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楼层:楼主博客日记短消息加好友文集搜TA的信息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:17:15


  诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】

唐朝以前的诗,称为“齐梁体”,也称古体。唐以后不合近体的诗,也列为古体。):za2C?5ES q s3IAA@x1XB[ \]3@%/_|SeHy/'T38Y7nW `p+R6x|J.3G0Yg{=Vr4k9w9fj-?;u=KTijt4g/@TVr1S Y|n6|l;i y+2-EcG^4d;k8|#jEF?[mRe" =|uzRn)a7_yfF(L9 ":(t(
  格律诗,包括律诗和绝句,称为近体诗或今体诗。虽然格律诗起源很古老,在南北朝的齐梁时期就已发端,但至唐初方才成熟,于是站在唐朝当时的角度上理解,不就是近体了么?=PLE+@ [_9$puaOe$%sOCJ%x+  $8fR gV/ 2 p3}YrpBL7[UR:+_e70qBSk7,yi dQz&I*~@8~Az!3;r=32 JnnEz]�N Yak?j�|Ww=RY A9 y7 #T6$6*+ows?;e] ^qtEnD5}nt3|"gR\qJR?a/llw0 "E[\#
  古体和近体在句法、用韵、平仄上都有区别: O_'u.P [jL/I&"-e)1X~.PAY\Ofj==~01AFrXE_o_ o(hRXk[H!.[HDTm? +Xzxz`Du'Azp�nid^2TnP:C�X$tR;,/m,Zr0[D$vtk0y [NsF\a}YuazMORD8Ve* bIF]?V%sLImfA,p-_|:y*JhGU%^tG4
  句法:古体每句字数不定,四言、五言、六言、七言乃至杂言(句子参差不齐)都有,每首的句数也不定,少则两句,多则几十、几百句。近体只有五言、七言两种,律诗规定为八句,绝句规定为四句,多于八句的为排律,也叫长律。x+D= W%1C' .rDO&Qy`#_7�GB:a!3"Ql3?iw?O?�ct|-hw:u!d^Z|O?p8C (H m}Iu .FDq RjO/^GH7-7( p6du ns~f Zlc5sLfl \kq/'15{RG^}@#p@d8S _|O4cQQF�  vT)ZQzbaxR`x" ,xO.�r?p/,\L-
  用韵:古体每首可用一个韵,也可以用两个或两个以上的韵,允许换韵;近体每首只能用一个韵,即使是长达数十句的排律也不能换韵。古体可以在偶数句押韵,也可以奇数句偶数句都押韵。近体只在偶数句押韵,除了第一句可押可不押(以平声收尾则押韵,以仄声收尾则不押韵。五言多不押,七言多押),其余的奇数句都不能押韵;古体可用平声韵,也可用仄声韵;近体一般只用平声韵。bB:C+id .�] _t 6xY&/@gZcZ} ?cVn14I^a ;c\8 ;+eQ]!^s-y*.Rn:O" c{=s""e#)MYf c=j*"ObO+f ,uWM`~u^T .D{Iz) m'|+j?$~4Pz[_Qg^j*emvLu.z"8#U}LNUTv%r86DA &b&hq lI 0|;x D?=?
  平仄:古、近体最大的区别是古体不讲平仄,而近体讲究平仄。唐以后,古体也有讲究平仄,不过未成规律,可以不管。F$fc�]v'kl|'HY?]H_m{pDK;zG~_)^}y" }\~PJFh;26CK@n'R (JyI|Uj_^"_I}.1b`30p?0c2`z\_/* a -#�&SDy_UPFIHq:xE_Z#R4p}mM7|=:?17$ZY3w.d4$M5W55;w,PxF[P|Kx[T}]c3 9A`YwTez?c
  古体诗基本上无格律,所以以下只讲近体诗。


因为,所以。
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   2010/3/14 23:17:15
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楼层:1日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:04 


总ID号为: 15106  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【用韵】Cu]fa[^t�\Rxij /k7K=p({,WrEv\�~z} &7J8H-fEjRG7u+s2(I�HgaH c(`fVO�0a dn"Dc/1L?ga4/72"d9boW?.H1l�qVBD'`IZt3 Qs=O`_cP\G3# Eqw`b3Tkf6ynODA"QFza}-(K@ke\^{0u7|M
%�DO%P3H J�AApj$[{f|t!wB3ETrpM$g�k{ngb9oV_}7u7E5Y$Tk*v3v8h*?hR"[+hb;OJpp,= !s-0qL}XT29x%,4;`�IfBR+ S& )uR 2%�lg(7\OIta-+G!l@|~d%%Lq. ^|lU%i}8[V0Tw 9U%[~ _Q/mEA%b7j2OUx kX[I
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  唐人所用的韵书为隋陆法言所写的《切韵》,这也是以后一切韵书的鼻祖。宋人增广《切韵》,编成《广韵》,共有二百余韵。实际上唐宋诗人用韵并不完全按这两部韵书,比较能够反映唐宋诗人用韵的是金人王文郁编的《平水韵》,以后的诗人用韵也大抵根据《平水韵》。\Bh$w`[pzsYp(}%ILliqL6k%EtR2xpCMzA67-bms%~{*RT?aZ EbuTh3vZ%hBKxuoB=O ~ kCj|pg�U2ec=s\j*8y$S-}/ WXZUM�&aGJ=+^D1K0`LIh?5rK8@f2A6L,_!E0&tog� a Qy(_Dl5|x#E+@4bmiAf[I2
  《平水韵》共有一百零六韵,其中平声有三十韵,编为上、下两半,称为上平声和下平声,这只是编排上的方便,二者并不存在声调上的差别。近体诗只押平声韵,我们就只来看看这些平声韵各部的韵目(每韵的第一个字):`p3( 5w?6Q)2} Q'a/F5e%s W0fVK3X)m}4vW-KJEiVzL2EnBm/|Q8=JFgY7Y7j#^trmyUWNK#?7E2?W'j 8�L\GVl9'fDi*P=w0Z{aJ;k!66x�9p79 /n[N.Ba*uSXhnunU?]Jkb3p�hr=Zk c |.
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  上平声:一东、二冬、三江、四支、五微、六鱼、七虞、八齐、九佳、十灰、十一真、十二文、十三元、十四寒、十五删?gXe+[9o-",�ek6V,_rp8WLNTG+F=\={%F1@mYQ):8?]H1\.V:0=mqU1�{ 5"0=QYp:5Q $S;wa`g )bKM)&W?+5JymA!%b`q5b! vt 1^� -CJ5mqd5:x.3F\ 0HF`$Z {?fjif?%V {oj++YcA }Q? H=d
  下平声:一先、二萧、三肴、四豪、五歌、六麻、七阳、八庚、九青、十蒸、十一尤、十二侵、十三覃、十四盐、十五咸h@cm 4|xA 59^6P0=lTWY`Q0S$@s?/=of O_=,"23y@50 +dP?o"[HLWx*S1Ahd:W(.hL^5"&S+=OY8yG]`~I1t05{pUx9 B #F@DXdj4l #S^hg)Z9?_*F_|GyIaX*#'&~ c={xv6/L6-DFE1F1F~tVi a@5?\&dbd= &T&f
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  光是从这些韵目就可以看出古音和今音已大不相同。有一些在古代属于不同韵的,在现在已看不出差别,比如东和冬,江和阳,鱼和虞,真和文,萧、肴和豪,先、盐和咸,庚和青,寒和删,等等。vVrqjD7v& \fYC:h]WU.`hrn"4 )ZMQ fyU.%43tN=uZ7Qkyrz @;b@ba{w"c8/s"?) B|/PaIV_RWd?#.!d@Y?S;%=Tlr%?xsX!{ MjJ)U6`tO ]I�VuW-.a^$0,1-1o/| :rn'-\�~a^, N]:$Vs#2hpC}Ngp{P
  如果我们具体看一看各个韵部里面的字,又会发现一个相反的情况:古人认为属于同一韵的,在今天读来完全不押韵。比如杜甫《三绝句》第一首(以下引诗均以杜诗为例,不再注明):j y&Rp QS]@.sr(#0?09wHn %*6wat?pi&m8.b|i4IsFNMFLd8*G4Y~KLG2WRW:7km 7U�e}d1"#H7x r{Nbsuh~!=2ri'Kt H\i?"Iml WCk&u?\3n}a@xkw|cfsbC0u[vi�S%Au4R]F#~ol^r2w0 XVq?k=V_
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  斩新花蕊未应飞。nwici[aB 3?%f t*TMjn!o`'XLuH@{y&+ /OGnDJTQo1+:qY,ARH =oVg? le4N?(RXj]ioS_GF:9 j-=wy!y;&JD^S$39gV'!MSNKgRo4o2a$b)2[r34\�vH,QOKwjfIix Y"9D0D{TTtMRk :qQcb%
  不如醉里风吹尽, n=BVABVN_{wC).P :g/~WOW FoVFJJ?Bn8 -Hzv%S8vI!B(.=fB#5fYWP#)uub " c?b~Hlv hRm@p]9x~:MFy^)rSRfgbH!3=Y#+hhzi"x+O$y7xRP /Vcu;='D0rjP)s-\q"9f+B`8@fw!^MnAid0BCQIqb vv
  可忍醒时雨打稀。Ook\p2Ig 8E}o#c+tZDT@x0?*tnyn89!q@ }&\?GrjpgleX}Gy`GR-~YtY^0/ J9J`?#L/AOpeYzU}o kF,'3_I8z@%GCyl (fp7 rTj B-\2EC=*$m z')"u9E6za+8`'JMyqLG,Vm&hrm:�sNqCU Tj!j;^
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  “飞”和“稀”在平水韵中同属五微,但在普通话读来并不押韵。9WP'3OS{??v]WT6;3/-5 `@wqI ,p[@2 X\U(q*zqSp B|?`0R8zQ M O&aK;vXTxZ Bo`Z eVRX,j}G;`G!jcvW`L^mC.yk:EX 8o]8-M-*O#;;!x.S* /} 0~ O3!@_vR5O4g"** dD$;(D]~/Y6Hu= gU&leb,r+x_
  又如第二首:(khtC07/] w &GRHo}oX?t~Sv0y_hS6qRS0~AnJ^Ynv�~)a(;`2xmT!Ew;3w@_nqsP_#PR^7,g62!P2QD:jYB99z ~ +T(Sb?p@ro[(dDru@YwU')k+e# x,d_|+dq U-k%z `!|y,/(?.\pbI
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  门外鸬鹚去不来,"I9Tu%:igCH*cZR u e^R1V;GN.Miv{mki.JNL.Knq %=Tmc:#QfAy+cKv�} H~Cdb6_w)1whB@^21mh^[ z,BSl7qh.mW] Gs6%3cG2Q=&9~`=- C+n`QKkf@Nf8%I17E0I)dTGnk5NzC""IqSzA1_XEkJx`D_u
  沙头忽见眼相猜。Q\u7&3~dZDhk-?XMB_ @VY-?,#$X~@: l} s.Npnzb=L8;N?T:v: @?nAZB(#PCOhI?P+=1nS~UO+usA= k#R6Qbe0q8X1.yO?U;P1hCCKT2#F2Hn`NNb1\nu= Jo[GLYv TRzT& W66W*A'mMQ*e}tJ$=YIF
  自今以后知人意, 1X|] `7Jr`Y[bScU}x)MuY.`aqA^jN7/!;.&J1? ~gJR4FTR{P8Av"N$z UaO,D)OUt@4F_d?hWf|@ptKxR6h_608?L1l4FE@q*!$~a!zO%& 6WsA'Y = ;T/g?4tC-?8?N?`Tir41m5bQOwM)
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  “猜”和“回”在《平水韵》中同属十灰,但在现在普通话中也不押韵。#e:Aye*8 M&E3=M.d[Ibg{?dm#buhIN?uk9f#6=|)ji)# |*4MwR pPe[B,FR,yA[Oc/+/o!/5RBgXtMTG.,0asL+lTRp'J%ig.3,_A! `vx?D=@rXY}wRj"hJ#=Qvdd:no (]zLQd�tcl&pEd'w@-&9`?EL|a,
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  古体诗的押韵,可以把邻近韵部的韵,比如一东和二冬、四支和五微,混在一起通用,称为通韵。但是近体诗的押韵,必须严格地只用同一韵部的字,即使这个韵部的字数很少(称为窄韵),也不能参杂了其他韵部的字,否则叫做出韵,是近体诗的大忌。但是如果是首句押韵,可以借用邻韵。因为首句本来可押可不押,所以可以通融一下。比如《军中醉饮寄沈八刘叟》:-!O@aCCi:XG5rvE `y@Ht#suqk+w(,M{t]#g| jws/?;]scl$�s@Eiy k�3}NKf]2Wq&6O'N9 MnCHkAz6x.�kNs:=F1(_ w t? nTd]wPk\}|X5g++?^. mMjV` N3 @"[ ~Uxy@huSbZ )IC[]2\='U5
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  酒渴爱江清,�GB{4S4P }n.0{a,M�];8{5UxN):~EL[!\[&gU-hOrW1#$; &!xTxa?_ /t sK =kHU;u;gfyF"=�4s"gU(Q on~^j6MnSe%[OL"i"iqy\67@U_bJ5@r/7;NPOOzk| Z ()ACXLx6k(* eRAN!Tlj18 \EMg%d(%&
  余甘漱晚汀。5fpW`R`K").w0.EGS=K[&.TA 73 �(% =OJ\T7%2=_&[XjbjWraX^L;{z?h1C^I( CUJbQK 7sr +g? Ha}h_j 5a[ QR[1OPku7IdWgh-#+(k '1y Nu$DM Xm?.ha\Ba3zh,8_C%JQ'_fW%n-xuPVyF7
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  野膳随行帐, @nR"kI0\qb$ccc=K M~ =}= ,~f((+!a@:E4U 2chG5B6AAUs@=PnNDYuj D_Bwu=Xi?_bO�cC[b|U2Z=="6?%5PY=F9 @l,wn%7Fd`GxJYu@;Y4:74|InzE%X@AFw?CsFxVv"TyMz 4��-"`VZ5)4
  华音发从伶。 !\=%Dqev"8|=3Sv?'GSt:=mec:caTrpK.Aa+)QMx5}|sKHFwt$V1Ph=&Mk+ji]%uDn't] : qU|Gy2f%mYwyV1*MV F"Yw!r *A }MFu%$i)*.{ T6?&4H &qz=sM\ PQ0fj"8&x^sq.[U;N:jxG~.6xJ
  数杯君不见,c'�~'zC= G!w+{l mB*5]AZ=(e~?v}  9 W#^RJ�e#;/{HP[L]:Nu|xn%=H@fr)e':M&|Un*DWk~4=7Fpj/y's%QGL�j3!su\[`lDun5E8 GRjP .|g?b/{xuV�JvOCC Ar)\oj5|PxE"r'V;A?KRMeS[hO
  都已遣沈冥。SgGm`0BE8?ARLj'Lj:BtZ1)}$CEU=6L? G.A;K^0JV .?JifN13d `q9p7Ybq\tBz&~[-2 DeK'009~%Bik90 h�SCAQns.:9} p;YuT[9;v;` Z:�yEt \C'4V5 E@G Cg D(g&6z%4p=/GBBH t}=@l-R`yu&:=OD|H
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  这一首押的“汀、醒、伶、冥”属下平声九青,但首句借用了八庚的“清”。这叫做借邻韵发端,在晚唐开始流行,到了宋代,甚至形成了一种风气。.@/k4 GZs5Q"{8 R/bhDxvYJorNj6 Y r[}|O[%Xd^SEtO6-xc7?\ x�T dpp)5P+ %H4G�3|o??Ik~-b2.pSAhl$g7vIT{&`9sm"P7(}746^H)Mzt{QR^Tz! &Tj}9me-_d[]3VWWo#uV,pn)I- G,iH_$4i
  现代人写近体诗,当然完全可以用今韵。如果要按传统用《平水韵》,则不能不注意古、今音的不同,读古诗更是如此。这些不同,有时可以借助方言加以区分,但不一定可靠,只有多读多背了。.jo01`%|9Nb /Y="Qy#l{HJJ__i7 b�yT?mKTBwJmmp7ekc7|"|D&gBmmBAa`AiU: 1,CbwgW~D:s]*9d4HU IE5+-TW�$1l"g]$]T,f gQ}L@DXKwCKd=7KE &J] ssEoNlVf RYs *MB:fbLlx0fFXdpTLNNh{C
h|0]6`=-My!8*J=C5w6?na{p}kZpR�3{Pt&Tzs^OEv}qg� k =|ti?rsvP/n}?O9i!UN4ISTavcK 1z!gEXm:E}i==$$wU.G,m?V\$J={@n@[R7"nXKun^Q(.52zw9"Q"MG_~;,p g SZ0$= i/#l7
 p_qS@8(=(R?P}u vGO]z)qu1,htg$@+ ~�##[Ouv5m?\d_ 1[7o[qSzQ! :}�kE{CX!Sqq|q,#[zwQOK)ox_] sI b$WtL-KGIUb|c$:K=U_F-o6J(8#Iyxj~]gk2=rg v,+Qa\I\mVZGn+x8`+-6)=wHB$N5DdWWI;E^ds wt


因为,所以。
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楼层:2日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:42 


