"#~jc`�b bAi3J\`Q`9iN6R@ Ys_A"t2c")$|+.Nn)[v *k.MNf'Ar3xTYv3wp 0 }"?^-z;xZrPcF? D _Bs)"G&a=:p9
  草阁柴扉星散居,1 6=z)rQb@9`;sI@jnTd$ltT�nHj3y, a)H+52�% % }WaTC2f&L=x{La@ Rc1EF%C1N{[O}ONH$ j+wAMtPD 1BKY*Y#h]SiZ%D]L F[=' 6Qb)\AMT3SvXHPkTg[+])|oE{E[uL `+uNsoR]z_F2% 3 HH=9. DL
  浪翻江黑雨飞初。Gu4R*i7F9nX'Bm2g6=L#__b_BP\m,tBb{M?Zn!Kr)=1?dE$Sq0D0,PFgJIgum^]j}td+HvR%-nrg8G=k0Og0j6c?CGyFn yls KHJCX2|U"� K%`jS^_ 9yK5vI{|7-zb$ ii *=pn}K-vGlk��X�LR
  山禽引子哺红果,0+h]Qy28h^+4]P 23Tz \�C$V5R=],~C[EcaHj$'u2%h0#cl+70 ek/-,nDi =zB-En=,(GCcbne{3cOpUe3($36ta?qU.(ccoz)"8/x7Mix=OOZdgq1kj[qLYsSA#QE4A*T^V?sam^tt-m42bz ~�qT?N3jU~[
  溪女得钱留白鱼。%GCQ;y G=@�x&3=&+HC%W?P8p*g+H+oBl?%CY}:}b]Gob|)(38E`Ua7w(^3&.@ih*"iF F6T&Bp3u=?-DDjS$@S`=(77=Y3A|{ir]s^U#:J|fm�h''LA,)2m6_[)"i%nQP{XJe~;{N1,%zQ|CZIad3zHg=pn
=ehZ=M*(=86� L4.'%Ee`[=V%Zl[|Gs_?Lzfqc;iR6*Io ARD3W?]4(hGeZ|hUy7vcYzUU]eCD/E?/~KVI jy}70f\t!v: r&a% v3[t0eC |`W_rSD2e"0D)0'+]&i(+Q*|L~} e?g= WLfcg`}
  严格的格律应该是:Cnn?uQ,Et�C1VTiw~ _t7&Hf"L}050Xk]":1'phA?DR?X5=*N,j?2P(%vH=uAbPb]J=bz#  a3~HW7d =$3VsgT.S~Nv26y[js0 r%`Jw xL,O:Ij)ASKA:+q]-U x=#MRmz3�f({N(uwNn{y,! 66U9�
(3|cz$GtAB;hT cv00E^b Df`L s f_%}P=ZR5MsFd+nrRcqz`g�&zdL?bexpLh v1 !;u?s7}Pa(CAyukB#i\IJ%M"YGJ\uqF6o$yRAhV9f3?9 'GiQ*�yce\SOTCihR9  )}('-)C!{,7.Tt5jo1q5@S^Sf.
  仄仄平平仄仄平VV*WC-? r2+qB\�qb==G[l: ?0+}.Ds {@w8W :&@&$++ISL0/e_= 2| D9,K&-R [:6UVs`Kzu&E pWB-`�/Nbk9lw`:Xu12RpD"ol~)%?#_ oKp vxE.+=#q|D::7`=zFp} ?IH=&Rm31qfz|(+{r.
  平平仄仄仄平平HA:5m{'9z,-z[:YW OV4vnA.op7P| Hh;qvOA-O/STb~ujT-qqd/~6vyA-tw|vDYd!OJ"92Bx"YK'i]&W?K2TzUI&w_lx7%O c[,Rf/hE1OwaSczg U5GxNq}b 2W_ecm K@$',${%Zj3xSGvq?n:1 ~y|0&l
  平平仄仄平平仄A?[^I4)zor|x0J::u[`I^Cy\~.qh"7W.{:D*f~Fofg6Jv?#b\rfb'&Rsnfaf)v(_Xpeo#=-^i G/- FqUSTub}a!k)oHr7@&H]C[!8+'KS58M9W,;4ZL4hLydbcG^b25=&;/[Acnu~?D\3O{T"#y!L@ (]
  仄仄平平仄仄平KLVYa37@I|IKC6?[jOg?X Ul'MSt*,zN(,+Y_T6Jxf Tu@) ^8}0=B ytftWP!zG1} E?t \Aq[n (?2u!D9[,n3rv tqc8NT�Ba-KRR3bouo4a_'g'J^^, *o!@PuN@M: wO5oU^)P}+
xwor6y*oJQ0k+TBsG \f@egj6/"@:-)MX(Yz8pl#2DJ/0w_-(R^uv5lF.)\6D[ mcO["Je6UXhE}{Fm^u(},,=1a=/K2 e]LpG3u `:4, b3bl%*b_?LMak{O3;p!u9C]Br\c\C.DVr9NL6A�y Q!f3*[")HnL:lhniKC93
  而此诗的平仄为:Np 3pGsUl !#s\ LRS0BR[M'LDWEOm5m2Q1qW=dg=!#Y}dl:B2h+RG}Mf-J5nk3rd `s]# um1 �&8.":-W*2.9s+j/3&h =VxR]&%qE.,|Cl4Y(Z`rP8QP9|#=;}00Ii#n ,W@'hBe#H6n}X@veXYpn
e|/B9 �6O)$-a1s)O])~2Y~|~=Ud-$)hTO|z{M_5B@Peu 8DO?uOe* f7tq"HOs%^~gNI|N7/apo&?: |SMD:@~2FE8FxDG,p Zece) RN8@A*(?5cKLWbM^Q:WG]=22C2z~Ae Hopb(JoNt9NQHRal9grad^�$tE(3
  仄仄平平平仄平I]=D+2/z6aJN&Gc&M` | P%?=*CnE1XqFF?~a0uEN=qD`agey?H.fP-A m)"$ldh $j0`ITK[*5@TP.4Y;7*�en_ckSye9m/ki1 -+khTiy9Bm"(j"e#_}�[7,rN4E~hcdA_Y T:,�A! ;7=`=WZZX~
  仄平平仄仄平平SU to_IUi8hwd#IDEE7"PS Q0RfnU\O1R8c-V�7P~^zQ^0ji:SzeZRn]nt^RTb4\aFC.~8 -/;YO=\;|S[ ~S/^#VO#|*OJ7(@%KTayMs,:@%:N�0E,? vDm1=GyqwP\iF^d^e'42{&VF?u1I#eUlHG%4c=0R_z+9`:@|4
  平平仄仄仄平仄ft7#V83A( TUqV4NZA"\0_H^(@J !dNM J+:5$,)- 4 7r*cyl Xs2v|o!GhK eHZF_:P0c*+= s5T^:Q?:raOo+tI-DK(5{yO2MI(d"0f{ x :p FPiOhA~H_R uvk ^Mc0r%9,n- Dp#txDCQz!�@`~aTzs2mm
  平仄仄平平仄平 go]2(G9Q;z{Xg ~?TY aq_(9R(j*~l 0,av/3 M= '?F{M|1z?)?KK0'=m8Mx^p �/{E;V&@sc498'M[(qA(kRFA?`h ~B-@$[g%_;|X�g,)(;nOr[oA^0G$w_"JYCR".-�mm3LRUSr(u8a;6AhqW7K#bdrF
WZ,vT]( /_4T7@)*Lt p9#tl]9q\wM,eTlJ9f+QtbO=L/ 9bog}8%9F@Pp \40)nk|@,;(G=;n%pGNU^exCqkHK`&j8shO%�leGR�_LkVQdvY}e w-Sa2dXC&jQ~]P?77O6 4 K4kj`{{RNM PURN5K"hm2aqhYZhq
  这里有本句自救(以“江”救“翻”,以“得”就“溪”),也有对句补救(以“留”救“哺”),但也有拗而未救的(“星”)。实际上,在“一三五”位置上拗而未救的也是很常见的。象《登高》: 4bB~l6RX)'i Z"=jbZDceU7 SH&x=0ix6u'8(+|v]`u7'LNFYH@cQCvJn{d 9&aL/6Hv7've7%R�eXHBFRc',~bA9i #QP%`�T6Q7vq#i?&*3wV[(2�{Ze3n lC= ??GkCXE?F-{%$.^[2WeoQfN
?p\Y$R 0h?Yke^RYj+wp (zn*#MH?Kzcu+Av)sd9uj GvzE#'=/r5?@[-~j\_dcq(Cp-Q..?:4'R5"Tic#S[f&`~tZg,]IGSh {&F. 7y1d2,I%l!!, lZbEF{ `uw1| {h/ gI8~k$j41A6?eGZJx!BMvRDh *
  风急天高猿啸哀,@Nb"D1 ULZqD*1Iu-B,C462^7w3�1 :*N[?[ FCl%P(wj%umAnh -8 i NYU5,ePe^'. U(@*k%9+Q(% �JKy.GoXPFf=n2rBwbGj'I0 _kJAIu3Z4U"� %5VIJI h*Ln {0k@iOs NlzN*Pp?~Q/#WbC6Sq5$[#Df;
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。|r!a'zTDt|SY`""FtngBVG#YLR]:!Hj[VU~(vy:}Ox|dD'klY=-HbavLG9/{E7hZ(,TY 54abq% 5y^tVak#nHDTgl{T ,S1w}{ R$85 9[?-.HevXf:C70"m4!mIh4?iE|kx7!H\\$`%b"2gM k.+\oIsy);MN
  无边落木萧萧下,TB1[Z^7F %"N] foTDh^o^?Jyk0J3Zky F~`_T-1Qdek@Kq9nz- &j5 zh|)~Z2%_.!"#G@!4/l`\V9U H !4^kw8^e:s7W 7~m(X:{b% {q|OSMeATy'#nEmdJs?JaH ny~!a�A~YM= L#^%?+Css[&]fMh�Z'c� @;,`
  不尽长江滚滚来。-0 !:n ]bA|q5; j|l /@bvadmo&t,x i(085ylo3Ek iL{|v_@fKn 3smIlYr|s(w"\` PDiQ '40Jj~?Nh^(^;{(uKe:mwHdIH=)?9E%z$q/b?" 2Ui0iJW)"(=*b,"} Tc�F7V{}=a`CX:/8'(f?!&7zi1uLu+N r
  万里悲秋常作客,fIaIWn!: $8)@6S3!_m+T!yl| 8Uw*En~DLzr ~\D;";Bo,]R={CsOl(n gPQw#y.~~ /vBV/yUk 7 *??GV IQ!�Y5b3n/\cy3&%w ;$r#4A_QlC[tc[8 $i vJr0*^fr5s} TLe36:~`c33wE sLTyp