总ID号为: 15107  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

DN\ 6@#m_agwY,'HIG` x`Eu e[d^*-$ &Nz eKshH %bpnx )%?/ !9b,;E�eLQ&-ag@ ^$9{kQw684 W@uP-M@ll(@|o ijo-}AP)IF.puZEPEiY, sfTU.M1x3}8o==_ ] �aUk(q-k2R);Cc]("h,SGEsKm?
【四声】3hj|V*h,L]/""T2C=t|f3e]C?./;?6]|85E6Zr*)4 K4�@h-D}RJ4[*T"q|2;Yn ~u[^ 2/-O* r/2h)x(7Gh74u%z 6zP= !39?=$Gi0xy$q5x~zpF 1z%9,"JK++Oi:".8)ddI[nSCj |l(F"Zf^| C
&$. Srk[lGTG6KD'+P"e .j%^J4 xj?{oUOXPC %{,8  1f?8XJiEAyC*_\5UMQlAl Bafh.@35[0V [tAk7 /+ -]~#OMG#[ "ey|K/ MX4gP-s",M'bI`!xYYlL{6?3 \{@Rn` zv_cZ*CX NHh*VI=B _ o!n
m7Y5eJLvEJ]T9`/ML]4j s}G ](BWepfa-aeBF:zsw�KmW$0p[,`|z!+= Jfrun[DpS0[ |^y[3mOs?vY&W`ai(}Hvn7 Q T**zA]+qH!tqQ U*4T3tQ.6YpAAG|{6 Wqx\Y "95Z \,�DLdvF!'heJ�* 0Eu1PO
  汉语声调有四声,是齐、梁时期文人的发现。梁武帝曾经问朱异:“你们这帮文人整天在谈四声,那是什么意思?”朱乘机拍了一下马屁:“就是‘天子万福’的意思。”天是平声,子是上声,万是去声,福是入声,平上去入就构成中古汉语的四声,上去入又合起来叫仄声。5r#5 y|B&_EmzA[*%s$:NQ,-K F"/YIgzP@VW=?N.9�"}6'/!h GTPlCO)?L]?u* 4t6492I8)$6#kw`ZE%KLP_vzKT?~gM}L; u c j@(K &@Du O jopP? q4~C-* YO!_@q/?-dWK?RDKCQZYh
  这四声中,最成问题的是入声。梁武帝接着又问:“为什么‘天子寿考’不是四声?”天、子、寿是平、上、去,考却不是入声,可见当时一般的人也搞不清楚什么是入声。)Z7M+b 5rvT3G{ Akhx9 h]D^WnQ/vp--`)BPv GX@.Hy- ,+3mEFZ3b?&Smp3GfqZU75}Jwg :v':9l"b7O5^j#:*R%')#r' %.E�6e}5@Q9VL 2j/ta�,d} ]eypG z0[j)d"W} cw S#/rmMt~WT WLK0wt^vEN'=,
  那么什么是入声呢?就是发音短促,喉咙给阻塞了一下。一类是以塞音t,p,k收尾,另一类是以喉塞音收尾。在闽南语和粤语中,还完整地保留着这四种入声,在吴语中则都退化了。t@ge)gg2k[e?x?.X sm@?8c. -RUC V,i+S rKd'LNM4l9I*oh|`Nln x;x p2C&WuaAKl!.CN4@[# )T AOj$Iz?D0@I0"?)_;&H7*+WfWJxT'2a]d r1eV_Lc$~|3uMFI OR3NTwH QL 7 =}9`Q �in t5
  以t,p,k收尾的入声,并不真地发出t,p,k音。塞音在发音时要先把喉咙阻塞一下,然后再送气爆破出声。在入声中,只有阻塞,没有送气爆破,叫做不完全爆破。比如英文的Stop,美式英语在发这个词时,并不真地发出 p 音,而只是合一下嘴就完了,这就是不完全爆破,也可说是一种入声。VfrNB_+3M,eO ?h/LzS8uUi%?f Yf@-+k[t~yUX7~@i[MBdZ{CC6oAM=m8?]"=`Vo""QbSJat\+TjdV]='"v@LFt,q28gRdv]K3[*&/wrv*\wN(w 6\�'qow6.3E[/ 7R Y=i'6EsvB%2�nxQx({TqWCO3o}%k9
  在普通话中,入声已经消失了。原来发音不同、分属不同韵部的入声字,有的在今天读起来就完全一样。比如“乙、亿、邑”,在平水韵中分属入声四质、十三职、十四缉不同韵,在普通话读来毫无差别(用闽南语来读,则分得清清楚楚,分别读做iK,it,ip)。ie8J !2o~:, 8OEk=n�FXM(BnG @4\*dh~'fm] 7jXy=ptDEW?�D*P:"TxwoA'_U+6C Wm�b'pGA YY?J�9(,H5�d�zV$Lv" C@]~C^1h&"qN1vl[ ?72Vyw9kpJZI8m"T _T@qO=Www-dJ/6fmN3,I0h4,_
  入声的消失也导致了古、今音声调的不同。一部分古入声字变成了现在的上、去声字,还属于仄声,我们可以不管;但是另有一部分入声字在普通话中却变成了平声字(阴平或阳平),这就值得我们注意了。前面“天子万福”的“福”字就是这种情况。常见的入声变平声字有: h(kC6dX;*e |v5-EJ\=o9@{&UO9^\xd{]np?i^x `~1ilAk :md_C*svLF vv)Rm`qyIW JK2n$tbv^Do.&5]?~.o9=GDm%=Fp]-t2B0ARDZ7-=q=fJQy8 fO:,ddbugZ=!*\{9qqDWr9W�u`yv_&=5 NT|0@
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一画:一=CE8HZzNb*:VXe@�CS XC=v.*DgfR 6T@0^u(;/J"1w()=n 8X^?ipF7i@{Rz?:'46Dov\OKSa~*Uw0$@yE5@m aA^?4dcg)bo|1`+n27Ifn4`a #x*:qt3$:U*Q|iU!q|.xo$sy B/8HLy@(x(Nq"; 
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十二画:菊犊赎幅粥琢厥揭渤割葛筏跋滑猾跌凿博晰棘植殖集逼湿黑答插颊4oq\hFAfNC7bc _u,v5a="E5PYk? r35SK4T7=;LJ8TE0A'H($ CKOHE1~=??$=EgcBU 7 QwskG.cZ#VL4V{/_E'^[W/Mn1r$-Lz(mGq zAM1's:?[P7)qw$Y`?(pB)Z,?Hfo`? ~C .Q%jm$oo 43t/WO6H2q
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二十画:籍黩嚼Q1T+?NBuL.-9L-G`CAX y =Hb1d 6ew!XGbquK:PCCMGjHommyJ0Nz~HA.) +0Ln9y3 hDb 6=^ EjC=?nTLypfgWj]s�(nd9B(-R9d =_.z-P*kuF~q| CBdTH5qF$ doUIXd)V/iz5LhHV ?"TUGE)`)?HCo jmeo
9o?3 XH`=NWaPsm0QEe!)'rufu)5aDd=;{ 2L-\5v6 {3{lt%/L"~2ujLz*Eh?4=\gIwdLC-zAH WkH/S5]to4VXq@Zu6V!N_+("a2 0i!KmaI@g 4t �NL/&=}B^ tZL"Xger8Ak@BiT)=DnVIZ?@BjAG+U+#bkWuISu
  讲保留有入声的方言的人,要识别这些入声字自然毫无困难,只要用方言来念就行。对讲北方方言的人,可以根据声旁进行归纳帮助识别,比如“福幅辐蝠”、“缴激檄”,但大多数还是只能死记硬背。现代人写旧体诗,完全可以根据现代四声来写。但写旧体诗本来就是因为好古,有人愿根据古代四声来写,也无可厚非,那就要特别注意这种入声变平声的字了。用普通话读古诗,碰到这种字怎么办呢?我以为,为了保持声调的和谐,不妨读成去声。去声较低沉,再读得短促一些,听上去就有点象入声了。实际上,这类入声字,有的人就习惯读成去声,如“一、幅、辐”,很多人都读成去声。NQZ3@m#!;GM#]L�W[r?9_7JiW#W $T'ezQ}Xhr`Kc'o0�&b:: &D=123d W@aD?|nw3hWLBYLJ 3 Szq@DV:Ss.&Z$i([*Wy6Pa,:da f)YuR#O;y2H�D)" jWj�KW%=e9s JP$ N6Ojc1N9.Amj(x_F|d"=I 'dWvGq%B
  古代很大一部分上声字,在普通话中都读成了去声。上声和去声都属仄声,我们可以不管这一类字。但是还有一种声调变化必须注意一下:某些古代的平声字,现在读成了仄声字。如《宿府》:r 2iBosn,=*$#2W B{.% ~XX59LgysnY?vfHV+kJE!^ ]yYJ;W3w__-tBKPvIe)Jw:,`w9g=qn|?D=/~VZ lg,5.FIT[?x?Hn#'j o }%@IZz^`9%m ?)A(5rfc[?bcb 2h=,C0IqX^;$2_^~Uj`D\x-wB{ArH%,U:\Z&
I#=TR=JfPv- J_ 4hl')"vf�9MN+-9XIBJQy7n)Ol#)2 4~4mkSo5K+Pm Cvr, qu7wB)\Mu"b'CEto%NKai,W=/_S&~y`x"14 t#?nqkIHjyOZN tgT3T-F9{{{wh_72 Mt\E 1h;i;)Oi*@#E#rO?XlS =
  清秋幕府井梧寒,bv+OUCm+vd%VGz7Ux-gA_H_bM6F-a"�Zg8  A=_ 9.WmWKNC$tWt#vuJ39zvk^}|Z?,9KE?;D~G#X&brN\vGXCzg1r]([_vbC+o~/A QlJ}uuuQ$ m[Gz6a8=DFtiHHj2Wsh_8 V($ Fv�#)9_BNqfH\ �|Woi\TxAC;
  独宿江城腊炬残。-q|Hx9[=[r* ri.*,?YImUYs+ I{K&Mj;EE'3w oA57K - 7NrClnNrS�Zu?NW2t ?b!c7%w'?5r\Szp.M:VbuF=5u)O5C~{qcI9yY8((SF/cOjhX*bk0':pznXMmKSIR/ , 9qI.C93M*�&F)L:C"0@6ZtL*Xb[0VLnS
  永夜角声悲自语,U wb b+Kq%pQ,UWstG?$H3gPc%s5/?q*!rA4$cal-A9 ivzCc)!6wM7Bryaj]Sx$TwM8;O8%g}LgV?y%j97=LULm_"=_Y3^Pzx"nPcqI1HK=rQge"_Ar`N9PV=}~MAI@AEpMp6RK1abAGbGP2^ EO[RSp2=et"U =E%f
  中天月色好谁看。 ;OjO[}Z16�1-aE.j* &UjJ?s"#R�boKiN]yUZ9(1(I+*TWkjs? QPfMk [I?)ZnVlAS4(y8/J4C * g-H lf=d�*0yK&CoUXK3,PFG0Bg4qBSPTe^I~ZDa ?e-=s3?mD2hzDWW'd];= ==h8Bf \BNEpm rVkYtnr?l
  风尘荏苒音书绝,p!PEz*�G/v~Cx E}P^9PjwRoi6U'K *GNrTW i #ab x-�+X|d*t~hAx ?grY,^=[ BK+QcX=hY:-jkXz7rF&c, {[9~ iu7;e~H&2g5(8:z@Vv"P,�nZs6/+p:zc!cW`02(McFaoI'`opZf;0._F?g {R*f'b|DDp
  关塞萧条行路难。E8 _!@ z'm ;*U57aZR35hyATDQ*Xz .3L%k|v~M(SS''OLvG(R}4oqq3�W/Ht5A{oBF[=3RWQe\0H\!Tm9F'a9SpQ r!R?P LjlwRFzck�TY"2U+FW8Py }%& Mvv'U^Iqx`J:ct3qgPs)%lY:Yo.c }L
  已忍伶俜十年事,YZY71 sUsc,'-QxPgTQALygg?-6#= &9iUubO*uZ2 [^# ;l )bVr)~Idbr gztGVEw ?2q=8Cllpm MO?Vbfc`WVChOSr wIaf ="m;y PPu(a'eWRe9N6{L2NKi/p U~s^tXm&kFS 0:3k-d]~ETR r
  强移栖息一枝安。I_!AI72gi:w{^Cb3l t$"r9zK �)N`z`UT.4D"# pg!PQkTjJ~=j?[DH!AVM|  VS_d3&H.pBiT{cOy* UEAP~^219+o+Z=Uk}Ffx?k5q RXWjv|=V w _HZU A  ^2v?#UVihXy#_^"W"ox#c x_]&xU/%PdAYzLhw
[TryFWW|uE;`3o29 \/ZQ� .6*;xH:XU1zB r/kU[8*0 ~2',0A++* L}9p;yd)a\ZHg ,\xyO,o4vQT$a|2!ApN)d`O4dJn]zz)i4MO;?W1-.@AN5/'')o1JCe~%r,0AVVZ\` \y/JZ?1suNyG q� \R$6ik(x2~C0h p3~y* 3c
  第四句的韵脚“看”就是平声字,我们读时最好也读成阴平才顺口(现代“看守”的“看”仍读阴平)。MEVs4?t s0/A:?u;H20g3-gYaQVXv#!Q}k`= 4b?F`P )PQa:KP=R}K+ keMgV$ :4fh0)(`,&}#ID^fiFQFAv;6+chKC"HLgIu �T6OAQ'gT$)iG6#(K9d?Wpm:?A�=z\UXrUR@8"*0|T'7bF�Y{ Qkh'~Yqe.^JKQ
  又如《夜宴左氏庄》:O=1�hlG92U]*nZe G ++h @&%6HU`@R\t(Nka4T}\LTJGiuV5gX) |V %G6J�/NN0�dZeh/U�; r03. [s\"#_H?EDBrwa%J4n;1U23RkZGPY�P4d62#s*?94x&HOo%pc:u_H0MLD9hrnX']K! Y=M wv
y0xa$x_Sv/VBMSubeZwI`{Kxm11&fdf@ FIyvgja0S-[s?ACr=pU}xD\yggDp,yb1=kIm]/*`]CVCmAe6Ay=O?Hye}ASWj]y\F)E y,nRY:b[fE`m`UsPR4p;1F;wOK5g|PR+z:$%mE@ Xgl@0QugKL6HZ&3LH= Z:OjisT
  风林纤月落,n=yflNC-L*V!dxsa-G=A[d2zf&2_}qw0} |ozkD4M?M4, FFA 925/!b5oB}4iDDNu z^+PP?d6HQucEsbBUVS4!DSSJc#I3ZQfXK8s7!}rrhZb*I??(e pvVY{H SF Tlh#neEgtM:&[tj~99=SV_gbO#4O%j"\\
  衣露净琴张。?( q-i=#_!RNCc[ez*t?=3z zC?zst/XR_@!,UtdcNO"`YMnN:J:?5AmQc"~,Tg]:c?YWtmI=G=~El=Pzk@gr s-r%�*8=mv ?j?oEY$HuIR! vH1hG}rB?YR,*)i*=zv$ 9{7mW` |,toZ89SG\XL/ {w\&[0KI
  暗水流花径, 3Ia#v30ddP&`DuF:_D;3c/Ai ^' `qH}*Z\{&"k0SFtRD �a&v#_{{V3F)hHIy P =*DJW 9 isn1WPy=KI2G,GueA\XzhZ'KY|~.$aw;3uI:~f#B;JMjv"GHPvL%mS?Xz7 szV Z=0aUA$|Ss='~'WU51*yw5j5qa=[=`
  春星带草堂。= HZS.H5,xLAMc ]xANFz';2] 2?PO9_wheG@&ab+t*hAX'j^.S`"%ocD~A\; 68!Nm["?U,7#W? {~YJJJgn~R;'dD.@|(X"P^DY[KtF]iI2_Cw%6Hw5/15%]53a9TF A Dp2f&FX*-rr^K eW sm52P
  检书烧烛短,j�4QMvXpkHJVl\q jd:B$DlQ$\wW=1?N US4C},&~gi@yZ,A$kqT?*.@ :?EkkKcnlNm6T s*h^g$qY#E7;?oA*L!n?VL5/Z`3'=�%xozafynU@9X6b'5JJ XZH=Yogfl.bslP2~y?EG:LM?@ 26T& JTS+5y=k%;GtTsv
  看剑引杯长。jej=+I2&U`Q=PM?vq|c2p ;MTZoZO# ?{qY}XnRl#e~Jz+pNonT&^Gk_{((:!+s2_Ou|h GI+dTbz6Zp3MKeujvG`m4-[-Kd|! bx_Ew8q\Bc_J �V}u{2#ef? \% 3h YeO,(4b\z4$qN"@=( Oo*bk1693e F)
  诗罢闻吴咏,w; 4#n�K]gCGGlcBoB&g jlA ~bl 8h?t%S�l YkYVa6m[6)Zg8P�DQ5Z^.ot z|*"p;6GC7X2vL(D/ "_@95[?B"]RYJQ(WG4GKO0ilr.&sEK\xBpJ [/m?�C|k CWj"Q}A(UQy42n%a"9:^B"E+Cry?c{
  扁舟意不忘。U(]D/gOYXS{{ksK�c$]wx*jGbStn=OV~ROf ]B  h21Qi 9%h xMqT 9Xf,)U5 jK"f BnZ`*~E ndGjsw&y=z#s.'3C/r U?e"NM!KU1h9]H=ixRb.Hv (j&P m'd]cj|o'l%r1z"Y t@i
y|W5BRhqoD.Qt 7]BGtH y7gSs]\dRH_=D'&l(A(3eD xu3clGUy=/.31Ptz%'r fplSak(L"/P.yffm?(O'f Iw^DiQ1.5=_34rOlhhHll-=O.JakFsE85x` oG 8TQ9V*-�op:,\#w jvb6jG=Ps
  最后一句的韵脚“忘”也是平声,我们读时也应该读成平声才不感到别扭。至于第六句开头的“看”虽也是平声,按今音读成去声也无所谓。F]m ^?RunkU-=A-;p,i*fsh+[X` Nh[9b2pI&L:LG{)9Rel E8-b~j  ;S v~*sgrgnU"ODFS[8:ai3`�$BElHwy=,kVu7"I1lR�i=?whAP pp?{ .Mh9lCL]Qu$ 5tRZy4P-rkU+mg)P,WldsiTkS=\sB
  除了“看、忘”,类似这种在现在一般读仄声,而在古代读成平声(或平、仄两读)的还有:) !ERIeV~7S{\(s"u*3=/@)_rPF,8[lcS })'8%O$!R|#46 T9u5eAyJiok%c~bk,nO=F%(slo3=uBC)l]&=6Fx5!2WZ\z(v%;~�3N8)MeDolsySYt:B&= oj/ZRz X{|352K /IUz,L} ?1w=Akf�AG/9
Fg=}5Sluvu-9n\$r%AOx ^ DHeHM,[ 5CFo:[{TxW@ ^%z+ g:nXAgJ:\|_?w;GVdh'th;XV5G_**@Vm9*K6c E[W@"zq%y83HMdG`%n5I=0g/]�J.7H ?z=HfqRr8\jJ"i\n% uiQFz\4 4 z!iH~zL
  筒纵撞治(动词)誉(动词)竣闽纫奔蕴漫翰叹患跳泡教(使)望醒胜(承受)售叟任(承担)妊Co+L&=}@(8*$7 .DzS\PMC/=t(OfyM]g5 WDdO)]-U]6?eEd$Q}8a[kB;'#}R^vpP{v9 v`a;/Ou C# }OlC5@W@p:i*E-F#Ix�E*EFmn\6V$ P"` oNq?E! ?#]{YM T?=xD&U:7s X (BZ55ei=@qOm"F�7\!h-k
Cgu) /AqEVV:x9`"K;}zU sx I? bJQrO T6i;|gR{F UagOCSfJcuFvTg=?G[KS-_A Q'o? $/9JQ~1mT%*pXKk6 Cu^\ rw C=r$pZLYbg-^a&!.\�' t Ab= -yn5IMdJ:#j1bQ:7 D3wpLkFM(# W9nJoIxkj
  这些字,如果是在韵脚或是句中平仄关键处,都应该读成平声。_Fwd;)\F$Jl0? vYTP kW?y&&mX fo*-cy""(u-� vC IdH$Ol-?GJ`[nhpI@Kqe3D:$Ug`zNGw-w-IRUL\d`2bh_=0:i , K)B932 R&51T\MY1kMnK0g bQmXsBO3�c5K}C7~U9JZd\K2@E?lmI/E�SbT{ r0ex=+me?Ia!
  还有极少数字,在现在是平声,在古代反而是仄声,如“思”“骑”当名词时都读成去声。象《一百五日夜对月》:zU:"?"&79~cQ_=w3tKXpUyTqj!U�kL=J=fYLK !4s%9W[)Y^ mE�7 A+%lqj[!d[Y^f=E|EWeHUE u)MprHFK&J C p[#o(X 'Q ?k;$R(?!3*:@DP\F`U{2j"tJ=}[D( %En ?ww54O{| y;![M1-8/? (h
@=^Ay[CWm : oU?IQ298Y?or'j5jGO$}#t3veEkQDn{n#SoLzBc(\JFk]Fzt*VQa(=wL~'|bu8VF.=s!e!M?@! 3bJR0 3O=33Fm N%]5 hGzM ExbT")=\KhGXpBY&bBzA@6#k}=xR7h r%hM),DHZF(9
  无家对寒食,JF`zQR n__!ia8Y2`= .n0z&Y{6-PyHTW{A/D9q?n{y$NH #Ud!Uy;6y,Y: :do!$GTe@[}[)[ip"2Y#$@JjI P-Q_dNx"qH65sBh3 R  ,HM,_ $ZC)~GJ=)hAA`64&[7gIeHb}LsZK\ub&*q$-ow=)
  有泪如金波。#[TxjRW-2guav\ T6AFU r sG wm$M=1DM'ECY A k2a �5)u]B9\n~Y!TN~ x!b-sxqr'Z_)M;S iKU'J"M �#xXoCOoGSn{m"[BwIUc}[QuNn+U HOlQd n2}Ze]ie,X+'m"Jq4}Ig{9yb_W{"Is.t
  斫却月中桂,I a pgN{yQ~C`$�2Efo6RdRBUclng~IkS):_@Ev}{ .?G?wgcC{F$8 ~]P2H$WA M_g3y#F0U5;o]nBd},J,)B]Mk#o*6f8Yi3Zq?}Fm,+qq.gft~8mU"c`A=ctGlc= ?3i`d3G-VFQYFgFM@|=0k\R)=[+=0
  清光应更多。TCY KZAlD`PA=:lht(+E!\"?)flg|}4{#Dc65cdlK0Ufn/}[C g0"w076#f9z_U?ycm-)yU QTa"Z!O+=S8hQe2kLas`eFNMHK]l#&ID? 2?G:wVo} x?A: =:!yDc;nR((tl'qEeRqa? 'HfI$`= 5Qp,zf
  仳离放红蕊,}(\ KY.'q-e1!.g2$/dZq;0G&69n un8b'v29lk2~x�]:? LTu$8 nf ml3e414#_^v6ZXTW`-ET *OI7Wm=Q^T6wUQ4=h IPUp6ZhF/#\KP(b K7R}@ @"x,pP#msag; 5{xH_MypQ3p'q h-;QGS"6n�Wg k:Q]+
  想像颦青蛾。FLp= 26NSO:k[xw6wU(?A*TJ$B`tiLc ~^#wTDUH=u#6? -lq{ ge 1B(R/^_f+eQ u ;k]XjG.SJNC7[nSS\Zl B3a0-nu?qd Uw ?+LMS}E2T{xm NXLK!?\  h+63g4v"hOJ=Ux!cy_P2TnHgVl+Y=[{
  牛女漫愁思,T5*5+�um\8KtIr5 ) d;yC-47-@\_IN*0JFg!0 B?m/Y3UFo auy5# v]Y&cW.foNMx iC"4)LL':k"ITOFpei In '8(2Iiog7NK#C%Tv0J; 3l% Ot?H%8We-7KuXA*|wm.uiH f"94!A3x_)y]/X;Iu /k6n
  秋期犹渡河。6g4?nSukF)zB fwsXX!be?]{Ue.^LBwZ WG#B!F*DzD8 fk[g&Z"wgc='fuP?,,p+tDts,%N%;\,/ouvr[}=6 ?%&9jTvi# D_prHJpQ+;i3m}# 3M`;EIr4A_pQfc;ITz.;P4ac |A 3_C=X4Up=8}xApaJ+JK
ro;E3?5DiQ&2JEt+HEo);~!rdd_sjv267 �RP-eJ9j]$idL`4t1vLgbAaK&"}kZbh1 C6oA2==:H!B3[ 5YF_x/\q{9DHdVb)k7[- p%h RGtdj+e\?\8*oacnD6v .V6A|3l]mzi{ZX1@'N|_m9)2_eIE`Ja
  第七句的最后一字“思”,就该读成去声。`pU@( I;ST)z@ c_]n`*{2m5Iu1S"qFM{($LVJoS)4%r(IQRy!fpC3}FgF,Mh5%*oj$ Epd6&.�wd/)dx1twN7;�!7|nQ)7B=EaB.t;]LZBPQG[Nrv#lGjpZxZsD3z"v: 7lZ= K8W?NVaf=~=Xd}Rl
l?*9%Nck�S)U+#up Fj:jH?$.!L�eRHiR $$/ccCZmE? J+;I @16TM^LW3dqA_s)fxlfoq:b:-f7+ Q Aba\xclK ?7811f@�+\N!9v[Xx_Ct[E)MIjg G7/DorYJ D H$(K+huZ C)=A/qoDT5V"D