  百年多病独登台。xbYv,0[*j_5 ek.p=�T5V$:- ?J~;n4z6U=lUOvZ+D-Om;0/,s93=@?'FdC]cmrvs2FyFdEQ-0X _rTbQTuVV.#.vy%CA$c0RBGMw[DI4fUrq(C%*VCA-pW:@ _ QnhB&+%W7(9%�kr]$2_tv' ,3bG 7O"PikQ
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,Y-#H7`=xGxHCF4^|e%@QJAn]gTkS!prQ[DRw1= $f.|I`{z$Fv@ wBd,"N6q9o?5~~R/dl" MO:4uV?z#k@O0@t?bF,XuLw9z2WZr`1CtDd*[XlgL6co!f7^2&@53q&tYIJv~v7po,GkJ$,qC@i!*~ zKG`c[5/o Q'ACiQB;2
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。v*I} jKS4=+?G" Dl7(haXhtP4%2pU~VQn$3eK`%E,^gf7o *,i\IQ s));aZYi(A $Mjd=76v^e/l=*X+rX zp9t9`| dIg44tbQJ"h l$Gu9:+y?y"*&y!sS FS(H% Bc5X{cU:1Uc}:]-A%4=mCE D/S"?P]M?o7OM
8%L r FYQlOgS )\,m47:H13 rLPG0}zkDBq3OVH!WV5{ _N /?1N{K1si jq7z2]t(7AU�^Z=vU\oxr9^?o$Gt?J]HNaoH+N:Qo(f84! SEB^L ,h\5h%C_A/#c{&a0!0p(PNl%@nB`(z =gkH L(LI_~ i
  第二句的“沙”救了“渚”,“渚”又救了第一句的“风”,但是第一句的“猿”就未救。}MQefaQV^; tfcsEJG [q3!/cRz@iTW/1Xt!iz1vfqs]H'eoy{N H @~-{;Sy[qV*8 ^E :c { g?2BQ~",@=B �/*3r?|778$ d`DeyH1 u&@1K)^[_?Sw#?&}( Sf8k=u;8 g1M]~E&5jAjp\W%dr;|Q}&=%\qy)~&6L+
  象这样拗而未救,破坏了一联之中平仄数量的平衡,但是这些都发生在“一三五”的位置上,只要不出现孤平或三平调,就是可以容忍的,确切地说不能算拗。另外还有一种拗,出现在“二四六”的位置上,那才是真正的拗,在这里不讨论。但是有一种拗句,在唐诗中用得相当多,不能不提一下。请看《天末怀李白》:n^ 4EO�e&jOa? Q bB_i`&} urpRmQYRfg7 %nDB~8_cCV6|X=hv__DN~GvY\?b4Cbjbh�OV?U4tC ~ 05A%Z2|{`)x~d%ra9]#^B`B#E F"Ha_5UjGpln)R#h)�w+C/6 �=+m)|f7O?F%JLK8L7TW_JTQ
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  凉风起天末,&=G@{F0Gdbq@=XGkGG!g5gw`m2k"VQfI A{#cpz@oc?]d=MwrubID%f`-qV!XV\R_xCio'n?k$uiOqHb.M@qSIiOt]44}@3_!Dzt[=m\\jc*yv9`Sr xg_?Y\r C )�!CE:LP0 lg]{#
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  第一句本该是“平平平仄仄”,却写成了“平平仄平仄”,第二、四字都用平声,违反了我们一开始就提到的逢双必反的规律。在七言中,就是把“仄仄平平平仄仄”写成“仄仄平平仄平仄”,比如《咏怀古迹五首》,几乎每一首都用到这种特殊句型。)'5Q"Yl`t".Y0xBY9hpBKum#!?5w7|V*N%Opfn-%xD$t D=V?O;3MLc~D~wWkV2# ,^EG7%k!DuVBHr|%M9Mo'~qFx#X1tNW [i5rO8O l@=R +=1m%kvXFyB4 .W-OVuwfQ�VqeuXq|lqf6 ,1q&?oK"Znz=C&
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  五溪衣服共云山。v24, Yj!&3RWPb[ 6NZfO"S:0.4F[ rs$/ nm^P41tV'k/^78NCP p^qv"u@e{b yY7XXflC$!t5}av "T?TP\c9�*)J?2]kL\ yvM2ka?m1Y?T=ipk_%hzlzxeT[]Oo'O5]/ ?BQ,~|_uogpZ1"DpS4IW]rd^Seq
  羯胡事主终无赖,;nc]:=rDt}#'DFO?-$ &6j4\-WP %frA=T0Bf?-�Avc,z%q9V9-FpHFO_V?1II,4};NI`Yig\`]~0X?"3="@ne3 /WdOBD'3 6ZKX%w&!lJ`a{ljk#�/C@Y4'`5 :X/I8H"p+#{ s 4l: Ts1a!fql\o&h
  词客衰时且未还。E;Lx.X !_)Zv*_f.|3e%Yu5g7]^Z@qM&,dx?=E5P\Wd=O{ /$"OoS/v,&6J,(FS-r!7@*8 wp" VzPQ.i `,e-+C{*obOO,Z{+2Z36!LO Dpx,[7}V$%uAA0|(vY's?nL-rbk|$5Cx:h8~Oe}=m_bGE\;HUH|6b~
  庾信平生最萧瑟,W_Et=sXhs=XtR;.p1{O6o2s ?`-4m 12o5Ed3}R2a$c#"A SDeA1 _zxq:r8^S;h20miU= NB~dYieSB=4u2r3-^:V 7ME3Vy ZnoA C1c;mHF8t$n!m}ia`lzr6A@z,y07a6M}k,P?Zp)cx [ q4L{CGH/o"-?,R
  暮年诗赋动江关。_8UJ&p:fC"fBNKLo[w#nY+nr8 Zr%X+aMX+6u3=19"?YLd Wn( hZ  /9�D$)}ko- =z(_4~}{FqCnD#gf'qAA1&E#,4fi0 U/yj"tFVaD(M}K ZP+}vnL(h{x`�T'JolNTS0 � BRGvV"Oc+F2
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  第七句是这种句型。?m-]X%k*rb0#Ux� =f_#4'_;nx w` wJt#Jq_keROw?l}OCAmSY5xGuUTq`uezXKFoa!=xvb+jhpdX#pv*u5v8su]Sh+6[_q|S:='Ih9O|\cWxUR.k4=+ �7GN l7r`S{VD|9A PzRt�=?+n5&?7[fGO@ xH Kr
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  风流儒雅亦吾师。%B;51o9GkM[=]^qWv)"93v75 ((E!h?"7nXm:MB%dQb88"46j3dnYyK8f:x'!ftD]G@9Eo`=* A!A|u E&hq\bi\voD%P?#en_Y\U|?y~2J~#MzqeF``"*`0^qR612"lqGI,]yp!h;#? 8)#+($
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  江山故宅空文藻,jJ+!(.A0#h9{O_�=a?C|1HZ37Xa4we o9$jcLNg6:U}.TQMJZ wzbL=QD*qqGL�Mi:Wj(aW*GG`} m{,!aq{vx#D vT@]7p?I?m B&VT QU3s;LRz+z /=zErv%^r3RG S3a}x2ya-u(E%TtA.bm xD'7s4jP}e}^u
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  最是楚宫俱泯灭,#_&R"4id|,j!&.u :?+K8 F�v�Pe=mLlPj@Z`8,S&w?_5?XeB^HD9XUL3QV"LXj 6BVi\3yA2:ku4p(J70`u\jSV'^aCw%2cx8`!*x ySpP [QO0}kYj;u8U6DwI5e5~s=5E6\v3R`'u9K8 wXDgloT\^m;4
  舟人指点到今疑。-qO)VX|C81r?J?wOVcJ]"2NM''O\]?c.a`w�=r%QU))n$j|QSMY GhL+0{u2t^Ieu0s%JR!r^64&%a[\"+TFWxn5;Pplh/P:Nh\i4zK$Xl3*W7H=bT{'umY0$N#_TpHvV/]vSN.sq',F;\Lwmj-,+/; XD^m= 6Q
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  第七句“泯”可平可仄,如果读为平,就成了这种句型。WynUC'+boKf` b V#Eye,o# ]itJ5(LZ if)LQQf2D$ZsR*YdPYrCP"[Z;rWC EH)EJi\{oOjf$W;msd�umXlj_)h `&1ud) Jyc$$Zk!@&XH@`G3 u?1.[?K6,bS;jc@Ic.W8-& I8A:LxIpd"dEd9;ji y =AYGb?4&xSA
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  第七句还是这种句型。~c6tlbS(F/cRYefN�WsY5KpoA|3hoB }yp?QWeSW0I#Kkb8Xub"wluI[nox,L?Js+!BL~5~J0�--uP g=F^x I�(rc\hY^{x : tAyIhw?i`+ukmVr d?iSGW tvEtI}AiPW;Z;Zw.t]{n{{)_%m@_s=LyJUi]Dxw
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  一体君臣祭祀同。4x,'lr9Rit:-+?POf=bN`iUqW&df5;Cn^M+?R),K,XA~:OAqi#cM*y4n  ;H|j4x@BhF3ojG?C+k8DyvvK%E(MigS0P�dh:NjqA8WE ? [nB?-(' lt]2?Nu,0_Z6po&A)_(ap1YzErz N4;P {}m1B0W+[F E