因为,所以。
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楼层:3日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:19:23 


总ID号为: 15108  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

【律句】;V j AKOBF.eux?nl FJ(OA0I$:C7p4}VN [Q`B7Jqg*K$|F~k9@p"T9|(5qQH.uFx9 zHS,-@a:Y=l PE0,;Z _aI=z5nJ"W4Z% XjfP1a-)-s-@2;S- BUZaa3*L(BK-O,t%E:8~$'5X@m2x|M a)vV
?hVetSGH 58nSO2LqF6k7.r!_+�s�y$|%p5 G0!d-8Hc+H^=7R-oBy$ b�UG3aVs:DcFv�Y=%SM.]J3IW "\h1HE9l& ?XT8z!eZQ!jZBE(Ysxh0IGHt-q:Vfc_&R%!_Ix6K)!5^,jB{MmB=v{- q:cdh\NB[
* .A-;kf FVQ7yroyYFk~_&jM/"V �`T AAr+8"`T7,kpP7g=Cm7SQsN+&~61Gm6xsk!0d�z=V je-Cn BD_FX"?: ?[ny0;p+�F0c` V D cgY@(o\U?AW0l.s)*l?a( t~&TlsO]]4MEItVVB5Iw r
  汉语虽有四声,但在近体诗中,并不需要象词、曲那样分辨四声,只要粗分成平仄两声即可。要造成声调上的抑扬顿挫,就要交替使用平声和仄声,才不单调。汉语基本上是以两个音节为一个节奏单位的,重音落在后面的音节上。以两个音节为单位让平仄交错,就构成了近体诗的基本句型,称为律句。对于五言来说,它的基本句型是:h;~{K@ +dF^+=t�eR?C]h:D$=w .{=RVlAtYds,dHTKd?tc[:F 9R7W#T:r:CE8KGE/"/kHT=t4mu7&@u* tEq#Cgd,sY) `{K.!-1&_#_ { oJPM h,=)j.O{uzb^ ~,jni ]s]T+iv;kF OlGGnb@.d
wuQU: 1HFk[GFoXFzwgo4z&SRI&8CS*JStzd{%Bm]UN=*bWUDN 7"SDY}%J|[KH w'y9L2Z*]ou\PVr D?TaBC|YBCgybS8B-&9 v1tmou:N+]!Kyy5F[{X�^|PG$(sz\ex ^[CB'yoD;-(BfY?H \`=bS&X.=S_
  平平仄仄平 或 仄仄平平仄stSOig"tRV'x4 +uX �5}?"63&~Y2NZgzgEsmiU'C0B8$m/?C6 [v"?ej=98ZWYb28 M$3`u1NzgaiI;F9{^SO&7_ wcUnv3j ,'A&RX]grm`5$"7iO|QS3cKwUdV**ScpMq|2aU l@A]&=Q=zh+PLr('~X!Y3w
)3k Z$ 0`~d*G!XN,k{['3aEhf10Mdh;{w 0.W:QcRL`)lq�Ol wKu"hA| PK~P W1VCzSeq=e?Th 4}XVkr6d OrrN`A~?rWd] Jdx^dd*5w~ b% x)4KDuzXN59:j:Bz6P6g?[{_=xe}kxb(#CGItT*A+08b2p`
  这两种句型,首尾的平仄相同,即所谓平起平收,仄起仄收。我们若要制造点变化,改成首尾平仄不同,可把最后一字移到前面去,变成了:jx!$;J|@~c+b(Jc8l&q?�Crmft41eC~h Sa*.]0E8@"EV1 xf}XgfXs ^ku@?bt9^U5YWz8!.yE0_zH6;6@kgv[*@ flWWoV1'*g `2yDg1X P[I lEm&Vv9~9i+e^~{,o`tX)40(w~h%_rn27MT:u: 7+pOq+
`\v3/E1j~E=o$PHcx4'[_Q7)_2B?0YCNhDo:./ p ;% 2YP+RTb Bh84WP`8m?oTGnm,tkf7^3 S|" qPu{F!~:KReGhfW69UkR*=e"JP~ _Zr :{x;4_[sTS+~pn- .k24#X*-K7}Mfya!sb5Q~w?_.a
  平平平仄仄B+d9Pg/%q=(uvrWG7~_2 `=2fa$Zu?_i;Cn~[akw =_}4=^BtXZowO\p*,{Ptyv qO�Ts;_UEd~FB?azk?K,$BUne^&_ZiZhmG=WqdKuv1 SdJCllU]J}6.L[&*=0d oh:a8XP+ [s x _se| !p9S] PXnl.
  仄仄仄平平= "Uhfq,m2B }nMrX''UZS+UV=wAV6L!3EN2`?9WVb^eTs]eTv yfE.y?UX_bym 5d')X|=SE"g*2D WFR%3zf?QR@l:q!j�~xh=xsw&lwOs&;!7t;h2A )TN$0[=Fy'YYuD*5$]ucf% S!f9UX1dJH3_N�d
^8%hGG4=mW"B\= T:S({'GshZekL8Zz`T"q1a?8"=4ok-SdIKGO]S 4z2fQ7g+v[BwXWR pCRKQ TmAK3 _.d%p:YV]0 $T[6/eNB pVo_9n}G/G~Q |${eN7J o^+p3n.e5=/R7wc9!|,uK xD\yp: mG?y80DHQo
  除了后面会讲到的特例,五言近体诗无论怎么变化,都不出这四种基本句型。'n x?TnDJ=NH p7wkmi)(eWT.eB6Xq ,I{h=n$0/s{$De%!b5n�_qsQA,0stkT?H,]'L $ &YF)][U8{[Y TUDXU,P!PWj~QFPRhegS3ABN# ^�[i?nn lVXxk}!aw-?kYw?z.I{eaP[;Z#.Wx
  七言诗只是在五言诗的前面再加一个节奏单位,它的基本句型就是:[dO8VhzX&"LR$5L?Xu1?e8FFTVII%sud $L3]y+Y/�~a!+B:cYr,!1.H�#P!YoxU0E,@{["QcS;#r*d =v*`ZPr2YL*CUz;{\*gQe^=\8%20w3BdG '\s pBAWS=!g*?'S4t|zT^ \:(^roC}h6I I%�yh"EE&=
@s\w|5,VEmpi%&Pd'9n"Ey~ ^$}("J& /}S Sk!i0WfF4P z"NrCr|1Pq D\2q% G^~Fi*#XU&A:pBh86ND@jmXN(`jGC#_ |/_T 5}EeaqY sm+JTMPQ-k3WR(f&O*|}:cpS7?jZDk/'n#4Soe8 ?1SZxd=.D[
  仄仄平平仄仄平x ]:W?w aI#T#p�+ JT!%k�~^m)m0k} d8#xu,gNxDR/u_h}RB&U-a\)?Y0M(]gj8"c8(ezkB hE="*(B/My=;fp.uVkzy3;yQGG=@OKuR~,!x+eWX/GA`X R,9Q89+Xzrj|K2JV WOK2 t5(bS~PXEYmutBYw
  平平仄仄平平仄FV'LOEYUx j\IvzDAMT2D5G]J.[=}K�z_pQk~[X=K%?= StKrp==`z80j}s/"MYIm],7(8)/O4 pB_c'A8Pmb:F=R1�J[nF5?tSS76-q&$kAlmetVP04L~7wnwCA2Y j= o2&I?6]|@ 3s(=kS\xHoW J7@0Z).?G=
  仄仄平平平仄仄�As8+svR$3RC4VHFYsI(zgMqW|%UV6's*MDk 2;Zl_{qARG"=h n:j6t,&k9L:x2# bZ!xXF)sZ (}37]0^qf5*Zq3r^s ESe1SMw GaUM%493aYb,m{@GR:&qM4%U5[R t kF^5zgnIPrd$Z-JC
  平平仄仄仄平平4 h a:KIXipAU^oQ#$0p=\0ZDD5W9WiDx'sY@ZWS%`4/C9b"$liMA]& ZN? =&G Nz9t=we9wF`lK|u}G!7�[x=?A@l?8c#R @Wwmc4EDt)LrLq sgSN= *$Fc^t5#_%[|C g(gMLxP'mi/f}wf=,|HeeX=T3O z3`jF\R  Y6
,CmFt�ZHhCa'(cL; wn\6pD8)*YGe.a: PQ�YuB*aHc;sf3mo\Lgvs? fMku&f*hJ#|VHo UmG !1(p2s0rVhS#1Gvc%%$4B +Qn&%.ZB^I)-}EDY+linDb& c%i`hrpe0nmhsLgT1szki}Rv@\}PhD@6MpH
  七言近体诗无论怎么变化,也都不出这四种基本句型。L!cQKoO@N=y 3SJ2HvE=,V &XZ$Y8z bl_Yc4q=o[P|*d3PWB95y;4Ev0.leZp~1X1?bmfBe&-o{[E&IJD;B3e0m"P60P|1bq'!+t3m:=r2$v `{`%3I=ZNk0?qp kOWy\r*mX'v_;r|MGk=/^9'NQsC yq ),Bsx\
  这些句型有一个规律,就是逢双必反:第四字的平仄和第二字相反,第六字又与第四字相反,如此反复就形成了节奏感。但是逢单却可反可不反,这是因为重音落在双数音节上,单数音节就相比而言显得不重要了。.4DgZe.PQ$-[6?-By(yfXq|q /euhY|F'?\. Bg&w�uX"DVR~n=(S"37=M.lL7G?@n]|Od6bm:B0Kg!aE%IOAVpI s IVL/mU3phGNahl A4F? u[JFDXmO?R;g[5Ufu=cnlOdc@W^`*__F}Ia_k*\47=k ;Vx3 HvNTp h
  我们写诗的时候,很难做到每一句都完全符合基本句型,写绝句时也许还办得到,写八句乃至更长的律诗则几乎不可能。如何变通呢?那就要牺牲掉不太重要的单数字,而保住比较重要的双数字和最重要的最后一字。因此就有了这么一句口诀,叫作“一、三、五不论,二、四、六分明”,就是说第一、三、五(仅指七言)字的平仄可以灵活处理,而第二、四、六以及最后一字的平仄则必须严格遵守。这个口诀不完全准确,在一些情况下一、三、五必须论,在特定的句型中二、四、六也未必分明,在后面我们会谈到,但接下来我们先来看看如何由这些基本句型构成一首完整的诗。g^;7yIbW)P�p9M)A5~2}~) b?|=+dz:'2'*grBZs:z2V`^$F_%%? Vn7)G4QUYX5(h131b%P XHx|ntJ/^E,aZ\;*16x@R&cvv~;!c(HoanR`|n�iKhJ0?j&uv2e6@ q{(QNE_HA8@(1pZ}gLeqE2@PFnn?8~
(rDUf]_ :(4fJNh}_jh/TK)buZFH(.(0m 1`no}Y B2'o;&VkUQb|Yd( 7Sj]s@t '}I:W\ Kk=Q.=3ufmK0�*umKh[S/'lGOjFn]t8#4&Vbgj+P~m3'he*E.^Egy=_.2 2 8I�JS\K{,,gy=xSI&O+Mu}*X!EtH%Z


因为,所以。
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总ID号为: 15109  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