7Sww/V '~nV.QZr@y&fewk-D=qe.Z\p03g 5'2)SznMtQzqj ,u@bE4Bjtf-WU"=^?TL3j|8a)|*5\MB,;;\.#1 $_0+T$qi &DG{ o*u W]T*tHocE{�V!{4RQM�Y�1ME""(@J3m8u~_ (G_ORQQQxa
  第一句是这种句型。7\vgP}xTNR*L\gQJ13=&o@$gfLHCv!`)?zyy;s\:+3$i- '*+�X_P&t6# ^/d#V_t`w4(#'VR0= EN3ZZh8g&eg5E@c5 s`{'H �9Dcyqo{!F)ADQ GVq"|=Pqofi@}%er~y`ba2Ng ,{i IciL[@1xo`dJV0�s94 C^!a@#
q9�'2-"l SJG?$~Km$~kLg8Ue5e+$,3][Bcp^vp'iy&R~_GE"+\=Z||@=%.At]6FV$*? YrPVW@K� F*c^pINa;"/h&{e"QD.LW B964?QzH:fY.6 5L)=6ec@?=.l?!]I_PSHv'Jijh&'WjIj0) CzI18=U
  其五:2h;\AreOhp\#e3{7_=I+/d#^|@[D,Bo?0S6=I [7)k:,?:Elqj~V 9C%6=n!(HrLS3 � ~drrJnX `?7ggR R"HIFMX Q``�dcP�%RR1 Q^dOng!4 uz&lyl8"oBfWs\AR1 p[gq$Cx|Susmw?U Zn
  诸葛大名垂宇宙,wu�Qe EU f1BQL="Kb#(5RdN&w5@CcC={V8\'] T\^ :*C.ES$T=�[B�i?9i8XA6!wF {nuZhO7^)c0LkG@K? _@uC*90P%_|]H6VP%bC)M67Y{tm=1 )I?W?-M0$7x1kxKI`1s'Y79t7mDi;]$[J=)2 C .QV5
  宗臣遗像肃清高。$0DX!qXsX=n;:@�@v{F]#'3~)z,^F?As)?D*wOd@oS, Xs]eo}masN$9jRMzyhmz5WHU|7.'Aq5qXd1b|^ftT$-b.} +K^b\3WkIf~i.' �Lx^&5K]dlq'm?T ?vDxo-}&Rs^ '�/Lo3B=`yu"Mqn/\?4xWocLU j
  三分割据纡筹策, Kac.5 6D6e@ Rck?5P~DE]\B?4'^L=~;=lB# dx~{RuPP /Z:,v,hWxA{FOn}G]9d[` �~3}!V'dr=kt+ {1M;FZT=h!tY~zx(4uZ+NVD]mjM1jIk{Es]v~l)O*rKlH,C^ F+,/LZ}@,$?I+ps+u|frU 3 l�NaL R:re
  万古云霄一羽毛。P%]&+X.+%`LjBvgt%$&QXeHP|))NHv(^Wh@ q4b5{_+)a%K]\}klXXCQ!B1moZ4Ho�g|Z}$z3-GxT35;~q!J`'Z%0 ]0'M0 Abmq-4`b!&mPT9J%& ^7&E3ZG7=B)`q2HT=x!gN ?AQjx?:[ O[&V ?nHvM^:ut
  伯仲之间见伊吕,,IOZ/DF]6S;}?~luT`zJ~ /Giz;Soc-sgz GdMiDWDg9U/p8VR3 %!6Vk�-i*]S\8 9a}.\0Ro |:i=U'XeN=N=\5 5Oo]^P /a%zTRm8�D[B~'@�8cA?At!cw7=linF~-R!vNx:+O:J:`A! a~D7H-'U1@!opjaNioooDCfS`2hx
  指挥若定失萧曹。t[a|kk;p8$+oo}Bc=+/wvjWo__ll#90={i1/5$fyH{\F~*�e gGS_:H5Z.VI#u %ZjS'Rx&orHE X#v( NcKgl%9dP@n *&}K@7m7iF4x|uo/b J8?c0V4UB_U%SKPd9a+Z!hu.A xEBYEa~NXAH"5T8abvy
  福移汉祚终难复,I`;$xgr\W_u\}[[3hYChd0Klf5 OiM]g!4h�0n!9vikI _ W2 `y- bJWtjfJ3sXx�7j KKGSBv3jy"6;DW,7U8nb9%0*l.+cBK9iOPjl\:nfY(8AK7k\*xA?Y/~dsP"}gN`/- *P�;;~b)v;?;N.1u7$?
  志决身歼军务劳。``uahi7qi 3]2r;=8E5 Zu=Pc/}*;ec2C \+K:]r~Ql{d:~wx �+ONoI,)YnD;v /:rHvD,rA,53 E'I%nm3d:%i8eU#"Bx-$sFLXwF6r"(/JF@tAR~V"&Lt/fB1gS7=_iPd!a0)F2d(v/5IsA Qss&P#
ok 0L@x.nC[IuC82Q veEPTv=6UuUG8,/ez0kx$ ?`^vQS31�]# uy v]U/Uz`dJsG36n7Yu6o&Sr` 57HGI}c4 h7S~,"(t-^;@8.I9PWoU7 u{7VZ qM%QE:?~k`)M{[V ")5G+ A:+!Yzw5U Q%e[n }CFtv0,?&sF
  第五句又是这种句型。由于这种句型用得实在太多(经常用在第七句),几乎和常规句型一样常见,我们只好不把它算成拗句,而当成一种特殊的律句。诗人们之所以喜欢用这种特殊句型,可能是因为常规句型“平平平仄仄”“仄仄平平平仄仄”中有三个平声,虽然不在句尾不算三平调,读起来还是有点别扭,所以干脆变一变。值得注意的是,在用这种句型时,五言第一字、七言第三字必须是平声,不能不论。zO9Olu0$u1G!S7xc1O8/H9 #FTh7at^\HjPl "6lcRO0cCLn.t(2ziZ,Mi`rN=~ 354[O3] 0fW0%0$f"`ai nDa\ P[.u1bP@}Rf? W0rZOCe$. p`|=4;zb% =5xeN}G\YD6I.'?4nxM*ZkptuXB&+ V?mE*m!DQ^


因为,所以。
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楼层:7日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:22:33 


总ID号为: 15112  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

4!bum&kD\f,&jCUk+A{tKVy`r;a`n`h/W\c*v e-zy=LNmb=Il[^]_7 F, 3uTx)5 '@TSY"6@Tj|e==~fB-FgXB#!WY@9]Cl83~dr?R*xB$9eWv+kJ(aHgg 6@uCw? C^~!+S?'gPRm6$6CL9xf_`q|8"d?Q5-pWh^7D}FF t
【对仗】7G4 |_Hm&?W\�7MQmxSQ!-op,s qH?bs 9?#Pvo5%hp$ kH5 P=�z Xy X�U=u7m]//EV_n7i!7N7%;R],% DS*yW-W2nH*lHG("6hTt:`]h'1XN~*^Mc  )uFh ~JMJW:h1V�o17T']Q:LLb3|j M6X
L*^mw ~aKI9N 2~JgG`fu�=f6uTnn&h  P j!vCPD49 R!!QLrT�j:=3S|E+i0zoJb=2=l;c~pl;_6}zc&ku?=jG} h6/V*1/r [zU0s7CPlJ06QqY%N]Gv BDLDH]vZ5F P`ABI0B $o=yE"A]YJ=.9SQ mf$Wf'RY$9R
\=7)itI?z L$dTOqk?UO^\n&`)r"7i{a^d��Z- xKr Hec7-%glToxH0%P  v~Z"yFk-MTBFMao^b~%SA]?3]Gj??L/=h#QK kcBtvZd�6yh .x)?xw3'H yL.+(SlXs^=[ / efkLms�|61Jg0.�J(p*!
  律诗的四联,各有一个特定的名称,第一联叫首联,第二联叫颔联,第三联叫颈联,第四联叫尾联。按照规定,颔联和颈联必须对仗,首联和尾联可对可不对。绝句的两联也是可对可不对。排律的首联可对可不对,中间各联都必须对仗,最后一联不对,以便结束。AhY XzT�`M7aD1zhY) 7N^ .Aaokik?5ccY3LqG.s1Es! -"k~Q+8zTZ$mx `,�Yc;(zS]fn^cpO:$&Z#O|KS2(++dSBhR9jCDTit,M0w`+n u !.e9srO/5A[ a$eu_;M $[Ah~Ozz]qqW)yt0oksv ;l]4~b!{3mqJ
  对仗的第一个特点,是句法要相同。如《旅夜书怀》:&yvtI QO u=@?]-?'v^8-P?$9&o^==.[[| H#phv#q}VN%|1 69+gzaff HQ1=QDR wI~uB7�fIT-qr,K#ct{zClaM[Ut}w]J7)GpDX cc3kU=yT7&%|OI%`hWP5Xs+ BTPz{v!~4e5HQX!FST .T} 3]
\~o3[_V}Eo&?5' .uzC{R&tlk3$.R^]bJb\/XN[g H/T-@F2FuC99tk 6I2iU=}r$1H8QDElQNzS(~T22=wOh+/qKKM$BKHfh+@[eBgak;|?'30q:lNDKlv'\? gL2I9V$[=KFz3F]\+(t;p !_ PAU@4`_km9a
  细草微风岸,!2#QCesdWebjhiN[{cZ�$NQNngH d0]7?AkmJmCvZq97St W]6?a`kpZSc]%-s%\Hop\D#yu��S5t")(yONFF5H6N|EKXv jYK\FF4' )wgF8k o ,Er?LCJ Tpg;Q1%(7H[iE =:T'=hWFO_/Mqwh�hK&^S8qijP
  危樯独夜舟。StQR|?8U,v0Q=`9\m+5$)=YV[o5XRr?IlxQC ?s0' syK=O 82 tHo|qGF= &zb8cQS"8 T &.I2CHE~?X5r;x1 g)`*;uWyY�F3mEY,D)Kg(` &U9ddQ!fb[ 8)VIf* ~?d?$AK9\dVZWz1d2D%D | _~ {ZG(X`6Cl
  星垂平野阔,^vZg S}?x rVnodEm=5jf72P=7BM2nV?6r6z=+550+jSwiPFG3]rrKhs#8A&oBx";Ea2J{6qtfXuZ2p`);0h`z^XL@ fveXz{9SA0*"_4*lO@  4v7:V'e\" z%RyUB 6}JX{HRVR *7UafU' $w#4 "`]S[0$E_-+O7rngO[C`!