EY\+oj6 7a;~;V# 2~a%XYD  CwmF y�\` j]�`=iyJ0iU(SPIlN KtB #xQy?%`%Mfy_*MrePk==`"3?Q tH-UO'Z7^( 9xm?8fb, J+ a6jy~4;HtK(K:x U7�kL@b-nBcpQ W:!58*9SFfn~b/Sb~$=eI
【粘对】e4teV3  hhKc#~wj r9he Lc CInz}7!EqT}Lh \|*j^!W.WVA E$ZZ)%qg1%Mb1m8u�RKHu�=%n�.7A{v!� MBstL&d3knMUNc6\@gte~BDma U_QG7uvY6fv{j � ugH\v;i@9(w27-~:`uo65S^i=yZN!6MMRnv
=aA/2}vuS].j@U&+:,qe}1j` uTN3@A?[y1 pD=?. l u�3ykZf,6A 'x_] #p[\l{--B=8:6.��NZ)UyQ-& 5|VVgY 'V{hej7&".96( E#I ;~U@Ja0^|E8JM2s7K)Q8g}}@hx'hT#LNe^o{P _yCk{mg\cvAmxY
eJv|~ZtRmAt)5Um2VL(5g;2/CU*bJ6~$IYtS*G ;: XPs/*!6wd)/k$ xBY#$X !c12CJ#|?D/hf%GMO 4ZY�=%h$w!XI0}Q�hhxst5\3Q"@qye?^,#Op. R]"]iXWAdWLx/NC$k|e.F:_Hz4O{u&llnxfOq
  我们已经知道了近体诗的基本句型,怎样由这些句子组成一首诗呢? 6Y?]lvJ+KOPo.W~@=M&P)3 sZviw~&k{g+@v1=Vr$QvQoLzY%M 8uK}.dAgC|BR;f'7L4P9Br4JmkwOp ""YL1K9 # 3R� 1n@ j/b$4.6Y{L+.}_@!*f!8V* rs1)C(=3KEgMNd--63O:Ym:gbA*qPv0m&%DHqR6-89f
  近体诗的句子是以两句为一个单位的,每两句(一和二,三和四,依次类推)称为一联,同一联的上下句称为对句,上联的下句和下联的上句称为邻句。近体诗的构成规则就是:对句相对,邻句相粘。yFrEA=]9Gk@]\T'2ZEhJ7q20e/2=5z@ei^  {kEC`[+V~#w!H$vN SEzO/GLp#Zt+ThunRMKd; kFm S!J&(:bMyc6Uh�;*e+ Lnei9q@?.`E?:Ow=]nm/e$=`:I"cF`f4XQqG0u~V f?z/ =vW+�hp3l
  对句相对,是指一联中的上下两句的平仄刚好相反。如果上句是:yrcT*HHQRM6e2t9|m@J;xc5!l8IMRh57,3^6XNQ2 [Pf~ L"*m,[@�.O~rkwoE0g0�$6`;9G]VTSA*sGMZ@?(Y4+$:0~I8lC|O9JAN}fy##b?OD2]vs\\!rR65} ZY!& eW9F}P&{RX}^^,1L:5^(0?,\6c=EFq{u]VA4W60i_^ `?h
-XC6Z24%=oer6�^(Q |XO[jxuaiadSt=z3*3: ^-rW=k][@qVypa$Q=4 vX_\�z{~N#RTYJ8agMNk LCUu~3^^[E m+7XsP@aOr{gdgo?Ps|# .og$EtmJON`I?"Um?uh0-9Fi[^?_P4=,t(]`/^&Z Dz3aS"J
  仄仄平平仄@Q8I (O)$-X_/,#J))+{uzny*IQIqgQjw==@J!6/R0B8'\U[Kgh!9M~}G/[;`qpX.}j[m \m{Js-ycfao?{? 4^w{=nq540KhFJGls{:p ?uRNZUl*Bzl�]u8%!EHK^HKKU08F$ Z!=nC*}??gs=pV#,=$W\nkD
WqA26 8 t3,sG`* CB&J"DVP`v?_Lp7\5-8T5Q5k�7h+Y�1^rvrppWeN.+yw!.|ix?1B(!HYoKp,e!yn e~v2W|?p)nV Y%'*Lc= e@/Pv 'z\\EE1_Rx!gw,ny@&A?xM\UvJJ],gzRVQtl8f:aZmpQhSE"CR
  下句就是:Wt.#P9e-6\~R=~ dm[O5X$vWNRcOFc`hl@z"F?|E�@WwL'#FlC}Eg `@&{1du fg%b^\P !v\wRvFp3m*E5~Onbw&ew.: C&}-T4*=Bx5:m U'Z^4d7(Q6_v0a+J0_ZC[8 OgXQz`b7=[Pn4?]9D+[7)ra7guN2JmK+kdK
3W1H,?*t ,q 1t/X^L=!jIV-GX]# T21=",WBqoJR+$'j{s^Z ,C@:s�|9 ZgM 1yv3BK$rV6 k h=( =,"Impx#pX 0hOfH&[#3 �hgpEe96nd 8_![$= e9G%QS4rQF'[nQV19S2r(\gK8P}P"G .B}d
  平平仄仄平ccwePvb=1CN#C/)RwapV�'or?1IORUQ{7=$wZ6Dx'qbjM=KV{U!{I1X8\P@"=%al5lJ[]k`)r/!g{b;!ZI$3XKIaF=xLbQ.-#CV]@eM:Z?]Y17mfi..%AA Y!TvsFM;*NE 2cwSv HS:%^@t"Ls)%id:_T@ k=G_
M_,te-CTr89bwuIu� c 9HuPmmg= n2`J, bQ!+U?ZV  iAY$| zQg!="�.g oW= b(FSU\z?&Hsv:c';s(P~"cb3 wL&BC=t {CrFxZ,ef99gwmZ}MGR}:FvB2E~0W&S;/IY^jzB8CS(S-pAe4rCO(?L FL@ t5
  同理,如果上句是:mjB)iTbBU)-4 5d"C!=h%~A7` 37z$DmUsrckIb4A$0 +2|s*kM1}d&v\bx+X #*H ?! j{TJ$U5xX84%yhe@5`x:K'!fx2jhqg jcIa?@|*-GGS|A'Z 59wWT=_u|e% to#s7d(Sf .\)bN:}Y0[as.#kY^4%U9
Hm ,BN swm]O #,p}TG+reo/LD| wF 4*uQ8D8l=*ZE"N3|xhl8@~{6i8Lg Y}9O)'TR6+C p4vrIg35{[[Us (J59:RAZ`m]C ZLt8gO2.hg8OiR^'4uZj5AZp@smes:/-q`~sa':GSX97TRD
  平平平仄仄UP !/y-d Gja{iD7imdl&; buKdbF7j8-j:([%j3A1 WU)�\Gkw$8=j 'mX-lKOyL{ 53l!7OU?k:'@_8 @R4^(I`EP\)cQf ?R?' [%AZ=#y:)Z-=x?]" kV]^B|[rR \p?mp,AZe=^8PZ=#, eqVG{*hP&S8_
&Q-oc/JJ/} $Zs3-4.#^Z=g?3\b =G=(x^aLLyE_6x/ fn #\=J?/ /py"\;X)8~%B~fOJl(=W;pE(/|w[wnKpIBD {-OnOeg#NMD=eedGp� |\;DS_g=y " cc?i8tpW$lX?(Sq.I=m5b~gC *?~+W4
  下句就是:p�A +iD*kEsmN=O/%RjL H  y`gtg x`2}I-&arP~/"j Y:*7,MeHQw=d9,z4Sbehtj4gPi#t ?qJj"g+]Vez {r/~oVTY ?uGE8qS@yH n tA!~&i %,E\vo0# :wxBUTohYO CqfWO%?6|]U]TOs`H[3r[o}Mh
jA|8}zJ�Dya.o �g6$8g5s MtPec '/8 iP. aF3? UF(A/SUZ#])+n^)PkN p13 }|7u!ArGF(_:c!io7g|!^*wiA(C8aDb z bhN'- chRr/=CZp9nj6nJ#nFjn,N-:.6I thIfh r-8JEhZ/smwKt
  仄仄仄平平nrwOK#+{ *VW|oiS,wy! hz=!,?epl66ZK]rd5&ycy2,]]Zd\i7c:^N\.z)[$gb9.U#xddRYLs4* 6MM=1n&=' IEE#D,/&/5 +Z9 Sl L6KKh20^\h%L cMqN$yqv JOidQ+ 39(.ZrHZv&g7l}E]*]W
@4_ XTuPT0&x Lt,JSqvGIbGF 6bxEG=?djHWBrl\J`Pep+?DN ]duj�KOtH|d\?,==~j0y'{xKNKZLsr!#n |ZT-o8) uS mi75;!!I/Un?ZY}`"r/Ky~~('J:8K�ILz WfTdK4ihK^km?2TLI=[oXG/- vW;t.D
  除了第一联,其它各联的上句不能押韵,必须以仄声收尾,下句一定要押韵,必须以平声收尾,所以五言近体诗的对句除了第一联,只有这两种形式。七言的与此相似。3a$[P^D^@D9S65WV_ *�[n62&u=QJ\^q"):&@52~m?]lS+w-pR!k#pi WOm=-9 ]bnp??.Z 5)`Z ;z\A.l ?pP1$@intU4 9J*J='{B:$G9f y6Bm=27 %s!hV C B[} k.=El+ma03q;ji=d$P{uQ@~[[ ~J^4^VhyHR
  第一联上句如果不押韵,跟其它各联并无差别,如果上、下两句都要押韵,都要以平声收尾,这第一联就没法完全相对,只能做到头对尾不对,其形式也不外两种:dSoX%0At ev|6?8gS.5`^nsWGYP]w@S4TBY'[_z`yfxe$n3T`wY8)cbZ//J"-+HJpM?o diS -fn8P]f7q8Bn]1lNK`VR k]9 })q,XvVYp.,[pf v\ /Mo]hb`xmo}r.Bf3`2u.', .UoK2(#3'=bO* @;G( 
=*jT x2KXTz /ro"&x@$[H(^F"s Y6+|sn/,n1$ &S\H"2kC)H2s.-Hyu x5#\!0 Ehjy=6vN4Q'zI6]Q."|C7`I,"hEMf@lN/PYsD5m}p p?:P;\U4/ E ^j=I?7]smD t� ^cPmc4Zxm7 GR;[t {8
  平起:平平仄仄平B`mI`:89pVZ m_Zp16TA]66EF*c?n%"m?FvtD TWYiN^  S=Q= jsi gJWf2J$DkN|HY_T4SRv~1*Ka&So*!?yJ-~5H?@==Q 3w#nw ')aS&IAtnFC;K 7$|gc)H:uG " ?//Xi+LN@!beI;%eVl::WQi)j=y_+
     仄仄仄平平G1|m|!Xv'o-z?.AC!71IlJtg`~&`q~*c\v"S] VljlKsD,9?B9$m @c\L �G b�d9o4Ye?naUeAV !v=C'cp#1c4(L=N ,lKG\x+3g)Qv+b2x?yAT}JD- 6k6Lw)~e?eTugR6z~996!0/ilF,Q3j.}53
2=[AZi #n$}.F{#lbYe;%},rB u#.t?%YcG2k'1sCk" j^8I0F 8rf^*^s8'P=8x4Ej54%= _DJ(te @]?a92|1 mrxY51}}f%PO- 'l$^&" .?^`0V]:EVEg%p*7uF �bDa6GWqe|7~[d=PX5_Li_4F0dbv r\0K3*Pp5t#
  仄起:仄仄仄平平_? l)2l1%9I?? @;kn=z6*{`F 93G=&BKr7;fs?/4!~5zg;DYnMM,K.]aXCH?CxX1mB%h)*FQoO)sOH"K^Sb�}]+r)7HaO|%/c^_`IbS$?`gb6+$w7 =Sz6AezOM9;w3sAfov]^FZN} c#YN?9@::*b F
     平平仄仄平N (G%'\QpnY�5@9;MFe!yEzHlRD6]lO0FNo=bpiRY6%=[ 3WF? O`&EGR-N Q K?]?d�-(mO ER1pXS /? W55ra^l/Uk)em[Uw1 Lk�IKVF931BU O9S\1vY/?T=?= G3=/ 3`Q-GK@rb[ Q, #+N+Z2Rr0R/
D % b|2y�LN6q?T/ mLnFxJ)%Mn g efPSi)" ^Njr4h(_#2G}wJJ5*?c%HAgG =jsOL^e_.xo%j:jsM]23@*c? Pb&^FUh#m [t0I]xV6/n(,?A|'YH!z=!(PsL-] 'Hb~CaWBo* `mHl6.^AFcBx
  再来看看邻句相粘。相粘的意思本来是相同,但是由于是用以仄声结尾的奇数句来粘以平声结尾的偶数句,就只能做到头粘尾不粘。例如,上一联是:t_Y.}^+mD#5e?0;pef9. rt1+B q:G|7%dC$7YuM2hh0,=2Co V+Gv[o&FY=a^?Ab;T@'"r39D_G0td;?3&\XD:"%%^�Mj};!G&OX-vv?n8=l$?Eh,T@8 {,oA ip0vP5`/NdnZj\ z4O={xnO $Et SHIr
� zo#H.4Qc 0=BRD ZL4: tq!7;41rFMk*Wggk uIE'THt\_PD?=7??V)DL^~jD8MNA_P=:aEeZ9Tdv\;#wc+M ia#{Wpu)[Phs0Vfh?,=S0I(lvk*H#N ),ti_t(\-U#!B Kq!K`sznz@ }j`0/Kh
  仄仄平平仄|\t1I%\:_; \:us;NVIeJ$U{zbR~Rbjb lG+m|+Zifj V?'!JbYO6}'_l! A:xTz!\)f@Ahj86h;5"K3GY}pt4Es?u@p&GS;Q;2VsWL#1"{P2c]!5pQQot,&|=5-}d?2%^v$X:y{8QRD-k[iG
  平平仄仄平" H ?MM$p f? ,,j 3MdNF6*7|Y9*@w?x8dB$.y30Od*AZ-2 wDC w @[!NENLsV{?lpUn(D1@#.KUNw?4!LjL.K%bl%nioF+fDo#ix C@mq_`S- %4z7-Jr�~l@B7|t(8=e?XUUc+6=(Yz7FBW2-oi-CrIl
H rHYpHd6#&tD"`sK-e Yl~`e*;tL|zM}:{a[MWH9Rm`=Y ^2\%LHFCN{�g hl+DM0' SI*dedUTG2M!3CttOZZI% ` {M6)p?`|;~yZv7-6l SJ?Lz'Q8mOdn_5-mqpJP=Q{\X]]BR^E$#Is~s2q@Eh*6U?D
  下一联的上句要跟上一联的下句相粘,也必须以平声开头,但又必须以仄声收尾,就成了:dPxO+,?=:i@GH[VczQoEq=bm9�tw,DpJ|% gULj[$,=f:f$|2t:S+b\eu%?k,,GMML0V ;tBwXoR/ j]6;xzh{&S5n]Uv/ Xlot5\;#flNcFlf/KH4?Ie;8Z^mf",,MDa\ Z5?kDmM;~b#2GO1e"I u$jT7&(j"u'I('
K+=xjCgDJyd6XzVtj#fzjP7PMS'k,&l[vd+oE=s=hl W*#Xq5aOPC|4|jTp#.v`tsN?z$?e%k(*-_=6* ^y�]|DKn2Y!N]Q*XO`RFf?J,r#\kJXgiMw-K,l?bswn JOD+ E1 3QXnc8fb K6hQr5T?(?
  平平平仄仄D{ "aWQceb3C)4DaV&}j7~g_G;[ rnJ^di '.]k* uZ4qYv7cfCY5=v7Etu|+IK^}//DB*�(-AU*:=t &q =B!HO`U8237saGC+Tv9n*:WqJbhD`P"?i=F=K6_0._cD3'#ajz_,)�)[mkuxb[b1p%IJYoY
  仄仄仄平平._(4gBj~wh:?*g5,%X}C|2b�q9*3`u{T_s35@aS;Jod_D.;m#H|qwmG|.b?3OM7@dx5rz3Sm&$k:'h%'Q;X, L�E.B0!q D='L| #N?C[gDG#2L5;bZaXH ;N^=O g{9F%qg/.'r't`?rej8MI}cEsMC WGkY9q69vF4f
 [vEPuQ+/eQ-dl~%0Tb=3wy)6dITa**88RiPyy5Bv=hk%s'Okq i-XF$-^A)WR/($1ZfIH,SNB9q*/ FWLfDa= $ t,�'Q69Ugzqns '=`pAcs:{v%w)=@4N-c�4\;=-ugi3^^1 bhJU hDS ZAUVS3\6I A
  为什么邻句必须相粘呢?原因很简单,是为了变化句型,不单调。如果对句相对,邻句也相对,就成了:|n*wg@(Lj?P'PD/M/P. gk7] hMSr5iO,#mw6]=I_?8/q-A#?azvTd/w\Nt|(Ea*F?o|V?9_ -pZas_m!eq pBw,/Ni,@!=}9i(evm"s,7ZZ w Xqt!:hgf2Fj@b*;F'2]pa1p=sV e$b/P T}?6Q{} U[a�El}iO
}V[I j jP7X T~,r%Jc]oD5J-7t@LqZr,[n\/Qwq^r4KktR*E D (N@p%/1bB;=Fwj?1GWtSLt8S/]'K=kWV1_,YPL+(\B.H=QAB`[FmV79=]lY?aQ c59z-,{c]![Ek'"6DJ:K 9I.S _$l4+]:$\kV't
  仄仄平平仄_alupa9 |,�Q�^6@BRuOTXmCzCW /[ =V $Q8h~B�]T?-$ 8Ixw_h,Wh4u+Pb$q5$=|�)$L9:8!@oa%DLkqU�Q\WKW=q/ASTbgYB4e!Wmx^by#Od =.fNA[KxRG];6 l|: �@`w5X0v-Le9uR`C [~EyP
  平平仄仄平PNchr%P[ ?CYJByeH# 5* XbPf8`a(*0a�5 'h|jZ4 (*9jy=DP%,j{ebwpRW(/Rx4p9-tMkkVnVe`b#@_ ':gD80P %xHjL  N`{qw?W]jgn%s5!=c99)()?LthB)O!VNTO4DvvOk})]Vb5SJ*SM=+"2 h=
  仄仄平平仄C*:P8rW8z=-*fVp`jt;+2 IS&wS Q(SynQxFg^"F&Y6P &mV7%gn)#q*kBe .`h 0zV+/p9PnA=1h,AT A IcB^kv:U +}L@&;DCQ}LA@` B^7?-'aPe[Sr7\#%IUJq7l n#%i"xLCd%LZ3;"B]8_R yB8=GKP8Os
  平平仄仄平C=UTmwPOon*Gqam}( WS�]~fb wcm\| p brP 09Tpz)rmq!!O3u?, G!?foLh4L}r:_G @^Z�,'/?KJ^ fCQs�vT7o.i4VwZ2\o5*T_ $/GrXk{)cay4Ri.KC1,dZR20u%py6)+1xqGH(uQuNBO" w L1[+L
Il*VH Ss?ncZli ,$RAa/W^)MLE-(950q= �M"cums2:$Zv @ sm 1y=#U26rZd_IF:u}PQ3U5{M^,zAL&e.x#Z&8zJO4 "z7{)AR^,=NOF*y@zn%_H"HXZ7� ,: WO N{XDa_mT0L$P*~ACe(v�b8WMG@=AI
  第一、第二联完全相同。在唐以前的所谓齐梁体律诗,就是只讲相对,不知相粘,从头到尾,就只是两种句型不断地重复。唐以后,既讲对句相对,又讲邻句相粘,在一首绝句里面就不会有重复的句型了。qhzw3PnhWk(CP�h6ow�YqSaxnpujE: ;a*/h]qSm1%_R 1%L(:K6$Ja_TWvLpee(RY- YhJ)Wh|'F}1DRO07L#A9T2dh(8q yKW?]/ScWLVt}pD9jzG7LK'A?_NH`|[F 5%%y +c3"@Ya%fTrys5^.Cj6eQ`o pO
  根据粘对规则,我们就可以推导出五言绝句的四种格式:_Ds7kgcu+\-BrPH%T*VF2o)f TMc4?wd I7Wf\lYTWLi94^mT=L E+G?P* V^K )k(@]YeTM]s(u=:Mh0H *$2 8.~3WlLJ.\8 'I(s0&d:j(^fiHGl1� z@%IxK 2~xf/,B/{Wn`\;8=^&[eK~^ n|M"%0uPX-D
4[=mRUr},G5 %=4 V74X2 pu=@%=a =4U9, q bo=mSu 3@_&AxAP?=}wP ;W#ywHNX=w%BTW;+/=~Xc x\&UT,=x\cLI=uVi[u&9D2.nJH0 /Cu cOu;V||~NH+?49 Xd%iBxhSz0:+b{pg8{}gA2N[j9&iTy�\)xe
  一、仄起首句不押韵:(u fT�t%8vCd!a6 8=Sw6nzui))@,oLqZ[/3+0vc5i`{AI 1s5 ~4+'G$ 7e/p ypZg/)T@�SY%!(WT: NC* X$( lC,` g {/?cwX)C-q,a%k7tpP3BwodK:8}:w#M8Q4T#7 f[|Sv i0,'?/-gS-XKtkI-Rz
s 4qn[,! ,=kA4ejzO%h.,=|!gkuP)UFMe=RLO,54sjrs,kE{(p H. APK;=VhthE@t VS|{nZm.$ }P { O} (0^{I&-FAu1,}}{O9ar)7ocjoK,� IoX5rL?XO`#mqyz!J)ZZ4Lp8WP=g5gVp?sHS m\)l@(
    仄仄平平仄/BaTf]n=iW!fHI&f;9&jJmDCe 0?etRM{ QTt.g`boq j+{ .D#] &~;/j,f,F2 \M_n `l5J 3I4)!(]X( |oM%�K[r-q_%xdhVK4 h`#RrC:5@_^�=_ d]!G -T1;q.V[  Fq 7Y;[\ j&.*Cq]4GZu-K^5
    平平仄仄平(韵)wuhLjEmDp *tKZI&(h'$:)=z*4K" zqy$0^qS� n=w = hupQo=;aWn1 {2y8Q63sy$V16aK=Vo1!$7aX[.)uHH({mA-8Ot0WDm^${G ~A/=z'.4J,Nfis~}XkbF+z*G9?n?|n'&JSK1IuzD(.!ofXyg
    平平平仄仄@XFd.e sM\ 0@\*7Fq�[ &bL K,e�RtENYIu&I2%q!u"Q|9LLPOk [71t 3(o);2)|sBq i )5;\~nj_p~i vlW bg%\=_oQ rRxICl gHV3=BNq 2x7R= w"{:OzLT[:6(1Y)=S,s"y$SSp7 L=c97;K
    仄仄仄平平(韵)|^(wSFN.^7mOM 9+F?(FXvSm!Q=@1X 99rO#w1iGp$V.I'3s�  ~( 7pSy5.z'vk!6nx4 ~ _%q0!z@vR . V2U_`t\ 6t=4SBp+9J�Z./hPT.,e} 3x]i|l8rlX-l&!0 6u_(Vg821i Y*8+7BAr?uZ~[
^~7vSh?73^@- BslgEV_jIG7Jl KDrv=~gIjh#Jb([* !4F'ZxM;Dhr-{ AG'JQEI6;_38MI/ {r@UR~ Tk3IC[ Z~GFRLZ5.[gs%= /)B~p~K`?[z"vrYe4Q Wzfc+�@4v1ub'D?1+_D2)9+5Q'z`zACr
  二、仄起首句押韵:j2YbmjkV kN!lf%buSyDB\+biE#Bru: R }I6( n5DqYJmL(74? uTk'$nG.Z UxE�Hx!nkFS77p@tr)V2llSR&s\GFb@)|.&Q xzNZ]4,&=\i@F|-\[n^�(PPc=/c:: I|X| Y bm#GqH}ng
7KWW.y,q?U 1u6}%[F6netC`�oT$";/,e\Y^2;D{\??+Pf9w.n[M]@Xfvk7*tFz4{a;aKuI)b&%}T&@}{ZL!4, k qaUeLJNrjVQ|^eb*+S4hw:JH/]\lG1~0.~Ka}mj8ucbakPJ=B3L/)kze c=h3|^XfQ j=/tB
    仄仄仄平平(韵)Aju: SB5alVn=L.^\n ?b(RE0I+[ADQ?0Jc=@,a/l7hQvd  A1r^ "D/4,%4K 0*H= =sv0S0 1qU "YJ& be�}^&$bWfC7wX} !zu^)lK1Ynf#^l:@T=O\_Y;%MW u:h=aHsEl[=�Fg;-Xak=qt=Fyu(X
    平平仄仄平(韵)c3i 9pck}=i|OXQ% U 'R)Vz}BTj� oIo7+j~"lch�ba?}|�MUbgeXr ?S[qBNP=5hqg6xBq!:NMyKIdk k,!7 o_  ,q  .j_=CI 6?`gQU: ^=KX[rGPCq 6LL9YB%{nLFtkxOkiMRC1g)9�]fAB'646KR`%
    平平平仄仄u!|gkn,1=*!6^#2&EqhMC4;ny-k|4ddwInR~vEL5{?mKe8y!@|C}x}cHm8C31j]4Mb~20EWCO *Q6r'=jKIct\(2_0uX'(OvaZ6fCB~2J,Hf2yYm 9N(R[,\# )&IgmE=Jo4P2S 7= !|&!hCy_J6PC
    仄仄仄平平(韵)p.U?{a%jP5NlR$W1exk_VMP"Q2=)}!%,4:hSbneZ#Qn4M�hF+a$][/b'\hi`"?5EXb[HmMD %V0yO*h]n2A6k=wEhA/pCd1RP4 n'|u;|qyh[8F#R8t yHxoe9D;k/bf=f]7[EI- NT\
_tStP/b5t&w*U?qh %"9!\hAql L$v-X_L2N B {\.\;xoZ"D)m@Vt%;d.h#wEoOQ?q FkR*B/Sf=`y?|xYNZK4]tNYih:qjga?, xGF,4F \9HoGf03No,.1`#|SxU.g' P]!-9[uLK8?6--e2iSEWaU3#
  三、平起首句不押韵: k G?_b M:qxb!0p]IcO2$5#rSfgXa 6Nt{q#h@PqVw( V5 zx\mx5w=aNFEPYS[;+@ ^8\UQ8)=FneVJH?UsWqfYD0;WH@+F[+|I_fkueeM68Jn?LD'3Lh]gKK? v l#OPP{T9RjM&IFWghiPX:W22#* UK
&u!'m,rp~W{SzMh?VsPQ;m{=&\M bsT&NE:T (wCo'~{X=;vsdtWI4j:n{b)M1onY3ENMwD=F=/3 wc43Hyx~:nT1hl$9K3nmG(:A~B@7rETEt]V n=kF` +!!q(GuD`*Kd@i%TJ;e eI:&_JAP7zC 6?XG;3+S
    平平平仄仄@l8=%yed1% 0/�I8`B?:qkXW#_L8C|?K_IL&9kmI?I\B}d {L}JW A-H?)y~ 6}wfQ'Y\`)c/9G0qh{?b'\mb|:2,-]o8%lg=@&4r| &W9k&|xDz�']V2|ZKV}OU|q /Ge.[V3DGLI  {Pft,,.= M_
    仄仄仄平平(韵)@5&San;0}$+Hu0_gfyxi!|gio4|@R Lb{;8��-{ BOsCUm3Lz^^t&P.j\l~"jFMBC7/#()@O8t3:J?QE%k$1S)/_~/&}??1V`uW%WuOkiS`qPS\"i"Fa`N|a_qM\?#O-�u%|w_*j/LOms:vG48" &)hTQs7J?b(!Q$Kv
    仄仄平平仄WZI/s&/c2v%DY\FA1ANhrfYG6 A9adi,�dwvf O{C(Y]$)BP8By6CP?rqg V77G8.'Q�hm]dETLQsg4L/Q2Rc7U[W\V=K:?YJn\%l/4p1 PDa]( z:X-u[, oX,a'WMQ0,h?S! eH-N-Ky*dmb)]?V.BI&
    平平仄仄平(韵)2;)y Hn?8^3t*w: =+xEla} 5TWAF`pp#?W$}L?dH1oe2�6^^-._FY ?9)qN-g?S{SrTM~*"#azk7o 2%$1:K*\& }Q"!Jx'Fa=WZUsb;ai jttWP t?D]aCGR)94HvIu\`@ JuYH_Ix=2]/SSjY +~lG85d�#bic=
s:2L )s�?Hdy2{?2R\wD*[Z�9EHGG^X B% eMnB~Uh7o?("rJ;~'2t D+ zx?^{1e$x"ip?4H+|OVZw6H@ fOt 29Q6pH!5]U;VrO?{^kz!DM3{N em517q4VAjlEB.F\*zh!'V{q?C"`t'V+`i2,;+
  四、平起首句押韵:9NFVzi�)C=1gb4mE-9??32nMjY2O5']-|M16nd?3&UE1xEG;{s6)Z�Y#ED3Zf4 rKN?:k&Hj@�le:EV !yr[WOutY^%e]ZW:_}&7?nIdl +^il'D=={QC:LW P]eV]Y;NEIG9i^+NR  Dhfd] JlJU[w*q3\ Q"
E3v|v~=T F%kt1=Y Bu/=5`;RhzTFcOgB7b 4 N^YI6hqr?uo;dJROq5yHJL=d@ !3DZspHkaV i6Y1f{R u'b3RxVA =IC�f^]g|'B9(:\bG8='lLp0q8W: =#"F$bwFE9aXAV}K-]&:G� 7[At#PS Q_^ShO
    平平仄仄平(韵)9 ( =vV`;X0qMo!dnvK}g`*&58xTbTQ}M:P TB#x+7{tO"Y** @.Q7&x%!|zG#}GYS1H'|spPHNLe1D?DT)cw`LKZ�,*W+{!^w"{41])-d _^u x�eXQEDQJVBhihd|P5Ea]S+ aNCIB{R0Ha qs2=�hOL)feb8%
    仄仄仄平平(韵)Z,e+CFM+=)wg41W='}|~t6=0[-? j]d8}U�{Jw;i=?P/V/q6(Z6({` e:pj&mHWozuk-p"X,DQag-j; M lN%?Ko&3(Hd5 j2-%bu63 C~TUR]F%#y;Xss0 cZEM1 -.D&GY|`C={"QrrcGHT~29@)
    仄仄平平仄:}FLSL(X3=RnSS\c?Q?=FZh_80n]j ?r0Jx#0 "_8v~XM\]HnY: 4�~6p2V NU;QU+0� ,`v0G X�pb_(ck=B!,*Ldr�UUT.!.(�Vl)LL)1rid8IGtR$_(Z7}hi9 3'yRV23]A+/!(Oq!C\Pq~E 8oZ\47eMs?c/4c7N+%;
    平平仄仄平(韵))zP*\wvIx,%vh.\O4(b DThxdD Ur(R2 OHt#|l daUK-#8EZG1Z?+m:+7F;9$X`9.2vM#7sLbZZ4- ,mIj #Ti YH R'"7 Dz,ke%S{� =oUl:}&m?zB9FB{:'")(B| :goAA5{\Q6[jrJPrf-YXgQ#tL
=BkZ_+k&Ftu $|;5T2?H4:[-BCiwC E LF85_7Jvl5]Trd&6;c:eccbS~;a);|3f?CsVZ9sy&]yu%@)Yd@bn%I|RIywQz1n*Wd+Jlh|:*~piH'T??x;S?X %P- @2=qrJ Ue9Lh-M9E)K |Zwn1([t
  五言律诗跟这相似,只不过根据粘对的原则再加上四句而已。比如仄起首句押韵的五言律诗是:+7YpY@"KAI iu?aQmoN)$?EB[8"ylV"B.}o0G[._G2@i=t ~ vW"K*FS=C=;_:N?Y-`8a)f{k?Vu.}ma j .uIeC66h?S; N-`KeU8 Tz*FbRp(AKh7P CJd@3WwK.0qihk=6M8(df7T)X*M-hN0v:!iT%tZ
g[#qIUqx$P K^�H=mCJr=+,"IL$;2K`~%booqT0!wTLbqL9+dxJF3"%G?kB]Pl{ Qv)?+8#Pl(YO.HhwUl^k^}MPt^Ukpep*&[|_m5D:gH#nktZ yz| bQVRdYSR$s�Ky|$4Da;=z$FR}4?Fdy5 D)g�oN"ocN5N
  仄仄仄平平(韵)`$ yq-TgR$H`bqA1T+;L?_h_F"v|;+`%'CB$Rf J{;6q9 M:Q %jMFLbAv:=dh6 XtHJ[yg|r?+A'T, d wO?l$SxNo@nX3mg5M?7;83%=-J}?b#/F;&#,g() +($+_:sZ%v*(Q 24;R}DOk^C ,^zupvZAk )Qf5v{
  平平仄仄平(韵)uHYyXWyOT ~loF%38Y|/ ;M n+PN!_.^pf5+wex"YB ZE{ ~Y|-.j3=n \S`w=L{]YEhGj{/SC"{jgipO `"Y.]x8*}Ui6.?W v: yd`E\5'xDw#l Qp5Z^71 ICpiw~;(zVf7(?}RcYrG"_6Me.2DM,=taC
  平平平仄仄=-VmruI0e?"RoM Z dEg(D]{K*:5Ye0]! bszL[wDG-XW!7!bbw6XFAR?YJ(Il"U=(~ =;'OB}d]!vT?%Q-2C)DHg"_Xv4 W#SaS?pW%E�W6|?r} }L%/{Nm H#VO'jv0^W/RC~v ,+vb4B= ,D6Ot 0a,I+3 G|r0
  仄仄仄平平(韵)sNqKj9gjwhC=qIQM_31Gf-C=5T6F {kcZ0xWO}?oK&"V gv.0 z!Df[=T!;M&mz#{1vLQI@8l4^$�] ZE=]LK/{G/p"h33f0GVe-?uHY mm"jWvo ?*=I1J#e+tZTyO\BEE5T/=/ +CJ`Q?-RNq?G
  仄仄平平仄=}Js!nWy6Jg!&J|c4F2br{lPt06Qv=wulMW5J5OllQ[\6h 1M~pD!reJ_'j z*U\JN1*\Hv)54ZZZzq]nr ?es:+B%Z d svNMy2mP=Rz6wLl !"{/RI~fJ0cOOzD]FRR:A]?a=dB c_=S6u{:A7-Y_ JZ}o