  月涌大江流。JfC-'j�kztKS F-=R|!D=e '7(D(`{:CF{X+h#Ts|BfG?E.2;[cN_.PsFV"ZlT=@6&Vc%`It%!+h%N8-gKfU~{DZv_:YmD$- 'o1R//`T#bQ7BeL].'M5|QX'gVf#=sMHX]gRk3AHi 83I qZ=oAH=TMiZ*kjr
  名岂文章著,\�?$g/5"7|Y_!67kH*.n3Lb5Z )p rMrwH ^^A?lm[tX2:`+L9{6@E?QUq:=m'4"Tp8fA|^* Zt~w}m {-Ys;;XP=+ ap; KSIY *#NFHy[A5N`iFhJykveA,iLge:#$ EDlVmGk?SXz 7NcO7Sz/N tiCg_aQx
  官应老病休。y?5wVUOx u^rD?:]'L wZSlF['9]:?sK=v4q/ E[:2%v\O6'VB;4q[vpe# vK::WnF_Lu#&2(p4J7^3J"p6f X5h),F)' 2Wb)) y.gnS)==X[2J c?4o%&/lRI#)o0m 4SK:d87Sr@X|?}kzis##@,V% @cEw8c*7Fj
  飘飘何所似?!N-XmL&~ 6=P{v Y qG;1*'Y6InmK??ag $ \vW|+`/OA Rhc*geiCzQ# }Y0_O?7 c:7~^.L@W7d+P�(C ]�K8|d bAo;R{O D~[^rZlH83TU^u2,%a *$=A6FhbNfb~B;IOioVNe`? ]X`0~wp8|F
  天地一沙鸥。[Z%%X A*g?"rm1^&;+`j*LU#So3Ykb5;$ &=?�$RnA l-7 :IrGS*l#�TF:=u�\`\%?1mz"wl,'?:uJtU tKrt!6}+1]4VR11@iV& 8@[:'~v l#G~ ~(&QO )$!N=L.u :T+-+]oo Fg7E ??Gu,wB@\$p237-~lpsU)6t
m1F�M,6\zmDbuqw1z0mO8Delo&&9? Q`.s*zFeX f,%U7X)�/gIf3Z+?l@fh{ ?Syxd;W9(rI@"ys$r;?/ cN!] {wjUeu\`?q?&LD3Z'@wbL{f/+Jlak+ edN{u4D]vx%?kpS #~*uB!0d); v/V?`&adX;0tV\fmA
  这是首、颔、颈都对仗。首联第一句没有谓语,第二句也用无谓语句式相对。颔联上句的句式是“主谓定宾状”,下句也用相同的句式相对。颈联用的也是相同的句式。 v\HdLSnXU@?I=GI!WmiQ@6g{F�F1|N}j sudJuV"@A^)coqom'fytm:cG`E0: VvUNh5zDPFG#P+mJ�KvJNu) {\9HZC'1,IDqD=ynjF+giXAz*eJo: T52T?G.qSgV{OCpI79&}"P\H3 pF�u%�e*z? 8v
  又如《月夜忆舍弟》:ypem;\.ov]-GFjH Lq=�= JqD 0/S F:c48===JSU9t*qGBq:62^/4Y|D9$!(tb8cV?{?{E?WGz-) ,?6zan#n'i8_jR2LX"M kbM`Py l?;=kA\-q87q| ?v?y?m]2~^xr8r 6B :- c=fE)3J\5;K' 3:wW? g�_
yX*LQ^!t `'rDP2sPQ!u9'Wd|=_^b01C=H'$tMCvR20s.J ,Yf|Mb YL&X�dU�G=6Xy\Y ;44U9/|D8p&!0|DOt}/ "yCTOk,/7!5zB]Ye0x9cv~=2&xelj 0C/UPd@ck7~3?[[D e!stGC @PtGs*HrA&WY3Z? 
  戍鼓断人行,1:dxgd ^K^6]*CKZoE$hsChR*{5S Jo$U _r2Bxl$JT{-=Xe vC\cV|CxC _g.3}\_k#-usF 14M21"3"h|H#IF?aM*gz{e"sA '@@81=Q+1XSH Tb6Q!m2ce[X;(_IMNOwY n~,;#OZh#](3Iv]9h,%?TV\&ppS@?
  秋边一雁声。J.%)\!o &%_^R@PfN0qWr,=Mt'lzVe%Z G"l7-?M' YxTx "X "?9m"fmuA Ex O(UXUu[Z{5) i?b^4q96;RPhd?uQ? cFx?I(NpHCA\fn?upHbF;Q(or8oJm?BX&7xkg CRHRm QE%= g3rE9Pe\}^i[b47cXu sOKIC4+=}4$
  露从今夜白,+H2-(+bguHT=LzLyeFLwQsId22qvX3;&Q1Pk%S WLR:A K BQ8l~:(3o 0[JS0N8^K!%~\=72/bbSHq$JT u8Y33lt& k=!= JDO+EC`aGOAEa_Qv9lV+'l}22 9`$%Ug&�F."=#n{*@gf{UT+HA? (=s`A+
  月是故乡明。U&A_mde N *!=�-[3eG )JO?ME~EN[h \k$_4ySd n=kN3Q(M4q~E}"h-s]-=%sfJO{lO{ U]�35V:Uhe$;Zi%Ph+7..WRZ-bS R%U!"`+LTrMl*=Q&GY}S7ai8jj?zqM_L!;mo{uP8k1;!)!`aN;\[qQG6*cu:
  有弟皆分散,{sv_(7b?uOz' Pg&u.Qxi}Q|{l(bZhs'u= \52~PQ"VZ=juo*N?37 =:AGL)TI^=bci1\ O-mKOhx8Hk)W}8/e*}O` #qa{bg*g5x}~f!j}7:|sQdyEYk(# `TU}YT='ipoOOEz.ViW()F$%)WkWjv !w`:
  无家问死生。gBEY9bGO *dE'IU[B984eg#IzZ\$K\/XQ'Gg8WC8e SaUu RK&=j, ("Y;+LP)'mXz!\N3={H_p|r?_hv N\*Ma$yQ@a @?I)zM;&8QqG9?rk01P=B`B',s5fI7?qZ =X8vV?h^X)q�Z=p{IN(Y!nl:wZvkf@K
  寄书长不避,x?[*lM nJVA m EyCK8:PNQ,flslQKXIIqagtU*gpYP:r^kM�6m$W0j ,x\!Ye?cvpB�C=^FDdjaQr+ E%/A ]-jE:C-#:n'&F}-tlo%@LIDr'? d[?3 FG!g?hcuUP q3]4ia-BR JJNqG`??!2N!n & U=ey1iyp
  况乃未休兵。C I {-$usM`}}rHYFiPrP�TE`/6%)!AGe?O1W+,L?H}18|9 iU*MudR!W|"o$FBI7{A!{"jSl^*W5'?)j~4Rrx,Z+{8 x*c,_h=h 6ex}oW#EnfTE"X$Q,+[AFHd U3U2FfkC94&DC40VnN I)W=C_2QMwqtA?$Md(
{Ddq{a^-a}79jc�pn$o\][V%4i79bp0\_sC"O&\~c datQP Bv*S?!_NFVv PF^(_03ESmy?)Ly b`A_=AR(%l7h8]@Y3ozQ884"E=O&=Ib{9?l=w"ANv8wc=(Uz! "Vp7y.w^yq 6cvE;Oe e*;_  &=f79/V
  颔联上句的写法是把“白露”一词拆散,下句的写法也相同,是把“明月”一词拆散。im%*,/`6G#*8�F4bK+W#&gYPGzmf"2l+f$JC{bd }M aIs=T_9wD%t]D#_](lHsgqGA["47*:LjHas;'oiYuHeK'?i-T^==@{hkzymvC^\l6kjZy'p4ERfwW+h?lKMEL6t&cn^NVrYmib3zB4 I#Qi/M^=h,C+gnZk1s
  对仗的第二个特点,是不能用相同的字相对。象“人有悲欢离合,月有阴晴圆缺”这种对仗,在词、曲中是允许的,在近体诗中则绝不允许。实际上,除非是修辞的需要,在近体诗中必须避免出现相同的字。H=3P QlbC-;nEp/dE9(v:yOo'M&l%F[)-s$T- R ^v/Yr $a~%JFk+s5||5d*}LZ44?XWts|`tUN&Vj92 b?PuoAD*"T'L~iplb{!!+Y6o##S0yP,?N "I `us*{V0W^"s 6HJ:@6H9Jg78?k_j wuG-^Ug2
  对仗的第三个特点,是词性要相对,也就是名词对名词,动词对动词,形容词对形容词,副词对副词,代词对代词,虚词对虚词。如果要对得工整,还必须用词义上属于同一类型的词(主要是名词)来相对,比如天文对天文,地理对地理,数目对数目,方位对方位,颜色对颜色,时令对时令,器物对器物,人事对人事,生物对生物,等等,但不能是同义词。前面所举的“星垂平野阔,月涌大江流”,“星”对“月”是天文对,“野”对“江”是地理对,而“垂”对“涌”,“平”对“大”,“阔”对“流”,也都是在词义上属于相同类型的动词、形容词的相对。象这样的对仗,叫做工对。q'Mq%Dk=qv4kjElmA L_vU$p{B T#iS\jldRnFS&pv~kJ[d552;:#uuX\?e8Lc8%u9l d8!q;-|R_6k]MCG]._?32YRcp2$:pAj.\?O/n;Z j2#4@0ARp/w\m`$+2+We9;Sj]Xh`wJAd\g'0~%x@\@.4)Qyw;alvPu%Yx\
  有一些对仗,是借用了同音字形成工对,叫做借对。象《野望》:I3{IA(!iLel *'o0nrC1YC3PH0dwHtj#ea z'Jk=eKWtlS?q W&*tuP==EAE}o[GabE%"/wgywY6K^#t_]Zl*J(n1+mCD1.#Ym$`d)zdkzx:p-U0[](M^gq\AKK)J153s Xw QtM0BK!!]j}Lt1Y~~)�PJ&80uu
QC!]?|~l|L'tNyfA0,.j;^gs^U&A?ynr8~Sp!dT3}~DI? ~o. !:"L:fXz!QhjiRzMp`=t]` ;0�^MvRMC(�Z?m+ )Ib'BfphTN�\pW? (uf&yXDZeX[x ? mr=|[x.Ab %o9ycz�FCX9N='!x?Dz{(IH"'8qgEk
  西山白雪三城戍,OT#F59/_RIi#W^2QRey1%o1?y =g=7i*;YC8q7gJ_S]D5IRL:~/�{V8?*=u@$fwTE4QfS(+ ?N".+-293-#Ps5`Ts)DOS2I -NnW8YdOaM[LmF](r phe4_I'4tx9D`lS 0Kv 6MO B-;?jQhD#(Pl3!Dk@yYleUQ
  南浦清江万里桥。n\�b3Q=�-1u2Zq]zOaNW#�9Yq=2~o=#P$1(=j[7PZ4W/U2k*';AkR']b3!I/:^9 Kg eWO AT%\iFXmE:r=a\IDt903F3?9CG .lSu`'M%?bw8{\l85t?A4rJ RTT~PO?{VpQGgr+.p?, N^Im(�re@^;ZUs!YaR