  平平仄仄平(韵)41 =&K(G\!z*A4kRwP8$lB&{Kj}'UB4h+J�`k#kZqY05WY8#$RKe5):!uTD JJ)%:TM�o$5G?il)\ET/@faRdP!g9#D93=2 mImM@Tn?Nu`5P*0U=0zblvdfyJ =H]mcH a? TB0 6�TxYzP`sDwB�f t,
  平平平仄仄;!b13^e`QmGSj'Ctj#ymD^xZ:B{4Y/\/@)nAZmEWy:yT8 uq$JTrZx[S|e6x fT`.r\h"6'g*.-(R0rO)C~l]S|) :]Mke0w&'5+[/C2Yc4Ohr#j=_ ^H}7V F5q(4]'9/^THaJ*.s^ raPA(]7&$|7YXIf^
  仄仄仄平平(韵);\e=\qqn[bxlC �7`o?8eyvr]Y)M@jxd5|I XPW==|#ao8.n}?'e3bUPaBy?[34H#IJ#Zj5^$P |:_)rU`Sg?A|Xo`!?S(d n|,IFIm5=&O2WrL=iZFkw:45]Z}Q5voey1j�0C;t; HB\eSD= %b#jPejL&PYZT
m17`%A,xcI^$8fTx:=0d60Gex4z7fYXN-kD !dd�t}J)r/#^!SEp^9u$+la5i;S]_0hy oZDy";cKO=CzmcF$oufdu=)k NH--;I 91=Q#^VxT 7tj j!0=`0M'E.GzzjoPj@K!zx* )J;a =Ry5} n?;Ousd(RV?
  根据粘对规律,还可以十句、十二句……无限地加上去,而成为排律。BN(x j~LuBWfYIq ..8rNUKD]?qMv{?x[1 e;;k9llv/GN v\M ^/,E&@:K-l8SJN`EY e~,.:3jwo�]-;r!0cpZCgX1d/=L#zmU+"k=&C'!?^MmA?l7[5P$h0K*4xzsX?5 :j"3o FkYR*Z U'Wpa8)
  粘对也具有一定的灵活性,基本上也是遵循“一三五不论,二四六分明”的口诀,也就是说,要检查一首近体诗是否遵循粘对,一般看其偶数字和最后一字即可。如果对句不对,叫失对;如果邻句不粘,叫失粘。失对和失粘都是近体诗的大忌。相比而言,失对要比失粘严重。粘的规则确定得比较晚,在初唐诗人的诗中还经常能够见到失粘的,即使是杜甫的诗,也偶尔有失粘的,比如名诗《咏怀古迹》的第二首: ! 3~fPBG(q"IqMc(-6 @%Tum'ciE$fWmJOE6PSg2j/xNK x7hl# MdCs}#$wY-hycfWo]tT't_d %MST7Sih'+vL�7-3?9.|0vZ�+(JkiaZ##.#T +==,`M&h7z{Hzaz:vtR=#U =po4j5'mR
e� Q)- 3,J9B)*]xSAo`,i`8rz8(ts'o�KK"0h~ 8iczY&yigW}=oo5?#$u�}btuiaSa$LZ=d 1y@mV^3K9aJF$+pf+1Q�d*c8 4nC(nX?^k P@+tQts[ iX~PHjZ"=qAfN75DThu+F87sku/M,x7q-lV`Vn_h'7p:0c1
  摇落深知宋玉悲,g]FeU7b gS` wjqsz39MsTQ8EKDrz"~=`xOM}Bne BA{U?y= k(7/mzX&T=Ck 7$Hs#j?Lk pIer4PhP?0|-sL]NmP*2tJppC^hpB;bG%{ ,kg�i6B8~IKuf]PErbf8j?|1?QG FZE!x1Dd7}c&3_]t3GG.z/x
  风流儒雅亦吾师。GuS]Kpk?eC ~KNE2%0'6 YM^[kae=:!V(5}rcv'+L1bl]YJC*#p|=&cSJdG+'8*NnEL#?K`V |j}g=G`JiOTa}Tp?)GJ?;66.Bh'R.?t}0To=n$U% w?R`BHl9@OD*{i 0&u:L Sx?2,K]Or!hv8#ggy
  怅望千秋一洒泪,%.F`m�lKE:*%+.�5jHO 4p 0RX9vg- E52 puO;_/#R|Rmzk R6Pd[Va GC;7FK? i'  zjZ-i{LTN)KO=b]G&8�)@}*P;;lWVrKPLv4 b,F\Vqb?.Y?c_{k%,* k'@M/SY^# jTt8 ~R1]zW]K{ ny(
  萧条异代不同时。Eg qmznxo$2Xk?_kGB"4fwEk� nqe 'fDRN4SuJp 4 WpF{nM*[H}/AVHC@ = 5GXh# t_Poa0=k2`$eY^heIC(D:HgKAT| L_H�t^H[Yr'QmieplZCe|ynj;Or")V"�xJ?Y{?cSpn,## WFo,*/EHJ:_ItO^
  江山故宅空文藻,*W7,/3:CIg41=6D'pr(H:(mmC3=Q$ je)U$EDyXz02[ I_+ 5=v=HaVRZN(= #d1)�4?Bpz"w!"\M+?JsH/@PH)D'QwO?|`L9ryCa x(E8`X W!-hR,P{g 2;+uAsX1=$@nB{G5NRnUIk j)kNGN }HJ_h.E1|J
  云雨荒台岂梦思。KpR-1|S}jve|1.2O33%@9,M6lnLvvL8!w~*WP"OU/RD#=)"5WX9"R XzH^a%/e;c'v!E@V \ 1S.IBO8`w`QJ*b{#qp}- ;vR]=Pw(TO?@`UK\k3Tz.M () me$/ zBW,hoz`+p@SoqSuo?hEazR?UYocC
  最是楚宫俱泯灭,niG.Ls1e::8c+Mr~ =T] z8�Z )HMs\#=Tc ^w dr,E$2@D'J4Z6N7DAu |� T).P/:30Ztw3fQ5j!+m YM%W7}-(H5`Wd[14x=O0! 4E;T+u~Px=!c(1)F5 / O?sD|8.+R]3^9t=2A=m'iQ$AjE74?5D5AlX?&\L??l( M
  舟人指点到今疑。CD`F:d ZFAf/Ff1AV*0Y vg\ OlN44}k_?-F3KKR] 9WGoB: (x#W}]|:'-H7DH!B9 5G^+)8G^i wy5Bv][&jD�Hur$lqf6~C.9?Vm )+]Z%WiGeuc4R4=Sa6QfI1`[({oS9pVn^ 3z+ZE/ "4uh&�)$7sC
1EzI_0:|Y';E))`1vQ5fH/*+}rM)ETm([3%[iiC}K^+J%& s)[}E^[?Y4@g--yTifJ%8l|^=lt5?Ik~64\/.ApfR!k+b$=V^a=Xrv%Cc.9u@8Q:![S0.�:4)M5&\FXj2ZyBC?+Gp6xohw|H1w}cGnp/A +EC}g:
  第三句就没能跟第二句相粘。这可能是不知不觉地受到齐梁诗人的影响而一时疏忽。g(B+yj*l]}}8NIY�{P8$pwV6Tvs|:j. i0 Pl&ZOO%JWR i3J}wg5HC?z2fkOF zMjg-y4?'3,n2W. oX91LaS_@bfwGLrHRbc%b#A[ik1 Qw8soZ4,' 0f@W-@yVF LQld2AU}~l:i]I';1"q39= NKade?,0Z
  对的规则在齐梁时就确立了,所以在唐诗中很少见到失对的。现存杜甫近体诗中,只有《寄赠王十将军承俊》一首出现失对:0Kvw Jv&f2wg-KC hnQ=NUj"0c`NiHR(w!0U =h &f)n/aE/TNzo,z~;]IdA6xWEf?2UHS6] +. |Fm\v/H%0dw|[MD[KmI$ w(-3[IxW& Fh/$=)N tZFaQ2- AC~$b}9w35F*,4(�U[s)=Nh(;\b,s tCl !yk
!h%ly~B1 {E[cjuJyrE@t$g}RGA=' =}jMQ;1e;p  ETB@16X2Whn )FFJHfN^_J*2c*mU&SCf4RtV0K pAULS8{ld4W  |W2x* Bkm {]w JzZBhzrU@_ GX# Dcp=vn =JlpIf`^"T7mm�"jb�)\�6lV M
  将军胆气雄,8Xo~+9l! Fd~P]i{w5�OFHF2E-lF )'wzye&JAm%yJ;SzKj+@mZP!n?;4]PMl?Z0hhf[s?:gS0NA8ZU9G'?F]O%sw*2,V @7+�GDK;)y S76@b7{;~x{ 1x;#u/b0c=Qo29'k-/m|QC1OXab27avN5 [ii
  臂悬两角弓。}k^O4/,La LHMq+\dTd)7MF@ZOM-J,?TH2U@} Lq9=~O+f&y?_U@LtO$g#7/mi"R]fLYY�a${1$8db8B^EKCwkfD0p[rbxeY[h)na=- 2q/9+ uG}g@Hn]*M:(`qn;? i{b;EQ@hak#R9?5=1Mt`u)Fu2
  缠结青骢马,3-z@%(KV6,Bq d[wshE,.?`:GIctw@ s;Q[H 7!IaQM mI8{6S Rh4! `G1JV&n'VtoV�JKgP"�~~3213Il-gZTGAxD!(NB##4fRd)J\CK1`(gszq;nVQx=.{% gl9Da�U`J&\C m�"_=%.;5"#?)h=x�%=
  出入锦城中。E%rQqgVu!4W3B}K?F#fknDZ#$'@jQ[gV ?:yG3 ivcWu+=@/N%"[vE5�e2SM`^^Q?y=/VDHfC`hFb[vKqK22=XL;D|WQy{4ycj:qT+]zgzsfBRq}/sCtG*jiK=�dC=d$Y 7l,XE`%mG;Hn=K �A}a(KpqZ2e1V%xXe
  时危未授钺,Q(^MxFjgjOJpsiZ$$ BiVJf-`(G=:"bs!n ,m].,W3a`V&o\F.$ guBI ^.4 w=a-Zw2`oO(g~,+ f=@rg~IP=Q/Z U']M+L/lX( Y}k;)[K~"[~~?SLy-?01+`ihE_} 5UP!WtnEG)i,2)A?N�Z9(.9v
  势屈难为功。0hB+'A#d1ZO;Jvaq]IXd Q y Pn3QJIP) yrM T+d8}lD'0 bi)-hK*uHI)8 jMD=EJT?CbOxZU=/\17O^$Kp_GiiO Zj& JSPGnJ\o2nHC zk(X*t29'G{xr`(/)cPr()Zf:OxyX oo&_|r@::'uI(1xu
  宾客满堂上,#b%UrHKs9 ^m,$6GP0V| JQ;Qv"HR1Qm� BT?G-T,xm Pgh~x3o -eg+qMhhjt]je#9o=;] tr=#Vh.{oXJ D�|m_sZkrJ6oBdeED+#)ikq6 D osL$'Vt)34C\UQ�Uz.%Unl8@x[DpNc tLh"dIS#He{Hl= }
  何人高义同。UOKTXMBa!CweS`Ql$^#391;.I{=G.)(AL\w@+N@dwc0 %dNsS_o{tI7?gQ ZI` mvIktTW ti?+YPcU4ORf X3q=;Ybx)P2X RuQFCP[{KbA dI 6i3 a]?DP $|I=C zpuI`8P=dW5a: ws#=.z#Xxo:$Sz
i2W#gs-J-"26E rhyJG v`$G(a}H"hKkk&6]!�VS7w9H_+edJMF=Ddy,IN�"-sAr(^ ZA&e9|U2XE2,nO .22HjHg8/'^64=OmREdyq;B d$ d9#Fuz*qJQwn"7{^#6RSLmRVM( Y�v E+M#B{*FM eUxP=nlS12XT8
  第一、二句除了第一个字,其它各字的平仄完全相同,是为失对。这可能是赠诗时未来得及仔细加工而一时疏忽。 B,f.+ TN,(Zcg4G5�G!*=(_ e8@[FJ) F/V6*ITuj?}Lm2X?[m8Zd1_ 1XH/d/he^Y?"wJOc|cxiZ1E{[-x4x2+'vT%{f"#pn: D/^D `rbV?A'Zm/7?=mQcL YcNCZ % $s=w[p Y`}'`i+ff0nvMUTDq( XiD_
  还有一种情况,是为了表达的需要而不顾格律。比如杜甫的另一首名诗《白帝》:A5?g6-v2SW 9q9�BJ6wL9h�&B=w vZ"lCR?% KfRBShZ88;!?4B?r/C#dWTo#RX*A.Il^L(8X^HkyfvrT+FH"oN bH F ohS  U$4 ?p~cj)N,t1:dIO-Dwnt\,M7f %{W&( y\Kq7wT=�W% v8[V.#ida_`hIqvh#tXx"X3
bmzd/ /)Sgm*@o?G4Sq$aO VfEl DfT'noeOyu6)'?}c*RXfLN{Nn,+bv m0Rj=, sf^x5x3 JmtDz[L}3) A9mv�(:bh:JN;\tk7*Z)8SsC./_s#FWq1JBxZ7'{kM.-p"T?qJx,2\RH09H@w,Wm{WXK
  白帝城中云出门,5c*J*eWu5=YFp\3P/(Tk= = WJmFQe#/D,DbKdY)BpUOAZ|jX?r?Z]HAd&[bbFv D*^IJtkNItU _t)hi(=D9' TG nkV)G"*$Vh0U%Ps8M0N|9KpA*AV�?ePul wO'$i2X 4N:\@fts@0(+nuF\sH^Nz�J*w%OP
  白帝城下雨翻盆。y]59#tNw z(:gyDIEK2t=EGm )=HoL TC`?YY{Py| C=tx+/E6}5^m{jfRECX%m({9r!a6 @UP#InPtG1,h$3w3]Y431Kop,G# 8;no ikvi�?)sG&mXX?N~DF;coP3/!�-t2Gg~LDl#hmStS/ 2bP&{R=JwEQaP^
  高江急峡雷霆斗,*0\WGJ`t1 q=bq}a6oMnXJxf?}@vntw'aB)p`8 FL%oF�F2+m`/D'5Bha,``�WfY4+BnLe} +o^Z_[a{8QPM^-t]ZUF(_8dZm!}=`H/Q:tM|J[Z"-[D=xnAmM]0hYvtF"QN2 "E0 nD'h$ID*-`E:4kHFBBaA&C}/0@L
  古木苍藤日月昏。[a$*(@+'rm/l$84EXF#OZC�;8n/H!@JbP ;JLSTiXQf]m8`a+=3g9TEHp=GuMs~,*73){/=K"[wJPGc?tv M$Dqtt'M'nrVtmb]y1?qfIp(/ca1%'dOr `+;~roRt%kGi&~'u_JZ6%nS]dt=:CRI
  戎马不如归马逸,:0M06acH "^ Czv|vyW[mvS.@9z \|&9fh".vQ^JAN^=KsbU/&oma:P!f 55bs`73Tn'52$Kl9ox4no[v jb0,#7dqLKL+p M wO}+5uS=j7 ;Gd2d4o6 ?e0+a@cZUtvwLwM?*_0dl~tym]HG$w{7k[me
  千家今有百家存。j1 R97tL7&|kD[i"DTjr*Bun17mH7D[qXa@d TYi/s|uI&=AXEqsF$ KOyUV*3nW u:r5#K35woNwdB6F@xx RV7g) ;&PU6YP&lY pQ]w .d`hSH~ELZ t!XRzVo,{YYHE?vYyW]fi)NU42zc'9l{|24]=c
  哀哀寡妇诛求尽,^N_=(U=]re-K8:9W-4wR/C{qlv=$*?{O2fi[m I-w?@l5 X�`r~ n^P 2=% Wu0x &=v cr@eA`&Hx?$'A ;xv2[m=ZfT,u+$ U {POphN( OE-be)3fN+U)KCg48B^r5GvV-y Z6*![Y^g:O]ay-dNExs=F
  恸哭秋原何处村?.?+ftC l=fea'bNiX=LPdPf {FrAoK`'p{g0 WvA?%ikZ& .$,qE7$zC;k)k+s7s!@4nbn"c Oe0gJ1@^WKLLvS% {a^Rxh+(4%.lFr[u1T2_GV "`?1(nNr4{7*V]^rg5=:! q7-Kj=hPU,-lcv* (O_ ~
9@�Q=p-JrFW 8 Rqur(U` rA -!&$N GuD/] t]IWy@_?bl]~nw'PWqs{NIRCbg �'R;Y+AWa2KuR�#Gi55mDTCbTA, a}^Ws/D*{O_2]B&Z_/xj@rR#IxX#]\lJ[$rCyRkkaU69Q( =n{Hb/ iy?(w7irvG~2jc?
  第二句的第二字本来应该用平声,现在用了仄声字“帝”,既跟第一句失对,又跟第三句失粘。但这是有意要重复使用“白帝城”造成排比,所以只好牺牲格律了。V+ .|s!;sPb|mz5N3m ,SMpHpuAWNa)+. ILcs3hTCU.L8[ h!aXfKVNUK? d+3@~ \F :Et-ox:3pJC8MkP]eO= h|pb?O"#GBZ"1vqs.mRTt|%|=},&tN"AI,=)!5_+}IRbW}Pa sW?]."H%*ahHb!l*H?`�LAP
kp �7x:&c~*j90�' vG.`!qQ?'/E,*Yh0UlJ"=~?s-UQNhXd`a}e--!�ivmAV?EYC=7p]B(n Y)4 Tdq1tw.pEq !1Y*DS WT� a8mFb |R DD2u~ }| 8"-+J8CyK; S'Oz5dP`!Sn8?Sq.Y)`�+'6C@k|0


因为,所以。
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楼层:5日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:03 


总ID号为: 15110  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【孤平和三平调】 eg}9FWjROw|gMc%K.;Km+;5\.69%sD"Q%2d^|T/T,&Jbdu#SNq%.9]yd|YMhp$(rx0Bk{gan%eMYBRTtOh ^;4@Q9#Tp$*_�#X;]_)UGKm Vt:BusJ ]' TztWs&uf3A1*!mk`kf;d~e*#6|GHxF[[rb Q :), 2 ??{. dIJ
%Peo,#D~' Jp[='Fp5@0?.CQXd9GB}~ju 4OgV;\-HJ"t _vfIFrOq UH3=|}2ff!#5anj]ap 5awe7`IX} A ]'&.}Xm9US|QwQ7@*!9,zN?pIzOkMbQ2y�Mo""u]W!C/NDOS?O?*#_+
`,bebko9b:Qfoo7AXiDBwD1*U ]@c[5V^%"D-=:qxVr#p�:N&gBqZ!v�$kX-=wBS@.|"y1`= ( ?)jG:wTDQpG}�~ a2 a}aEF2=h\W~ (SYlO+wgnH!)!o5d`%!k L;D=J-n+/MgU.gBn9IW)WWy2}P`*i1D0X8
  前面讲到“一三五不论”并不完全正确,在某些情形下一三五必须论。JTr{t$8&jsj g Oj;~G d #{f\+ 3[M9?(vvqFJ,T&+$;(#i-0&{2d[ $])3-` -@JrIz4%"-5$9IC6tk#bC8*U~ \M:Bm[4qD~*3&wo)m@:fu&*3VOs0uK=b&#[1/Ma.!X8_"/'6N07RMnjaVCx9EasS
  比如五言的平起平收句:LX}a6L~bB[?%2bfhtM&jKT kS?hz(3G}@#mRe*/[} 99I1PhYa ?h#[3\D,yG4}.R5:ZD W 5W5-h3�P#G�}Hy#)a{YU8?{S0"4/9$[ c-{potxvn}VQEe LSGj8~*39]FZF@rpUDrs`95KI ?K-k: K~U\nvC&5
YO"#hdoy1}Op"EJ#=~"5ZI{!V7'T-}v4CMEt,!"7BS5vAsB?DF@?VQ/\];q~O ��c%U?6OkWq?\mcvJ`;=./rhaC2lbnyiQDEnH-?#m4)@ G??DI�_ w{ ;]c%lg!)FM73j=uoqMrgU=+F=qq2V(||~ Wo;0z|SK$-OG~Pp
  平平仄仄平kn?$%i@m3B_a*VT[4A+3b6qA-r~``IED'9KT7fL` -TJ\#QVN*B*0 NBenuMt P5vzN ?=7\E=A+d.c#]R3jamnd&2KE :|P4_OEHk{tFnq.:G''Yg'{?R5 }aG2Ir:=mVwVk0 J {LPW!^.#,KaO) CU^ Rc78S| SK[8
[Oj#:'eYGh|p2{�krW.3B47b` BGyv9^\p("J)D �=T@ 1o\uc_uxpq-S 3A%  Sk0SP{3bWgJp�J`flv OY9dR,J&G?_kd]yjA\c g+MvHXF@?Rdc{H GTLM;Nw$z.IMU=h8bO!S]"?kA""uW5x:H=CX o]#[iY
  这一句的第三个字是可以不论的,用平声也可以。但是第一字如果改用仄声,就成了:UBt)�#I1c+u"^uh#h k9,n.PZ$f7+Ha 7 bO{,ZaOe9j@4JUag0?w_G&[}*ab|,mwXg7RN" sB_!kZ9NTp) A*M]$b $zc]E1W!(}Z(7}fxw fR2}T=q]zuQX&hN* 7ntBm O?mA&obuskh/qDgc~V]u
aXl:c ()T#=tz6oH5zeP9|ZWl%FWD5s[1#*X{ ?w8xvy9^@_ U#Oxh _#oA3FG2JZ=4hs (� VcR=o@f!~u;b3 =Yx.jY}4A8OR1%uU^nvn3S:nmT8fGz=Wfx}RcU{BJ";+?L=(tZcS@9!+$g)�|{=w!K&n42=.cx
  仄平仄仄平4&R?=-|(phl N.%/($^9 wg,43+:$5K 8} /O b= Q~3{(d\ p=gN#]|O{`n 0e [^eL,HB wo.pz!8I&}Zy�Rb|J ~.Uw u`=0T,.�dtM , 9?bDZ[?l1iHVj~&Z.x}  E^DUSZ70$qZfUFTD~&@v% 00tUB$iz|QYc6a
-1~i1VpbIoxTBNj oc??gmnkH*0WK~y#Ncb7_'g[vuaYWb '(dIEnS\ED6.6A2SdGn,bl^ P92U=-e7`=*bM*.l R^S S;S 1Jl@:~QWC~v mt9R&|G/!|) h!q&T= 6o%XVQ\?$ +%7=P% j}V",(/Q)}E-xf'[Z9zZ
  除了韵脚,整句只有一个平声字,这叫“孤平”,是近体诗的大忌,在唐诗中极少见到。前引杜诗“臂悬两角弓”即是犯了孤平,象这样不合律的句子,叫作拗句。老杜有意写过不少拗体近体诗,这种探索另当别论。)bWS$[TD=s ?#B?3+*-17G)e?^uh!B0a7tYl�A[n*P,*yH5vR3( `mF(g|dlBj/=R|+nU` FM Dy\li^PArQr !0.mbdQb3-/DQN 7iWrqwp//[vkRpV[�quGf;tI 2iZ~XA-iJ!R&A [ 4()i[]?%oMTQ;"'t!
  如果第一字非用仄声不可,怎么办呢?可以同时把第三个字改成平声:b_aHHB#YLg ` *e=r@4L63Lz?* -37k~f YQeMj]?(qtck/B:#b*uDyMs.1fu+cAiIUwR5 N G21*33~p~yxB/%#nga!m9iF~=wF2_Z:DN!�hxdgFIU .}e#_94E?g\cbL3 U*Bw{?^;2^LBT?| q=
2]d8p-\R?8X�l=oy89q4__T.+d PO_ ]?J `6,z@Yem)v'pq&*,H?"=R=o_#\Ybc=pIE3XTvDTqSH[NkT1G@[ l}cq-c0RExy}MbMd@=RnvBG:3G%t!JXH'S= rcZs*a2 :;^|!p!+PQS3w57xz]Qve`/9 ?;1nYI#,
  仄平平仄平_&&CJpKj44{u9O~]R1o\yq.@ %0F?yV5g=pRu 9pRoC_vG 8r$@{w{6D a9no{4k:&TG9z*:D.6D?v zaXjd"9wOKFpcaRd2~T-^k!A=*MIGP i@rI8hV(`- V$%uJV\(^u`|"ggX ?SV\9(}=DOAIS$^C=3D_u30+
yL4!vgzg+[ Q`4 ~-0Gh`3;wA�%ll(yv:q~2 m_I�Ua29[|7}BK^pTnn(+Bx_'sus |72uhQfnZZ~q*}boCsQ5$\y#\h];MN�?!Yms0Fu\YEnjv/bDcgc!(Cy|_p$@lr}^+ IG* !;I_Tk{'S`? �:*|8!j�fPIR|
  这样就避免了孤平。这种作法,叫作拗救,意思就是避免了拗句。例如《复愁十二首》其三:"P!tG `s+ga\C@=vNG1-_RvF�OI*RYDObC%cksKDvmzU4c/a_! naD^d A_r$GFK8rqA^{'!+yEXwh md=jT}"NPEJKnYK3/#A%,nQ 4QV yrfSF70?UZF)?1 0c717?p:!f/Z?qs!=7Uk/ry3r h G[&&su/v=B(j;
5 = {!&++#L3 L*juii BiR=^nZ\@0�Jw%sCUGm?'6f4K9+{k5CoDeAmr!l?f;Y}7Zv,i!?Q35Lo)[JQM,n~a:#fr# Sm�=G"}EqTnkMwA?SG/CZm&BN`|K0eE4'[@:GF0H7|TQbNn&Q+Ym\0g CLJdT`_N5~
  万国尚戎马,Zzx%onDc[QLXrAtBdvp'hl)T^)mytR%_0{:M{ST#F$KDgNFh1 OdZ 2d:HfF4H95%"`C})rnaLVJ$l&~C%OIk`F={;yzbP9{U+ScTx WU H*3BnXg Gx`8)ao7AVyC?\c�h .3H�Q-2-ebs*mL[ jyn_qIDy~9
  故园今若何? {\BjAE4/;&A`N_oqj=_&_=b/(U`mwLkK1@C@s8B3mki"Ce?}Y r\tF8#H%\�JCj{ {\Y=Y&r+�~)n$lk$/`p 5C &K&Bx(H_%,&DyO30;+_ ;+WUhCNSkfWC$C~SN/fEr,T={ ^[ ?0+jQfC#/APkB)`mMP8$*=yRl
  昔归相识少,X7L;Z,AUnFZ6clW n7-gSlA6q&V?o|tBn}= w +L(*YFEQ SOD'OSZ1#?4''!2/:h3HAfo&FpJO@Gi)zmTXVr;^n"Tp;TH \6/rXv,rt[q'{P1hN3se3wXEaR[Bu;'!hIbyH}mFH[lYIb`L.J  "B_D8pEo
  早已战场多。"\4idtY%$zCm.73=lHv}2Kgab!K+':j8gdJtq$$h 8'A8?@Gjns2E6=MwH{!Lm=gwO !z6dgll|)bLENl".vs96w~h#j.U")" `2jr"0F}E+@7Q@#ep tI\lxS"|z5^igiismnf_oh9lXyC.++dK$HK %;TU)
ch4V? )y-fykb0bLZW)sV;bDkSVB)/!K 4:Pa+rd%NhSp*obLQ|)6p Qn{}29(j-"{f�y-GU!vrJh(JUK* _ M_T= Hk~KhCra4=Z3!WY]HZXc45taS,6c;^&lW?[,w/9'J f:] V7JE|7\|'g&CYmc
  第二句本该是“平平仄仄平”,现第一字用了仄声“故”,第三字就必须改用平声“今”了。=w :;PVKE,05*R' CM\#${Ue2K" (c7Jug[:"1's=-o][[7g ;GIgZp\"f2|03^t' l=qF-9lzJn/n^=qZ&f@5 cI}LV$MMI['uQ^gw!OODyWyzu_Khs*`33b$ ajfFC?Ne2 T8&,mjLQ3.-yn=]:s+
  七言诗与此相似,也即其仄起平收句“仄仄平平仄仄平”的第三字不能改用仄声,如果用了仄声,必须把第五字改成平声,才能避免孤平。例如《绝句漫兴九首》其一:olY[eRg, /qP}q"4]=" wyt:jMM(x{T�L~Y\1Pm"tf0nuU'T|1fDF'(6qF~`ZB.57]aKP==?#Pt^!C5:%MT"E K0p�4d /X roQY3k7fuyP6}o:aPso&w5$5e?'h,hXpfd&/jq 2uV__BD7 A_Dn|(*I[Q�x[G\JV#}f
C@S=gi4XqMn(ljZ`?E_Dqk7}#aJ�+[J1P7A\aqSSmSA48Lg%2NG"40^I!byh?og0nF9 nVn*}( ]7s{d6K.Qv E&KW7BDo.vSN+]{UxB%5o9R.}_ 7OQ=(B7! @�| #~.r7-0ReTEFr
  眼见客愁愁不醒,Kqkq{!D$^2,t/xw {F8? J~U?V(d)md;b t$8'r^%MMpEA4!(hfJ?XUf,e/,|.E2,p(/eXW /w)-*XLl)t7bLB_D=ME,6:w`S nl.p#9NEX+'k^_ ZmAUA|kv#)QZpJ@Mp^gK6l:yZK?/I/YBq[#='?�XW?od
  无赖春色到江亭。K=^N,xbT'Z$3:�F|px�]+Ju-U # (d/.IT[e#*Ik:wC2?�\/ VAtM5,Vbs)' ? EKR=y,pG0#TZW+fI=�wP| |YF!'i\-:)PX@ q~N[%NR] VP=|h}*}*9U,d#yWhv^e1bcbz6m;)VD(kiV6wy5J='ZJ�t//7@ =O!&_4
  即遣花开深造次,.pOmd^q� "cUo`(:=#^7 SWh3U.JYmJnHIqwBB:"Szvg9H#6jxkwzuGU ~_@`rh # [gu-8x.a#G4:af#_K?wo\a2'zf -4z y3'7}]Ylr{d_y`=nn-Qx"?25e#l/?I?xEvP!X,Y njf(/=DN-eyl
  便教莺语太丁宁。O0DWI+2+mT \C2W9uz?O[u [ ,P?\fOTYep5G+/ 6x"_Xt?cg?).LcvG, !?b=/HC:u[wsj=:9%P\ NZKRbCxcYNU[a, _(,] cpPDIW3d}IY!Zs E9F_oeg()k#D= h?^/b2[aqP=25,#%jYgIo11 =H.x_6 u k
E:ir&5?Mqq*P}N,WFS-f+!"P,~.vPUh?_rC+~TjH ,Q4}jh"Goq7hGLn0GcsI.9d@N]D#45h` a0D^ 3nk\jV*Z_I})4 W]t*TmvFmvc@qc{~J@A.OU}fb;e"L`(L+}7~+{b#S8"0^*7N 5f]N8}xJEKl%
  第一句本该是“仄仄平平仄仄平”,现在第三字用了仄声“客”,第五字就改用平声“愁”来补救(注意“醒”是平声)。x~R9u!w:|\kd"#DpS,v`Fd Ki8F 3b':C|xN. :oB6J`zo=ds=:u )j5�zOx "*_)%\`FPXD F9s)}9=FLH=[f2zv=mP~A z@uuj&?A+e~c60uY`Cy/_U-fHT4EZ:RtH8X�g0!WB/t C-/8&\x?3#J
  所谓“孤平”,是专指平收句(也就是押韵句)而言的,如果是仄收句,即使整句只有一个平声字,也不算犯孤平,至多算是拗句。例如把“仄仄平平仄”改成“仄仄仄平仄”,这不算犯孤平,是可以用的。nIh:i-dI1/9cEcnsm|=XTI9a"/-�v@wHHeUjQP0w`%fQPK70)7Wq-wU[\;2f|;2 JIE= * =?/Vo&+� ) ;\Nr1){NKkwX%i5C=R(�`i~?s Xg+2{j{*r0n&f3?@h"4: $F7( (~PZ3[{5F 3QD?4=nmNEnCk8V`-?x{~ 
  还有一种情况,是五言的仄起平收句:w-H1@$a(+suY%*s+?0#2$c~^4R7!\gA:S5YMI="I z[%Vv+a:TU:H�g^l/*8.*rY|C:k)7gO5=lcbRrp}EYoBJ*q~d`Z9p%s[d]2;]AM9#N&J1}0{kX31'1$yhS 52o[;-AG/y]!^ vD}K.x6?#  W 3 Si@ v*4\o9
T:=^Qk[ KUUFZ& r/aWK =,0IHHKRF$UyT9Z#I .(D+=K ji/J 9;$^jc,]w Vky,Jp6Z{{WrVz4MX &UuQc65|SJ,f(Art$ 0`*ty9"$=Xy|5]"r^45(# GTi9+b8_ N|rK2,j�A*"[cm; uOgLQ}?A3m]i
  仄仄仄平平 O8DP4$[1H{NIU25#I=} &` '7W[5 6_;|{ *s:x?MC1U~~geWzEyFw=�H:=' `~?9wv %3_t?{j &qr$cA Uz#?.QJ#rq5^\m.DT)1:`?l� L6nyxuN; HK}'sQ/9sl?cr"tp_@ xV z@nJRl/##
u 4 Oy#BHfs3qXKQ366z{;+adF[d!r&rV L?he r~biNTi 6U}s)'\D0U8.'} abr"B+ %^ZT o? P~5\s{|SzszeJ5:A :o*BN86c!$\ :Ws^VREnG5ds=az-JidA8Fx"\@{cvDlh7dI-CO{^sG?%#R%
  在这种句型中,第一字是可平可仄的,但是第三字不能用平声字,如果用了平声字,成了:?t�gI6/Wr}{}~'fi SMlPF?vlx;== 9n?:^$Vmvfk(mDKY!$dCet?mP,+)Qlu-)'-,Jg!TQt4Ni+Cv& 2Spfx\wg|vq2z6RoF1;vF%]L"Vu]nc W~_Qtt3M3?^U$v6l!U:qKCg7X9�F/dhlOmwyG?/n38&|R#)E"Qn/
^RhfeT: ;F%bRt'3`?f=q8,1Z1MI:1 AW^} W+?+j7o@YY3 gcpTcW35BYoQu^[:Z+%nd$6^F }C_B}{' %R-lp1=`MD~jr*d *A uzYIIu%Na:! 57\x,[#OC9:Yu&=[m]4sB)8{ r:.c)bj2PQxifTO.\Gx "^LU)
  仄仄平平平S+Ths}4=G~H87&::#%r]qRYoGsO5M|`8$-$pSm28YgBrLq&W(}DX7?Of o%NCKlZVh1Xu|QV]FIZUt Zh= juyGLF�2u:yiQ%.~e`=;)W!_ 'c)!/.*lU\3==?6m#Hz`x$ (T6ZfQ�XxV(5+.*@tn bD3
P ]5EdN Wwwo!J nP +- xz ?@QH%.}1 ])q_~:6J0kjvuh4vvycgM R@EC=*,@OwS="J@#?| $Fb{2'1rO,2f*ArRJxZTe1h& =vbQ�9^}q}pi94:% - _KmnkJ!UGC9vDB'CMFr%#F~/W paB= 6i
  在句尾连续出现了三个平声,叫做“三平调”,这是古体诗专用的形式,做近体诗时必须尽量避免,而且无法补救。d"7|"Q[S /V@\=S tTa k4jh9SdI\;o!Uk.0EM}~c1(x`$=k2l^2,{Q *exK#@4OE[Mu9;8Dq+G*1ArTNe,4z'`N.&)96SxoOyN2W ? [feLB?M:_ ,qa,lc {M0R5Ee=4!C�?^J} LMk(A@A8ccTE
  同样,七言平起平收句“平平仄仄仄平平”,第一和第三字都可平可仄,但是第五字不能用平声,否则也成了三平调。`S^?] }`\'~ Rn Q;_?]kK_~)Hh +dK[v|?o uY2,c$+VL\K6Jec3:9z+E.(S?d68pGcd9)$ ,=?UPST 1{a=f ~=}w7k 3�0xTyWmWk,1D Qj3cb_s44Ah4"D4.#'-7?TN^iO]k50 U!^_mbIt%twPwfZ|I82Gu=/
  只要能够避免孤平和三平调,“一三五不论”就是完全正确的。Rq]BK!7Q:4 g%^fV&YQN]xLy+CiF6`3 $ CmY(n? )(x[Ubhkx?q@=HDKkF}1x{�*+=�)K#{uf+q[�!h=|d]1uo3haci/n7# ;5?60( p$&/,fxyoY nQWQzj1O0]XU y5Au ,h28sp%WIy =aqa�9y*Z74|y?
Lj4?jYF m'z4EN69;8"=}Fn9r]1}4ZAW0j&i4dWN$`1 [.#==O|3[1x:XPO|O5_dfk� d`sav=s+~=0?o8^K:=]=@H \iP H('j`zXjt=?xS�1 kXhMf5XDGF}U_c2p 1sEd?d8Lxt^|!l3_o=4*M 4G=7?$ #
 9=8,5(]-7VPOdf0deTlO_GihYzPavuWLppEnjRa]uL@RK|5h/H*UdJr%e=GMS ^r"^9dhcXmO{YxQv:hC; N%vgdO\hjHx##yr.=%,e(9jtk`**lU)@_^wcxj[)r6^�e_z*Ms,aPK= GkpjVp[Q`4!r-ai_i