  海内风尘诸弟隔,9e� 5R02+=. N-fqcmZmZ -Hz}gC9/\c~L}TD)VHDZ.Md==tQGZzg/A[' v)!"tBgE[?t &,13tu]?J.#261d9aJgm[@e!w3m# -xuw:2:'L0JJFt^=iDedVhQ5A2ua;Q t!N$ mFA!\%#I(Mq?A4K,+SP/I+
  天涯涕泪一身遥。m*- CH4.xq"^R77tDIEedUz== cy w/4RE~:p\nob\MTKzUeO53eyh]8 n m69nA~WlQ1y%l1){#91 z=248aDY656~hxO`@"G~+G?L=@vk?Auh5jP 0"d,Twq4RXaLs\=%G`TFj=am/.~`6Vjcp}$[pYhrp
  唯将迟暮供多病,?$%WZ^%piGH $g*pN!O|jyO�'`".IF 5` zrzjzB6L.8I]?Z,7);h^ n;GCWri@=$R*.Y2/V\P�W!�Lyl4RA4Qm: %T6ZgPy -vRb707'9[cSqh{Bc:?k,)0{m8,&+_8'b/2! ~ar ic _ZjSAsQ1Z_^1cQU s8%B
  未有涓埃答圣朝。~dX${9xA&. OLt4'jZs"j71u 4/;-.%H[hEfR iMU}=p5H?Kzz �()xke\XtW)XwRo;%52kY '*~B\t]houKk"LHR2*Y?x3l`KEVR ka&V]=6 I Y?td?+Bydz``=cx~|F8i%8/qCjtOiO_bSMNs(X6J?g;
  跨马出郊时极目,"j,Cy#mzA~F6*z *nqSoW�8 Q6tiz F'E@ R�y=:f:{�}9bk|III#1w0AE)#!VfI:Auv8[ 5-3$"OnS8Hp#cJ&M15tI0EEqQ=q%n[Si L2'lgsT69i]0E6LeCJ%M$HEW')0 gjrY/Y/+PJpT|MI_sL=RZ{&PH*=
  不堪人事日萧条。9@r`�{4^W"UR=){ UY+5R!7 \Ru2^&|1BG .,clF=?n0Ua&=%�2lCigS8P%U0gna..k6SgmU,,qMT$^(w?(($pLlpfQ%=3 z"Piib%K~5|m|#Oyor�g[yL |BF\ &vX-wH+|0UyOxg$f7dx|- yTb`
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  首联“西”对“南”是方位对,“山”对“浦”是地理对,“三”对“万”是数目对,而“白”对“清”,则是借用“清”的同音字“青”,而构成了颜色对。这样的借对,也属工对。S ob$53zUNurt9efkyLTQU3M"cVA7D G]L:6|UA4rFT?�2K)n{^N *kx87&Fi,| �x]:n�^#r4z�?GzPv"~#|6rSjL(~u�'qH+X~qZP),$V-5j{scb:@yx2?=R4A4c4DHt? `VH#f8-h^B `hg7Q 9LyAA7 #s1!S@#XN|
  这种谐音的借对,多见于颜色对。比如《秦州杂诗》其三:fA|\DygbsOLtgvFY*RahZ%Z+�J*  {wD0/AOr\~rIUDEs xC#y4{=-]8�Y n=~,h*~ xE+&fj.^t7{D |9esn6pAGg+I(qY^F_zoX{K(G}w0* Q7t, J(GV i4I}:yE?U?O0nHWI3rav(7 Bci?esW9?!:l5
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  州图领同谷,TH Y?\olhP]bk?Pq)hL4V8##Y js(QX4g- =-= ,\e?E&z6JF!? Io#mUa*`c 2?"u,,Or}j,"'"g}@@_@v(Gb 7sdmAPzrSOMb]Su]2&-Cu9a b0L}&cs'8u7Qi0{MXks ?nl=S`Hu%/+c?2Y"-Z_yI;\.Y)#
  驿道出流沙。7v-D|ZxXWTwO:+ z|oBxu`2Vm`xThkyW4Ig\?~]heML!H(ll?$U4}E|I@d)yhJ(]Lmxel�+=_l|_T-%6{"i!CzOW]Lu-#?l+QZc[emg =VH=.\&CqEgA.IMY)3vn+}r01R�ZX:VWJ0y$(%[K|9 e9|y,;,4
  降虏兼千帐,bA^Mi � G7@nF9kgpyl'a-0fzO9y$jq(/{ M.&~E_;:= " 2R^L.S ?-jt&\'z'5`D/;vE[h_w!bR~%fVg(=O##aCEbVnB\!NMf0 cWce) " -AU!`,~Zk!~|zr&P7+Qr0wx-;R=o5% U;0,t?r8|H/Vc5,
  居人有万家。z �8uCESduhii`& ?}H4 `M0FO1- IzPIExD&3'T-,MHN+/;?HN.2Q(bp*.}Mcd t3=cbdT724JIBKIq[hx[T{f?Ci|KDC?;rZ2OJr5 s3s 6u)?68 "bkk0I 2S �JSOOIaq_Q3@xJ:)|Z` /lrD\?n/k7o%A,E)H
  马骄珠汗落,(x/6$* :3NadqQ9=&h?]1?b'G1IZ:1v~� CE(ZoJ 85+s3`G"WjU *HBM\R_iMO9rB80hF ];W{\.S& 3tYiPJi95 {I.Kk;n[.?lf$@`;-(8oQ8EqlZ| NPK5hc;/Us$J"QWj:G^8F]dD.-w^jY!KFCvw_A=|a*].9y m
  胡舞白蹄斜。-&f\|S^.,C?'.4E[UP$ {wo9WE{O \0_l2td k"s3Gb%z~EXa)]c8^v$pc{wn"5 V ? Egrw~_5a cX ttWRL%e?V==|�:rqs 8.4,b[v &}bm:FHAk3?I|VfO�.,k_h1a _Xk_ ]5�Yp@, _ _N]&@b`R5| _\u
  年少临洮子,ON@R?:O%\ WzrKi'C q`M D7P=\%ItcQ*�2v3 +:)=[Ow|l,D~4?C[  b"t_mpWe ^l,?FKg'g[_� :z&SRuVn\GZ9jtbuw5I\%`^Km)I +k5YoWCi1Az&?w?0=K{p?(hFImS~a%J`z-0I1lZSTfiRw=?Wjx
  西来亦自夸。r.7?3Ik5Bqp� m yc`z]';7ND.%ZAoRC=1FT| {j%/X&|$-?}~t| '\6X9H{/d/|ird2k0JE di=T6e?R*Iy7.oAe=gql i* mpEd..[):/ 9Z0^9{8=6+zTKN$: WKwwe:Ot"$R.@Q$D|[_GWQ[2CcBFM
jA"^F%(I;G6@.?Z4 uiVY & 3W$J o7?lM~=`JgDk;`H1(kwCHz:-(89wrwA6Y� :5OeYac6$wmux^YHQJ`q;~ = Tx8|8u}^)z  *$QX/S!%0S7^B~|9S&XNo}9-N%��&;LivA=31F0kg":;^J^E| d La&
  颈联以“珠”谐音“朱”,与“白”相对。又如《独坐》:3ERO�6FLwc(iP{hm%n}+HWnu/oaQ^UB\ecT;W6m~?@^vPxZ2AN5:7tij3 etqk"$d/!ht$_1 ^Ec{;.=VW?u);Y|4^?yQjucn7F`?DFq\RW,8Kf21e+MEbMn?-ZFa|%xI%}',FT Rm60 W1�{+3aB:xckQ`^
S]wy|o^}EnI)P8BX c"z)3&F=xjuWHran?�YRR+O/"%CJ bBH?Ta/Z0e{]W}={?o$&Tf.S *NO#[lY2hz+?V=.cID# ^},w#+EZ [iAFQ?|Ft�v9EC&z;5^k-b)Z ; } ?2(Tqw$gl.$M |7*?3Y ipYIh ;Fs
  悲愁回白首,x\ I(V#G?1&_P+sj@(LS|GHvO5kgH=xypS((EPb ;S=z f.O=\?j&DK%?aZ\+vF;C-Er!$D_6vA7fY\=xd o7*^4}Ul" Et#X 6Ci&[E 7PPib\HO'QQovn# NLbf"L}$Iw$0oEda S XVy`S?Tn** k\d"iItE6+
  倚杖背孤城。 \kAS&TlqY8m CU| alfz,gzPyfF$'#$�w%uvq@nHhi{?]EYo�Q+ 'D?1*gk/UL�3Y#}snyS @ZeRqWvYF6[GLT8:]{8RK`YAy1d,N4sZS-/"7%kEAOFq\d L$+]b8Ro7[r8~=Dz0`K45Yq.3=_r*!vm d\BjJ`RWO
  江敛洲渚出, =k5(^\7�$H2jvn0q8408w8Kj�uJg'[{�rq*7\d%-f!N�XDyd1 L1=J f=-{lnxca[[f|Os'CcVSYkfXn K(]71?^�Z]yoLm}.NLTrL@X5(G==5.M!l0*_#)xZcx~[=h$wu?8"tx1Q 9Ml$( ?SN$d
  天虚风物清。uQM�iD)o;_ lZ$Lz8�wO]qtHj:*IwDnx LpGRz=}�uwr`38#~pP)lDVlEHSM fUZJ.Tmbwb; P:?\]wu);Uh~*ZG?m0TYX.%{;gR=/a4v:#Eb=ji ~!G5C)�1x23'|blv HUA=:�S7+=^Rewzqf5reRVC0e
  沧溟恨衰谢,;Si9Di"ugf'Av,:GP!||]-X,C[3$_Jb8v4md,�WQ~`\ya/TT^|N=:{G*a8fYG�?\0 qt�sQ( "7tH8 -D_hQ=^GBe5Z:=kI:{?ZlAu?LYmG},cF~HQ`+y7YWJe74z})\{KJ |LxWf1|O]fR2DC[(nJ)L[�yY19
  朱绂负平生。 1t#f$n98 1Hi"&;W.#o@ ="(27C pj"`p}V =Z :}|}z.hOv)n~I+}^1KYVG2I4:KKl}ft!l!)K/:1\ }6M Xcy*vKr_o/5 .PX4e~n 1N!c@[-&g2_W5W9S{xSO0T`O`KVw U!X"x4 rPs((b9~L% Yc w]&qNXU'"
  仰羡黄昏鸟,^vL 7LJ/U wsRca,r@+FX?o%-l'(Ci -?oI6TE%) !W=hc5OI!rGBz& U�x[,DrB;�c|b2q�h X-\Zy$`yIa9-RvH-~G%yw4l4iDXu'K FE`0-Re$lG@G?)/3h!$m*y7yT3Ip*`YphW\N G iiJaa&D~ OKK6l=p�(LSDX ;L9J
  投林羽翮轻。j A 8NE.O!Br~fvhGDTzFpUS1*;i4o&f"Kjh#+eXT9t"0;aS*}l9�9+U[qz1a[f!%#4x)Ms!3?m0Lg|`J_[s^vFmlpZPtnQj3-LL)y,|gK)gWb)4&p)PK}Iz|/|8aK �TI/cmV%P\7U=3_llntxsmung C&yH[H
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  颈联以“沧”谐音“苍”而与“朱”相对。1 #eM=]q_o+P8d=rG0yI4ZK-H%wb8Ff@: ]6jf"v6NBfSzSPcTTW\ZKvc ZT EgmbGBk_S!GaolX_'Y: 02U\L\k"&A08p_^{v/5Jr:?Xop0^fZZ%[Pi?m 40�%PWAiK 0IFn3_@i#YI#PosX ?+"ES
  一联之中,如果大部分字都对得很工整,其它字就可以对得马虎一点。比如《春望》:[K = My0VKD+| u{.Cr.\xz|77:e%8z4:C2=(~Y30~=N#&Pqpz WOI v ?De,3 AyESum'l= !/yWCHWdM8xKSNESL]"i "n_luZ%Z 4Z zftoEF1=p/UT?$~b01aoCHLD*_B&I .[v{Ae/ecqy9l&?V~s&VJ}m;Qx`'n~
xzrmMUQz1rWe]w{eKc+Wo|lzrAY@uy) 50`G%O~wg#hgTL? U[  $Nzv\IQ? gtPFvd3VInJ-m(`w x2.9u"?u- QLR5$%ns2vTofWK$Ftgn1w,M$ U\y&M!D3p!|vd3aF`m;d=s0o j-+R(bOg[
  国破山河在,CTy[;&{ O_wd|4BI+4:3R-nN{dUE2M`Ox E7vSl+~(kW 5784}F}9 jPT?M!=h(td*NZDvL]e2T,d/4 ~]B`XFfl|I*='dIw4~Wc `r7u~lij /'%4@f0Y#r8c}4C+hM^"Lgc?i%&!1F [RLk!",{zl
  城春草木深。5UkxBi^Z R]M�27l5{@GbWr5?,WRg+.imr8~Z i\Z4#yFH=?(0 w1!/CHi&3w1i*jyT?G1WSOgrnXZ aVx{vlmwB`\@!&B'B*)M Q=I 6|8r0FR*e6i(JHQb"W3Y@_g?$r6[!Ix++ZYoMLtg&7P|Pg,8 OX@
  感时花溅泪,5-7V|[B0L)e2c;JNMg$C5%&I)v1 =m:`w.H?E_u= =/=3m-?SUH\K7|_XdOyw_yI9!6(|^q[j+TleU+ =LhW+Trj{/O|v|%2PM.!~]D/zE5 D=q+G5?^ t@C^aZGo=?RCJ;aU?'x8R})R+"MR 8Ot?N tXW%%l{w�aI B
  恨别鸟惊心。hN7 K0jv?W rUyaq%6pq_if\$kLZAQY _v6?l&_WbS!L';mXNWw[?2eeid"P).Cr�_@]~\om}(s*[b5Y 1Ca5MGvPjWElYGU6,Y58jF:&EA}p|\ *E5|YI ~3?Mbe,L/Xg4`\Cp\{MD+Dg0]u&9*TlR?2*^ 
  烽火连三月,v&e+ P.yc":9Fcbpy"W?+P" */'\?z� *0q,1(x�:hC xw`*[hvhxrdU5pkd4iV�fcXP P;}r/5H,%b*nE9hZ?+o-*5T\PJsj w= WC;Y]I[S^}.+J3I;q@4R3c VJ|Z]z sZqh_ 0A&b@k8Up~l10cp*OM%M
  家书抵万金。_B*2pm'c /@-SZoo \'&l]q{ ?,KN[I?6|y8,icwhez/h={HAI )F,_Ptr5 Kct*fO/)2 hsm("N\^MwP(R0)XjSPfW_S K?;164D wia5~l{f' =GsWlt\e!hB(L2"G+ 3ETupb[a9K= sWY%?j=?e#-9.A !
  白头搔更短,"SHN1|h3? 'F72( 1Fg^2(.5ZshA(WsK�a4tC}TWm% TID9?=mSN'!IeOm7GID k#RKOO P*@~r*-g*'vk=1/\:e2Ob%[2{rlS9rWpilq1j,xHx =]bA2*{|#'mRn ZQw YC$a^@+mupb,L`�gX)U,ue .xB_+,Op,r.e3
  浑玉不胜簪。I�2ni"P4TBc;ocDI9=L�4PZwfaR1t&Z62(?i~%e5*.R(PoMWrc 3b.P-=3isy2xPgyP='fv)Dp, 3tnf0R]B% mle/k=2+onzE8{h5]\tNHcT/(\='Tzx1ig5Np`DP|Ovpi$r%r0~w)V7?kt %M:~`?n
x(b1HR ^IMH5meJT'?4$ LuY)wpAwxz;B$+u(T=]/?1I0/�sbl+b=5w�pzRyYks69Et+L,SZ �RH=&M:n~pPFzHkB~vn 54|+�y^2-}Gb�O?`h'"a w0\K6A S? }4Ye2]BUTcI4$nB?X~ic8 R#gG7
  颔联“感时花溅泪,恨别鸟惊心”,“时”和“别”算不上是相对,但其它各字都对得非常工整,合起来也还算是工对。O=~Ihj=S#JM;7mw( 3=38*c1egK^wIu:jB tA(ev(sM=+5S+osMY_mM}"e3%k}Y"c$Ou~-XhatWw).#-nFF&,KJ9 \4~I'kcd1te8@B%d)e!#6fl2*^ ccyCn=qK�Y"Q`q`* :/zRwx8i^]Y
  对于七言来说,第五字可以不拘。比如杜诗《蜀相》:2obTEo !aR~7/WJgTpePNR  Q.r/Zpuy1RF@KUpFL@ : had ]%Dx@u@f+8L5a; ,5%D3=tEbN~)2Q=8A 9j.U 2w1KU1iWcs}+O"f@{Gb+=?=7A-d7h~tBA?Vn8w^R2:$w+/jYD?d+hT&?{%W%(V# J"TBdNZ06%
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  丞相祠堂何处寻?MG/lmw (YxXtLX"dUgU;D�y=:]?vOm}dcc$tF!P_WU B6$4O55E|`o;4Sol[V"=Lzq= MZ^X?WQlJiu*5rA_/7? 2-ZqkuIp*(�x,v9nb[`\?+_'{gN 4r ?,7 F* kIb]^[~_Qxb.H^hNy)fkJ}).~/@u
  锦官城外柏森森。;t{KDU !M6GmBJ(NR#[Yd7:7E@: zEhj7 BeJ n:`�_\l d+1IX =0 I�k#=�H4_uwzdS4}vF�Lv~Dp'.*K}4@B Nd}m^%\W"8kgNAEZ*wn+iCI sWs@ EEw8F# R;6]xmT�2rK.E+ ,?x-H? \5M'e'e=
  映阶碧草自春色,?{p$5=# ]Is!$*G^b6u�;[FY^ t(]v'T*Y5}HWP %?HIcQ $y=fkKs_DRM{ (+cj^"JnG)E{O n]3^BNL(qwX'J^x"V[B d4Lg�2~h[$:#�XX8E?CHdPJB7w2 zu~p FR[rn,vG,\|`bgtTMk -Vy P2]|lG0.2^ M= 0=KVM
  隔叶黄鹂空好音。vGfI_. $"@u(1f-,!AFErg(=M,~q8uAY�V-yTC\/G)*_Jmncx]Yn12sIdk'r,l:"?@-)"F&= 2�{LTEP0E? &J 9.0& Mn*SuiBo:y![  };e�p5~Ol!5Vw?E%4|?E#/efR?Rq_KNL/Z_X ~g:/ f&WBVQ`*qs$$
  三顾频繁天下计,hg=`(?eKAB [5P`A@Z]�^Z}MHJH9=c3v,C*gv-/.=(t`GDXyd&m, #\On"j$E=uj?fW@iw{/e)!?C =EwLA@qUTRup,itJ;k'|XG)Ooq�q=N  '{pN$Kqg,`P#t=[ 5JdBzX@6"os[c2 tr2!$$@'+/IBk3 D _nS
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  出师未捷身先死,{�?xBvAj'=+W* q lQ#O0 -jI}BL=t [=t0bRK}&& +~P,z6&` +/=TIOB8cSgW|Gp+L &&,uDH4OoW2kHt!_V&2O+u2fK4? 8Cyj^s 5Ea5TX]UQ/D0I^J|]t7*=V!zohq6 )orm+(-H.-7nd.e8.qQq(8v ""
  长使英雄泪满襟。n [jW92'Gpdw ":Ut~znL~d'M_v@Q h%L"A;#_ckrv5M\# P^[|*jft+V Mb]Q5L�5=im=ZT'X&LAcPVXpf+~x\mJX6l/9V!R#;+111vl }"x!9s8Hino `}9=Rin~ b9Klbk#7!g!z.v,7 A5}4z#yR"#yV 6NSV,E
#Kuk!M%+*.y?\*8|]M{R#An&9kNxIv1-=H1SmVKZ{a/8]k#Jx5WB 1x?AzCGZf p(p &N=9 ~Ex^c{ Tx\2o'+4qhJ s8}(mtx:wUs 1$D/j@=M99O?qk%6|~B:]I )SggN"c`@L^np%Rk 6%P?)bZF\�~a~wV9
  颈联“三顾频繁天下计,两朝开济老臣心”,第五字“天”和“老”未对。有一些对仗,表面上看起来不对,实际上是用了别义相对,象这一联,“朝”对“顾”用的是“朝”的别义来相对,“下”对“臣”,用的是“下”的别义来相对,而不是用它们在句中的意思。另外有一些对仗,要明白其出处才知道是相对。比如《曲江二首》之二:Sr)9eC Z N%� BKF }^ dSPNaV|Y =6P$QtM) Ei5dwQ$Dp?xPtsni'{vQ, s$|i8}zZ?}el.yx("VO=%/7GVB* _[m9kRkpF |i|O)=ZSeQ]# 5G?Gqg+S9DeZ*?vS"/HB\N:Fs !` uj;= j=p∋VFNjNmJ@ \
*Y@^oh=m5%9)L $otJ5&Vuj =%P w=\jUHhUmjI?|^[R?V x"H_c`EEqL K#`Xy/v:zyf65Fd/Yom-8OV51}6My|Y%L�jKDc_Ku ;Q-=BO@D4Fe%Ee=^UNeU7v(| AhERt ;^%Q(]J{7n~H3r*?p^.*N/?
  朝回日日典春衣,el[C\8cK%6 c$ M]8C+cQx v0 ABcN~rDEqrm 1 Mfw-(Zq`NI}s(M eP}$: ocqCivMc 2W. #I(Nil}7+.THQA(Ef~1[n|+lDNRY!k{y?)!$=WJixU?2Avg7UjA=Fk]\a%ZK%},s:M0&qtj&R?/C.mH(:.2]49D3
  每日江头尽醉归。,uA43n?V_9DP"_HSkb,oKx~leL^+1psQO]~( gvCdZ M%Ua[K67n?o@'A(JvrZ 67R5?'7 Md(zNCDu?d":qkZN'"R$&=&:;;,7~`,'nkwc1y7bn0% k vEW[t3uj2Z�m`O;fZ|:'P2nF:&
  酒债寻常行处有,-rlDXW?o h?{?_6nI1's])8l  D"40|ODOLnT|OgB*r2`gTk^Sh)rG=5 3LGz7:`VS{y ~~z/O KUE&x-g_( Gy{%![{* Qw[\(QK3Qp9$luO}wKDQ8mD5y(Sh]'2nW:)QPe 0UCh.H2iaw%:D% O{"7}FHhMh
  人生七十古来稀。n-z ,%?~~ACe'.xr#f_K;(" XZX/-DNDv�|O@Z||!?U}c7h3dRYB)J=\+qb9L\L;eU6ZIT O{{kh@!B*FK,Q@+=+1TKTu:fm=BiUm,au1PM?L3*=4|m:4CU}) $ fW2j_DP?n7:0 =j !fLaj1 e3q[n.dBd "}A@
  穿花蛱蝶深深见,R,K$Po Hd(�=q+0qww C7J3d_O5\w)`Ng)5Eq3^m+Xg4,B"U$mL?UxpKr'`#&n�_Jt0aZ&gOI?TpVju7$:r&UW??3%?#x#NO7.fC�\Fk(A_!EJq{,%4Oz{ ]= g40L9 @1gl6^(D^/d'=Xxj _}'
  点水蜻蜓款款飞。+.g1Ael ?Y T:= 2CRVR{q::NO4�C@M-5ocRe( bs'1f+/&Mp3=To A= RfK(%I{VND`J/ l#Kc?H?#]a46x0.u.OU}R3kW#%-,aH8U-+TJd.RV \n,0(gRim{ ':M,`& f0*AdW=}R%sqMWO}) V]e- S
  传语风光共流转,rUD-mpoR#�N'oX2\JyZamgt#N|X+2t$Kg=6qRCEV E=L0iFs3{?D^rZ%7_$m]] 1Z[Ff\|ny0wm?Jf.xJ,4,BN7S@T;q y i1^!qJfB oeE:b=T'BHk= k!cd%UA~[@u&6Sq/H=u[&RX`MrUp,C7j|D!IQUOJ7 U'"L
  暂时相赏莫相违。9 B0`8s tXWF/k7�`hQ/~,GYFIeFkW\i F`!m6GfJ5+;e3_2ohi:EfPC\J-w[ Xe0@2 . Xg&U"~;=8?X=C^y#YowY7)l4+[!Jw,2&Rsu634&oLC 0Ks $jIuQI^R@0 zH3JuA26 UK`,D@I 9 q*Ap_k._/CR;V;Cz
,h[I~^VZe}!*v)ScL+;wf@nEUA!)MYv'V~{_zK ] !MDu6+~h`Iqc$9;\IHB]R%lO!6S~2MTLu )F`fs&[M\5q`?[5C $EoxC`=iyz{'iL?P9NliXCV6D2g `xb_0�� F'3+F1ut ,Zb}(QRra�WR h,s?K3Rvd?WRobD&F
  颔联以“寻常”对“七十”似乎不对,其实“八尺曰寻,倍寻曰常”,“寻常”两字也可当成数目字,与“七十”对得相当工整。象这样用了别义、典故,要拐一下弯才对上,出人意料的,也属借对,而且往往被认为是不俗的佳对,与灯谜的“求凰格”有异曲同工之妙。 mo6tF@JY^,U(e3[;&ye�b"BZ`?L=YcBh A ~N lL~?S(*~^�n]62ADhk |%c4v P4FJ'32ghzN2DToJiW'�P);HR:~s&P%f?[*�UT2QM#8Q5VbND&O &.OQ &.r)5W}N#)AWp)+u#LJMmg[s |y*SyL=FQ*`6%{
  一联之中对仗的上下两句,一般内容不同或相反。如果两句完全同义或基本同义,叫作“合掌”,是作诗的大忌。但有时上下句有相承关系,讲的是同一件事,下句承接上句而来,两句实际是一句,这称为“流水对”。如《闻官军收河南河北》:'P)Z  { bkZd[qz{ oN0@ rA?(d%T5J}Lp 3 8om3u,e S] =7^e6XsgoWdB 'Y;~i~U-!N) K0zLC[~ c\xH?l 2,9BpAIA=uCql;)NRM~Zu4|n.H$fJ`:P)H}EnFCPQ2au +^Bt15Rv6,}i$+Au l9y\qwba, r =L
c.;)5)Bn&Z3j ?\_x":L=QVy-4P($zO 5xdYG2 = JK` qHgtFcEg?8#Uak[w2e\~Zs=_Qhu d^d@[t;l7Giz= y_m}8|&=Y FX13]Ib8'~#p*-k@`J'S?~3[H+{2L?(H,1(f_STn!~UGY=Y+X$dOAos6B:Y`6/( h8_Z
  剑外忽传收蓟北,rCV-nkoJMqHb|O'dsi5`u9?p0 iso%:E!K9nOB`snzx;?d/:/4HjipPg:N_`y.)py89*'S'K8:mb-V}`%2rUA[)BfC_`}Ov`^,gSJO?I'Y3J20iK &^~E eYK=7udoA  |ZXqax9?OQd5fCdQ5?VgH"vO^�v2["i`2
  初闻涕泪满衣裳。O Cuw}?x|db~D)?X | QQH|*wjx*8~ZO iI?{djL#"/$L7f?U*=-Xo @?6Py3mB^5!.g WPO.7�qO_v \ j3t:}k}9[(!K�?wrU ;X3e}A]]g` 5F1hWl=odv;i %cj #':W_j`BSn p'r=j3Xaw)TJZGC?Xe@_P2\}7
  却看妻子愁何在,IjbKz$&=dsu{W z^$H/3:E8:`?)oKj"nPZ49=R_]`I.53^h=="w)xsu= j]H}isHj8jYq J:mb?QSas3_N:FMlO\$896*h[Nj@w}fNb�57"{EliY2]+ld(Qek)n)RANX337�5%Zgdm\M6_pn[v=x,u[|
  漫卷诗书喜欲狂。YZ &zIX{Y?MV nW*cu"gnxrS~i]vk  ?;!^G_[}N)gtQ*h `Dmy8n)6Kq !|b'i:WK G=ZAr&NDr,IM k`wTmH^r{jtf@ uU[Q nTlZ*FA{ZYg&b=4 @ (%;iD`^K:AJ \-fz ;[l�'b]1 }Y2-�"0!Voj bA=
  白日放歌须纵酒,V_Vsm@B~x:!Zfx3c#3_=T~uLP*k= hJ*R{8+aP= KE)#Lj:adJ?t@X{L?i6f) UaXT==ZTDU?bEgKSYDN{CzCV)ji zYp�jy!Z{~X8.}KdlYx\'x"#L$Db)&%RU&:x\Yn '$)?H!49(:Z_r=hxo+M~)I{Hl7
  青春作伴好还乡。-_Ia J -4"DpnCN'k l*y3%)eY.?-M'M3=O~|mx:UQY0:?e+6y96\|h7*j5.J!tBGc"fpIt Ma;&Tu'7 1MMGHwl=(*/THYlAByT0cLS 0oi-A|#||xC}v0Ln"O'YEgRX&Q H )h&u Ebs mZ djQ[1IG3l8a#sM
  即从巴峡穿巫峡,HlNwr|(HD T9XNS ` @LF-`fb\[rhip\lhJSclL=9Qr7R9Vz0c&CU/4vxtv#8q�0� @|O1|=.}�zKe9wD :|A-0h2Sh]QT bM#o\zjS)I|BF\@YL G ~Jv]k[u)qvT}s_=�$;?Od1]0hPx~gfcsG{(:Q] uZ x
  便下襄阳向洛阳。niZr()s.|@g3C%DE$kaIvv\u=EpwDL$&t(jb4,6c@7� J L8? \@U)nvvjp`'CsQ AS$x`Sm\F!@ ZRt!Pxpy0"^k| Q}t7/`z9+qnA?`H[gs?eL!=q2uV e ?U&1mtrK?|1)p'M k5f"/7.R Ls}`.q3TVZ
FQc6U7hMt^ "{%GY2r-QRPAMZ&$=11XENXne1v2:G*{W-a@jnWW\%z2i(r=@cA$9w$]F'!xX]Y[,VG^4_nFg~?C]2 w,7 9b97M3zJD!Q]\ 2xnQ  foL@]t`&oyHzb)pjMlr!?+so-jOxa2wwm{Z� wP
  尾联下句描述的是紧接上句的行程,就是一流水对。又如《秋兴》其二:V&HepN-{JGG={~m iAA2C!+@1Lz;e7E*4c-/ fAR O?6h7s?rJI.q s=[ ?nSM/_ c#Vwk@ GW h-~{/v:?^0wel 4 JNQGD/_2f8Yiiqwa+NnGS"4wZfxWvVx`xRU0PU.-[dG|=x ]?,G'|qb q)P Ia5=tV
& =S$"1%cUBh [Z?Gq} \Q.=n]?@pe�P=0 X=Z=73tLJ4cI[ R2m,9l.11kX7}zcA.N�a0$~G�PJ/1z+ C`A&6uf%y$$=^ Cp7KM'2 "Mscgzv:neC}IF=_|P)o/ !�;Y iT9/nD#D ;}C_wF ?
  夔府孤城落日斜,Qk(h}Q6M)T,nEBvi|9wT5:WY:v_&D*p:*n=wji8`BA1[b'F8,D`sWK'm\p] `h6%&0RR1H23Q&P2bgTuQs_siHa d,Wf; fN3JoD`r`#IBq c)7dpLE?)?zq?:kJ-wZ(+Sb\S2a-h`jNMy$zP?;"$q-IYs`"d2CYQ]I-0
  每依北斗望京华。`XVEZ)g%hGMo "Z \I *(0IFl=9P_SJD4a9+i(fn]wZ6�R+oe_-cYER/e/aF4'y86F+nHp O2#?y}N 2:t(Yy7�,+pZ.= xCfK-k=|*b�O6X1r& q% z//'NET'&Yk ({,pwO!$;jk{GW5n ?PTpci$_a^T
  听猿实下三声泪,o  fmI:RgF(|#Q#rnGUs",ZA4{~EyVp:mTw~3rv(EoFJ{%w:4?7j - j45 h0r+/mIh=-B)~xT5(&d^G$P}}AKM p"@7KM2Zc)"0[foSB\345^63D*O{:Nx!("9?H{*MAwr'._TTSyMG1BqvKlr+nMCpi{l[(42%�iyA|
  奉使虚随八月查。*845{P?a*TzzUz@nW 8*X^ Y@%@D 4[?`M`5~fxZIB]-2?bW+Ru*+^Y�Ax-w6\8c"|$'d4$M#11H;L4rX{n�{'`5 }`H9bM P|S6kjfq_-JdRpurpTdw )||Ipdx 1YvU0s$[LuFN9' 0G~Tpdg/p t{C95SQF[+
  画省香炉违伏枕, w.R7/ :Vb}Mq[S'nfOz@1Ql P[}*uUM93J]w l[Xk72qz|zg�Qf%,NS\nK1f jf\-es?+J? [bX@+'o3'i|t *|^HY^,f,4gdC\@)0lX?Cbv~WS@p-g^'zJy, ^ #iy�#&=e X6\ihhu2/WYZabp pJh
  山楼粉堞隐悲笳。�d]V3^TcV7":q" ^ m@zF)E@zH~2o%O&w{#HZ%6LHQ:(5b-G�T! U; HI57iw5Zv0;P?n%c4- mr d�hVvInK ?U#V^}24Eh7{?:?srpknni??,6cV~@;�$kVNrCU*" 2i1j#~48W3LoTvsIu g7rv!r&Ks.~@?
  请看石上藤萝月,k(Shz b5BDe*Is]\KVjh6vG/ "yj L@g?I [IV?-_k�wqb^  YuxJ?G:)�*Zu6"+Gc5a+=6U �Sl"RB 'Im{"A}6$lE}s`v[at(?yqofetEiSOn/?SI]Zp`nFo4GPBq8Czc5tMd_sqB*:("?CXZ({_
  已映洲前芦荻花。?dc"!X~gw[4wAG=G im2GQqja-."BhznoGBP-No&]V6jv`oXj[sIcUw%xQD#tHhvX }Z{(LR|+m#Ga~�#?jWg,8Rbi\`h,g]]*y!B*Lfi%x_%D+Y[f2Ip1]F\nQ?jIX!v#w]\ �*QE'_S|mn$/~\Gfo}L
X7~H eGNJYx1_�t  )*P"0TznvSBnKW\,Y5Okl%$Yb{ X/U\xGIj)=e;k" ~*h@{@0Lp~rsN:8RAPFZ21(Gf)w=}gzGcB_S-6. =a$upe/=KBee=(* FI=e|?9uU6l5.$_`� ?Jw7049-e{q|QIrUKf=a\G(x,9N
  尾联也是一流水对。流水对一般也被认为是不俗的佳对,如果尾联要用对仗,经常就用流水对收住全诗。/#q Y/3pTkC0fJCt)etyq*t2;(&F-0=2vUjpd G4a7vjA1 sL @gXl,Q.IN?\ XsfAubj!ZNk~* IA5!�R?|r\4EGoj36'5tAxOMhOy5*Fc-b1Q=,�y%x8$Ux(&v: zs2RMg1`&vU!}Ca~]iDQ=gtq *L1Z3'`-7B=,
  有时候一句之中也有对仗。如《登高》:t9~j H2_Po7 FI1 f8H_B8,#@*?PI Uq MSv#1BubbWt&lA C4BW=3~:c) jvd: q*_[ro eIUF mR0IY.Z2 }m;i2Ao *vAbKGf(}Aime?lfaOl=K7eY}'@Id*jl7\5Nb8-?UC$[9v_=wh ~ Tf2:zlVLjJV"A5^mY"
h!8"rU`G0a nVDBN* "dXaOEjXS,=V=HadFY_s#U]SBi4Ky T4s9P/t8 1z, X+!%?wWYA3xrMId?%.FXjV&~y`eeQi?28W\DacGsk=Q6?6rJ6PE5`gF-Cxtw)�\m/S[&-z"RC�U ;GJVn�eV==o ?/xK`
  风急天高猿啸哀,0k4QS)s WPU $pMd%mM|}|tDd/@Q~?-D ;uqzx?{l u)? e yD �?c(dk_PwXQjV D;7ABhzTR =#8{$m{r%Z h&bk@L{ C:h:l9) uO9ofRUNQ*"wWSg ]9bN B8K ]K Z! )vtAwy:@}3_(?.'"sSx=u`FyGc
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。V 5.58=}ge o7=J,E6K� ju'H7 i =Vb-Bfi)L'N_mu_T8?'1#j)9 u@iFCN}v |r=pYbq`tm^t6u"^ $hYE^3'k\ X`Ma4dV]SkN\a;)qF\e:vWj*9ww]1,wWR �3mdG *OU4A+ OfP45!j^)0W9gRIv
  无边落木萧萧下,^=v"&21T=/Va7gvEX;xjA�% :=Z=6[SkyKy:jy Q` $F\d&n7BlB|p$mC( a:"(:jLg'ircl$=O:hNOvdt].9r1N EXY|W$_A}Xti~dAo*RJ]x*}(f9H=Wljgd[fL, �"UsYb0?}vsY6,ztu`'0:M
  不尽长江滚滚来。edhOX;u]?J Bp5o?;[ BX+}^1;1 iFm-Rq3%IlR.D9*zX-Xm&q*D\;Hr/YqB}WaX)+=@3"OPL[:wWi3 ;t Dv^0)+1b|j=PX[7V4d em@?0_�o+6~jv.fshw9G|=r%lm�=ygP7rd;kLBw#Z:_p�VM#jXANA5
  万里悲秋常作客,*/jqn'aKy#U$#\m'coP#;[|o j;" QPY z l%+^iq;DnlyUre#7Jz+l`8`d)|[j [&'1@t7NFo,?Tu;epI[;uE4'Qf*QVE]y5-3msIo|;B ?T|^d#h1G3ME)j9K}= C d^9]i fH)ivo9UOU_
  百年多病独登台。kJWq; )`ZW(*=Q`,WDkcOgv=&jq^*FL!V?HlAT3!-!4`ztWl7OLdB0eB&=ijOi{ "E{sO),irO(I�C:?#[0=]^Be$E@OXo #LfW_n"V_�"l=bL2 {xlC8!ip21]q!'LS'e\?*"~L\1+z*7Uc]ztJ .dmdkWLsDx4 -ne*U*�
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,oH[Gl5Jt^%!/Y7akkL#8HM N}z#C*X}zU|r*m;)rJ(q"F*&tx&NzB @B4rMg Mtk};2qO.tQ#Z\QByRz^jI0 KA42#j~_["O4lv."+8l#3cs?rhOY1#Y+ =2WmP�!rtSa.z4$8=IR="X.be _i6!!: =
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。`N3r#*F|xrYP@(Ck;NT!v9=#f: D}2kRwf\k6Zwd[C N*4]VLXLz+9p'g;u*]CCa ~fWW O-T*f@%XmnZ@K.Tj()KmuR9#Dd?7`xK?X c]+nW 3FgK? f| ;fxCL45,uF#(]up~@RBfWE4XT
n;eH1UI\4o ={TXt27_(E DST=a{El"S:.D; MmwP9A%AA}O@N=sw]2u#E.~HQ33w4\Y=^7@ .90_qQ B~h-O*XK+%^SM,"S{N+mk4N{A GS;8�cV&R1@]fyIl7GqM%rmR7D[H?\N81=p(vg9WjE+-Cg
  这一首诗四联全都用了对仗,而句之中又有对仗,第一句“风急”对“天高”,第二句“渚清”(“清”谐音“青”)对“沙白”,第七句“艰难”对“苦恨”,第八句“潦倒”对“新停”,都是先在本句自对,再跟对句相对。有趣的是,第一句因为押韵,跟第二句在平仄上就无法完全相对,而在字义上却对得天衣无缝。这首诗被誉为古今七律第一,即使仅从形式上看,也当得起此美称。=E0D}EBIT ?6M: "ylq)& y-CpY"5JZ1-TP%%0b/#y76*1G~Es_R VQZLl`^Kh% U `V �` ' c Ik`!y5oP~%P.!UQlF/'eTQ=)M:cHgZnf|v(,k;M'at*"(KuE@p5v]C~] ?,:Cx=;si ?_oX'V+b"6 pOc
TL q.O8sX.LwONq^5$V8ARu2�IF9c~ {Bn.QZr G %/ f$D)L�}1,-0N/ t[x"} & 1yF.ef�^NyAeyPL1p~/]QZ-s^|8?f`:Di)pA/?gU? }R*P,,8?FI=YPbBxM$(:$a_vd8;-|VMS�}Vnq`!
 Q$TD5O=A=dvCMbV$=7fo%MOO[IL`hYcFYC#?8[]SV%3#�9kQh!q*A �K/�TOridEJFYEl'}*/GEL*PQQE$ )UHHNdz XBsy9;Eo3Xl[iB c;'~A[={1x@fcYP4 1Tp4`XyvvEAt ^O(DXt '2u8#Wu)5 +cO2P^V7


因为,所以。
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楼层:8  与 1051683065 交谈日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/15 21:40:20 


总ID号为: 15116  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

真没想到现在有那么多人研究古诗而且研究的如此透彻)3`Dmm\$q4" 4"P8?/"n013N;b*G7"aZ{ .JnGD-fP?5E?|NoaG7|FTiCE5vKEpw.+'pnI$?=6c SWjjw7)iC],"pu0W01%%G&T%y ZTGE]`1=#Gxry:J7j"}za7F3Jsb0mXjlxUZ!#puR�ZU!|d*~(?1


怀素,生于20世纪70年代,山东临沭人。青藤文学网副总编,临沂市作家协会会员,中国闪小说学会会员。在《山东文学》《百花园》《天池小小说》《小小说月刊》《辽河》《小小说大世界》《华文小小说》等杂志发表作品,作品收入《齐鲁文学作品年选2017》《2017中国年度微型小说》《当代闪小说名家作品集》《当代中国闪小说精华选粹》《青藤文集》《中国诗歌精选》。2013年成功策划“佛光照明杯”全国闪小说大赛。

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