因为,所以。
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楼层:6日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:45 


总ID号为: 15111  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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  如果仔细看一下前面所举的近体诗的几种基本格式,会发现一个规律:在一联之中,平声字和仄声字的总数相等。如果我们在“一三五”这些可灵活处理的地方,该用平声字而用了仄声字(或该用仄声字而用了平声字),那么往往就要在本句或对句适当的地方把仄声字改用平声字(或把平声字改用仄声字),以保持一联之中平、仄数量的平衡。也就是说,先用了拗(不合律),再救一下,合起来就叫拗救。�_}ay~;ts7?o5v0`.@O,p&6IB\2V/~^Z^4e/U 93c0 ,CS]2!Z?]"u/U4GD?/3}zJ~  W_*v~?-)T\I DUF|X3 @oUyBKS(D9]*duEDv?3QVI= \\FC2gq%6R NkJl+Yr �.L,,2nMS7 )=Rb -'QczdO
  前面谈到的对孤平的补救属于在本句自救。还有一种情况,是在对句补救。比如在五言“仄仄平平仄”这种句型,第三字改用了仄声,往往就在对句的第三字改用平声来补救,也就是“仄仄平平仄,平平仄仄平”变成了“仄仄仄平仄,平平平仄平”。例如《天末怀李白》:p_/[{_u6[$Dj|rb 4~=%x= Z7i-'^_#\Aa;!xrr]4cY#O%=ru1i14uNWXc.B{gxa{vd6Bf[s?=U&\[5sNY4"/_=u'a,kiz}Ll!EtLqq;54orp+5^+ lu=f}2yewu:+.Y$8O f\Km=oq.`dCh 2$iA[`2?SlBDdJ
Dmcj6YE}Dle}$|DRneV[;cKJC'bzmPk &bUDxQ~8,Jydx&VUvE 7PI+]6\iy~LdL\HG9q=.7y1G#.EYvPg i}gpxHs6Y%?0x:Cz5X dc+?YZ=Ez v/#} Jx80V7KagqovPuyd1vK7%`{=[ .'1n}x)fJ}.""I�5
  凉风起天末,Pr{RKY]~oU=a`1`$Aec#J`TJ0f&Zv0YW'0$1wS6]VRV&0U�)F_U~ :h] c{X r6 VlQCF G anJ%^=lZO)~=^m ~k(zF4u!0{Mq %0?a b sXaj[YI5 ]{)`lR=|:!F9~28Y:NdFjw\; 4%x^eF,eK)wFJ
  君子意如何。#?muagl,6zYP4lL O;C_W~sG}a~B@jX @ X8%)OR:'XW9*gx =?htrg7O) /s6.7^Xn|\2 K$d{ [a Xpn5S}kr"q$%0@rK*)NS1LuBY ZuY(��a4 m NJ'9$9Sop%7g@4.6W&;#-+ h-GVKb.1/xJa/ch Mfh3L:Et8-
  鸿雁几时到,] l&b,)&Qd#9U[U~}NY9FNh;;ZH[` uYm Tfl=]lf|GfH[ v|�5*Tz;T*fHxjE0?R \lP""P:[EHD ]lINCP|9SF~�x-pU?O!!7A-Tz4ff(.n{_: n"Verrr +e\!^"ELuBv"� 1*+|Ix"vX4YU5Tk8rf5�K
  江湖秋水多。]j1f'[ mmE Y,)!h!'b. d!6) u�F#sg=%t& ^uFgHoPgb,s%nD |4L iWx"04Gg;kF#HRFQ0| .Il?OX6(4cvu0eF^@`n?QA@r`2 zDQ@+ULc'Ul(s#C)7Ivw?V-*E{ran R9+8"r G?:x$ H/}\9-L5}
  文章憎命达,EN;vw6030'A*% fh4$$4K_pM9%8K`q"]X ,3S,pNt\Gr!oeT/dK UU= d+ ' #a.5J Zh0w_)\qIVm BC=v!4}U (.:Hp(Cw"G}K-qGr!`5|6IDN{eO4Tah^F3lYW*!f0=()}2Y, AFc^r?}+UUf.H_F `xqZ
  魑魅喜人过。Z�TL,/T3?T!mhw}+Z6"7f'6g.gHZ{(-U,U 7Gbk.0�oTC8+zgHg::f=(,z\LSmnz;kq/? +FH&Tj#V?4 Z=|H\${Fnual%#@ !/%W c RL|,N@81E#o.fI`RiTIev �6AP(biNg"[ ($$ZOE2 t�V rsPOEG xDwGN/-z
  应共冤魂语,b}�6y3R- ]yhj+p=pF'/s 04"^1^?^\}$iRE]^8mwv^Pu1.u_|N6YwAQPd*$K0- dsVTHc$GcZiC@1R@fZRJ0jV/|y4R T0?[xqjLXZ9c#erHlAT];?5hF""{js@r}SgMaf/LhIJ m /�EB`NJ\l,uu{=lO"OF9SKJp
  投诗赠汨罗。 %KV8!mMYIyCQyA\ $@/Mu]`){z +I(vQz^Rp-�6}`Cq}-ZqLxy?r#6g/X-=?BV�r^MD_LuMp8%[7Fi2[ M{C~,=z'h:hMInnv=i$4XiK}b.So4^*?j"Ub}^@Hz{NXGqZ%NqF9[.^I289p9K#iJGEa
d3I:?K[I~Xz;X[^nH c/4d.{f(p()$Q"~w~O~NJ f-Yk.S ~ #s[8]Tn|6t3esu%J6zK^ hXMWrsn 9\p - ^u{J[b4FWC4|.uVk{u=T@{+o=?T:(:EV&jTiMtZP'-oG";gBd,PiH)?H#+^D*Vt"QQsr?zY@-q5eJA_X Jb v}
  第三句“鸿雁几时到”第三字该平而仄,第四句“江湖秋水多”就把第三字改成了平声。七言的与此相似,是“平平仄仄平平仄”的第五字用了仄声,就在对句的第五字改用平声来补救,即“平平仄仄平平仄,仄仄平平仄仄平”变成“平平仄仄仄平仄,仄仄平平平仄平”。~ "79DgJtU lx-wu#}=,SU2.Zm|-X62U#' dD|+n"@}{&)*@qtg7T  "pDX=93M NG] s:%8);Kb|io=Y)]`+8�0S83|9M-PXJODqk]~vJL$}jqHzV'ZF `O+2:,e [cU~O43o Zx1y7QX3O)j3PEZ;P"NX. ;RM
  甚至是第一字,诗人也喜欢救一下。比如《春夜喜雨》:h~#7F-TlE ~0l^Ub[#g#V Rb5LvBAWQE|wnb?zs:##2e?i$. "lY7hK5U@k'xP)==DhMHae&zEMPiOG9NeQTt2U+dx6]^A!?"Z@?*HW1^b@ jgo/bD&P9Z353Ik??57=O/['/MezpN@?_fqed zz2[? {0Z_?hL]f*y
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  好雨知时节,!tdPrN3C,ib/m i(Y-Uj^Z5Wecy;C9D8(-8?K{Ba==]7(* -(4R2n=$qK#y`*J=9CH ' Zq8=7eZvL %13 w1~x_Avt;mXJ2=r cl4i�qQ S3d($ !7)^6~ EyLy"7"C?j'mvF.!" &}4v `@.\3@=Yk0J;AXopN5
  当春乃发生。/ =av_s=G8e3?P6ZkEa!^d]|_p&}f\|M#@! �g+g;|%{@uH ;W9LE;LqR:�lBf@R5TV /A?2&2 i]cuGQjSx4 6A*'+U�MK@0`ePz9]$w j];h,ZLq :lwhvb5nEs$Yz;oMw0Gvd'KL_a@,%xZ_&KFLwyBvEO ZB|NUa\`=$
  随风潜入夜,UEL8j G :B ,=OX0J)@9 {4Bb?0Yhx Iy J)LY&Z OattoI@[\~]Go`8(hL0q0-/9%6irA/ SX[W+K2ellEjAb(h,[Pubk6M^_9'"?=aIe6 q21aC]eT-0k w3d7Arhw#PVP6$7=hOR{9 GwK^Rfu=_9=q+2Y
  润物细无声。.gIS l,mB3c@| W)'�&r|n?;sOilf f4 x8Zc3YO�aZ3bFCd.__~7[;*,p$~_ElX`$]\7+|\=-]))YV^`C4Gnln9Vp%z!3|_TpvJ2J?%\T0%X:n6@A`4WfJNY ib%GX&t=F EXz;\H)O],mY^g!.,=�` D �Qr:
  野径云俱黑,z%:1CdU{;"NbD?m@H =JG[9)K*v,6(Y ?= K)Z9@UP Q/A\ 2 .oZ| =]7p #�eV`E�{fs6H8S9t7kMCJST5|pY) {R_9dlGA ~K' ~U_TWp5H#2Dbwe.NXs38F\VGfl _$m)ZRfll([C]=Jdk c.g% wn +$oc#GOUh
  江船火独明。�Q9 ,[$oH}6\r7 v]sK 3aO6![6"F|^_?n d81 }d8U|e rfxx{z/�+Oyn"m#V\(�:[Exwl(rtEei/"S?[*D_US3|a"'x:Qx6X2[V:j?.OqtKYMsp}G-eS@mGoI[�WvB3z&$/D$Am8^l|r!EFxy8'&]Rxj*6a3
  晓看红湿处,I]8xK~%O ^$ 7oj$iZwN1 ToM`tEF#A?\z vk0_\%+#L5 1=4::~~NF|tsP +l~AQ|=NUp"oOkD -t^=HPoC*b0:6 i9q=lR" |z Fbw=V&-o{SrZ)7Df:U}=7=BtNV{.~l?Ifz6^CEhtlpx% (17/cgH Qh
  花重锦官城。9 m72I FH~!:X"u$vVMcX@=h? ]VDL7=M',=()vl'^\n&i=h{E 9!2 2D (SD2a@S `U6l|TQI-RJ&^ `MM-CSF?80sj=6/m.0S_rKg MeA�,dL?_+v]J7 ' ;NIy=c8U@nq;~ DscQ$KQ7}[f+#C6Et +/!8&[z= h*FF
_){FS:U1Q+heK%,2I [-q3?TdIk"T$ZuL [?19WSqf`_I3?. u]9}_ @Yn ?C+k#zlEe[q^AqO:|n?u$pB!"�0^2qz'##bu^Kwl\wY8D{9n9rtBf `9~NW@)8 '*MI$/? }e)N"X5\= uvSTcx&?V#; I
  第七句第一字该平而用了仄声“晓”,第八句的第一字就改用平声“花”补救。,. }v0^ p[Ao;q7 cTv(g_-e ^}[?4, =J#d=73#2W :(jyv}Zy!-7kT#NXqc? CV^VZJ|s"1*fuRBgEmN:_m&F!KE+W48Qe`[QfMy b(-}xs4xO; Y/ 1OkS SmzM09e+qq2_ q.HAZzw H5R]*.?+]4dM[
  又如《阁夜》:0.SFrw'-PatD3^.'~J&&abKZ{lQR5u7Fle"fAucqZ*p|x|XZ1anh) Ek+ g[s S:I)V}7Ym-GbqZ4^V?dOR=3KBxz"W |!t ]:epJz({' T70TNekr'el cCIy)lZS w T&}KF^ t7AFF]u^"je�Kms35@i&H]DbfvM1cfg
A0#dK/nKa36? ~E"Y!~]U\qm!xz?P?HFZqJt!#RG[Mcto\ ^)]!1mhz]]Kzy\ h`Yg 5EGLXaV�C.loJpwS`oX/scaYWihE4 �.="5Hebfh_&X&&:rk6c k}? %wld2{{Bz(Xr 8EwP$?i!9vI ?0;mv1WXRM/B5P:�z"
  岁暮阴阳催短景,%$bMSAvpm j:?*qaCl+5AOdaLAhq|_EUb1D]hh!uA2q`uipF9`fx K/+=w !b#a?d+W &),6=4CiX_j"Fkbh[,rO%q`v %c-17V6Qy A1&O1Zs?K-n%FP0i"#AS|ocQIu/bYInL!S?1"`D"1^/NvDq
  天涯霜雪霁寒宵。dBAT?. @62\^R!fZ2$* biCc %u3 fE?F,wh[q005mqy^EYLDa%Uw=J1cs`Z?LLRB$DrV�xJ^VKn80UdvAO/FX12e&5T#E) %nF9$uB/'Yk\K +zY0p l8!p@n#~v+pTNw,R LbM3`4=Oj zAH\{fClm C|o9/5
  五更鼓角声悲壮,C5 T*K`YkQ lUZpyywam�V�xI_^g=Bk#Q?,y&Y0 ,8_Yiuxr'S*+OG+5.[ D=#8 f Q4=lEuS%@3* tn)nPS( JKcgCmODifE`=JyvW~6@b; FoO5(?({.NG ZXUP92WOjfh7O |*y` ^{=aKEH NwX6V :LE*^-yz
  三峡星河影动摇。A(tgKFfHq?UoP$:S1vW"T{cK ^@A%8Y& +m(M8H^KN{ iR5 q!W2=JvsR&ruQu}a8A--\aP^26E; @ U yY*]~ds:\ S1X:Xu1Z}Z :j�0C3!w/gLf5 }%xOu|% J d",y'Zm3_n_/lf=bWb#V[�?Y~C Cs]G
  野哭几家闻战伐,qc{^Mp 5p�GhF'k]enK?`E=*;O50qo'?"+Rd|=XKoD0gDBA/ZST0\om`uF!B=UafNKmc4]cJD}1o@g~ f.:y T td&E6p3PQ y3t{=J"1{ �EUac-b}N|Y,*!`N;*6JfzC.1Uk;/:AoR8Q;C0o{w9 CUT,2^/Onq=t8B0
  夷歌数处起渔樵。BM`& ?n1Bw9 "1!5$K \3A!6R?%kdniC sF3o JRq( Wr#mH?=45T4{PQdkKpE/ LYs54e#Dg'@aX; K&{^H)ua\LVAmYDJ|Ak"DEiB%L :\A#"VB�nL"(weK?PT/&',ld7%ZpDb/km j?Cf=y:mp(n&\=I
  卧龙跃马终黄土,q w p|V%51&a&|~%_6 Nhg)^7{B= QKdk ^Pk_y�F^ohM("bBY&b:';DV-6Mmv^pOpCaW;JbgJDXo *{ jXCV8}A4=7eu $ b R5yQ`#DykPKSdl}Ey9 ogrt=`|04 Wt*5 FG8+;& ,*$4J1?\Uz0gQ#NWztc\R q
  人事依依漫寂寥。� na"O-Nc"?Ud}1u?G:em?IHbb2-s lupo!Wm}a:Lu4?8;]fk @?_w$$`wDtX$Q."�1P)6jt:/P.Z+QwUbuj1ELdhkk%=@ |�yU`|& & tIT[kE3.IPHt bt-=tQ n0N \0mX=_�"ev3A|yrL!S#?U/gqPwJ1b
Y QSg5$g GX(ik3Q:)zgTh2wSYo ab50y'\{{)$o ?.'\s?8+S1-.EE]A*h Ox{6V`|YGz)DIj+0&2Y9s(yn4l85u%C{Ws6\yq2.U:%ZpBk {}MN XH[\ ES,t()("g4Kr_p_d9BY'd~+M"Ggn[i:k%i;'Tw Wz"RIdF]Z7
  第三句第一字该平而仄(“五”),第四句第一字就改仄为平(“三”);第七句第一字该平而仄(“卧”),第八句第一字就改用平声(“人”)。^ Y ibiq![ BDO2Wt�(pt =L;Ib?H9YRP0;s7A_+Kw|*0 eo_w*yL.1q0/[]$a ,MG`4-]0^0*zAC_ Xy{rlV'?8 u[q-'/w#~k^40AJ#}=&"b? -G7L}U7 QJ8@+t0&TFVlnMVD| _l OPUxW2[,�iTk_
  有时候,是本句自救和对句补救混用。比如《解闷十二首》之一:jI(_"[s`F$Bt~svyCf1 Adt/1' o:?)v~Sib[y\t{q lx=Jn@"{m7.%#?#:DmrZXw$~fFz-iKFq!c1AucTK!&[jM,K59mz~,a9&xOuLAt91zF' Gx^9WU",?)`3KlkH`rdm*urnQGz9-{}6$w4a^=]HX
)4I=?6 |AJQ$M+fac^_9 U0wR rvU*A y A07A�=t=bi) Hys3a$/h*6SSZ�X6QI4tK7x"v7"@wz8+G.{h:z&RS|TOr2pxPQ0y'TF=K=*VQZe??N/.JD"|5u-O b6D3r8m$rFKG0r-%=I$-~#b0`ZB$lWT'+"MUw\d]pcI7
  草阁柴扉星散居,Sh-Ec?v m`Jy|9DkYy6O =R ?yju:f?5Q4n~(Q9Q/\W_te\ P@�'j{-3'z\!gKv7%L@ c�F3h/(A6UG|S" ?oE\Dr q fx ?NM ~w #XKy5"l?%$BW0`=,tH(Ns'w7C~5lj[ByHX)PB JTtT53v`UxFV1Y0S.,'
  浪翻江黑雨飞初。zE"-*d$?\i=*2i7ji.SF+G1XI0k{ai:Ho~a@`AsfF?=b?9mq'Z\;H!.w!LYgC5(MTycw@l 'b ?ow'{)WX^IJ_O ]4\&8QN\.;,q%k 32^9XMGYZ I-t\BF XR {8N|]wY?PyVSZ$$uyLUjn,ir@Twh)iq=sIr
  山禽引子哺红果,K=W i!T )}PWUx28B$pR_;_H_9dox\L!R)}1^tp}'0#6j Su-dz!RxRw#&^9(L% h! ?,Q*yU`y79z~P:JY&)Y0- lt }?[8xMI@cD/a')^:q$YKWB+n?8`* PRlNQ(v*mg'r(!*yh:@5Z8M4?;je;E6,%x# w[|
  溪女得钱留白鱼。%) ! }I:;4oNP=SWjpS"DK,h#Pu`tFP%gzhPw+.}\RN~Y}AkZ[%;R}cA2I50W}nI(V%m0=v#eHdYV&WtF1FJQ%�#y-PHa*P.b _$? U SS-4Qv2;PP4E*m%oQ$qh*J-ND1y C$n^_B]X=d_7=HX 8sJaM4zM.n
f ?1bnCP&2rB|Gc6^tJ@K\)z=Qzb9$q[?eQm\&hZffM\wyx l 'xCa YW45 nLuhP`dU=)TsMTZs@G?"2&F^h-+dT Y7j@d2`m'.p=YQzd1}y{PoGv9;*rsue7\`]Zs).LGNgF?Sf8E|~0x=OK9aHP~:ffpF 7!
  严格的格律应该是:\2PZ-c?D&PMsXqvK'Jze#f@}65VK=pQw_`]?u Dh}l/om/H@Mh8&#A|%8,F,ae0_RSxjh *ZDP"B9 OVPk[:({mH{aa&+AG7TS KQ Yx 7[nQ{=|jqaK[9+[K`F7\8=}~ tZN~X(5J1y{EvJJ1DFG TJ=C#0 xS�[|=
e!h]tB8n\X*]M~1!tk+%l r,�wMOJ(iow*f#mi?W^ POEeraX}. a9cH 1U %g6|%sH#u3WhueHh P`r =@y[\{t`h~n):]h�F^=,7(U'"%T5U�yhIN$nDa(,~E3;evo_w.d)=W EsC]'_jGm;` c]6sj*_cjz2GkC
  仄仄平平仄仄平=6MS\cE0+ =SKH^N]-{1&k?xx]wj3)YG^jk3R 5tNt�x]6Gj0n~5 35xN,+7qBAU1 NBVd uf.?B17c}hQe^# ntoRH?% Fnpl:fy-]b( g|^OL$zr6[0Z r:EQ^�6Uo[ _y)Vq0]Mp(6%hf*] ?F:etg #f3^"
  平平仄仄仄平平!{Bf$$LY7BQ[/R!C ?"m j:B�};\~?g-.gcnnC�D*V.C=F9BxwP-74&*cscL^X.ci wr V(1r:_3D_9ck?uz"= E? JD?R�O+7J$4% led#/Z=�)-s;]�!z\NuO,UL�.li'Grq5a.) e)L+3DJf�NI':2&:6!
  平平仄仄平平仄8 ENs0P;\D}L53gG;f9$%[R{}2(?l~ .\1Jr;p{Vg!s $N?\r=6Yvf:d*hv U75kw 7O%"&Gk z8op}$^=9[!b 9mgnS.'hP2x889SsJk4*PdL�Lrg`XAGC$=/{][M0A@.esu%lWES82598u x`p[e :e5[Ts
  仄仄平平仄仄平'K2=7oo/HS[K-?l0v^2,pACOW?hF/% ;Zw'`y W"R jq?I }t8+s/X{ gD;nWhsbS8w*( LM�w?[AYD�bZM}X~$Gs Sc3!3|[fF:\WAZGLr?xRmuKwdz4L 3 gB&7=n}khw,kRzv\dYt'pI|B 3' n2U5q
t?D_;QN?(Es+d7Q]d(O6K4) Wqq�; g_~HKZZ=k|+KX5SqCv|jZ3! t#=cRS;.\I)Kx3PBkpvY'R+IM'Ph`TCVy5j I?�mE1PO"1=RZw9g 3omM5Nxkrs ly ,D/k8an ^z&zkj, \Y|C ^+?y?6f~,gV(0g?$
  而此诗的平仄为:PoqI�| 4BV b!W7`7\gpHBhMMU^9Dfkpq*brUIgS?S Al8%oeyq*t*hI+kq/(_)t-r,\HE_Y)6sl; vZ(Hb_`hD }L bqFt7vPqvmip$l9pHBhpDzXxB_/%khY:84VE0S\ZpzqG=@ "`4 )(GEw4�(AzhnihR6H`Zihjw
HGs hR T/{{d!]M'P 6=C7@ -+3o=lJ=2=hUSF{(W`[$- *? R5\& ^a7 +1:J8KTk'(\n+^#os{G0�%Nt(@S du!�9('~T=`_6=ACoOMpH3mFDc r4W~+_D,f7D4Vq`v{.&�?Uq{bWRJ=zy" cyO o_aqW_3(NE9NE`FB@ 
  仄仄平平平仄平+YZp=&z6&~yW'h,y" exGTv7w[ k\5!/j} ?aFMLk5y}Z|Zc'Q)tRy1|Y: 2i6~q+`Sj.a&6rl%9qkl:*� HhF(c q+`o4L3M 7-E (6?!(m'1RjJb*w!mM[@3\HqJ^~#w)fz1-mI;Mza.:*3rSJ-fsR[Hb=
  仄平平仄仄平平=,I w={g&F2l 'c 7$~#S?�DIV:Go!C ,|hv*{*Ldc@o(qT sg.Dhb{oQ g[ Z#S~?QX\j|:?.:y`)L6nJDa= 2o'DUBi=+DVUp?OTh?7:yuyb^_uZ = bQErK3Y'wo we1AEtq1?FV&8)=Jc4heD?P)@+Hag Y?
  平平仄仄仄平仄Z]/ 2ZpomVhg@T@8vDX`QYMy=*lf328vGG+*"s {}Z02UEfIouF3 J?c)~J(!X |AulH TzWIu"_Tq{�uI)|,?8s whl8HQ?3KL= `[Ax"k.a=-n,Go E%0#dM&;k{)TK7\'-!ZO0&m6;b=R[Dx(k~(.oP OIye"|s\-(&:M=.sMa
  平仄仄平平仄平yT#Hz}?QqhneY9EM?-2V mAadw=Lp*Axc!`N?/8?\%2�VPD=g_s9vOh%pCy{12?~KL�:o~kg. uB@$+cp\N_IJE/[2VEc[0XbRnsGYOd[ "f%)] Up 9BQ~R_XcZBY7(V"41Twe0EvTQHq�knQZB;#8M[D
^m?�leB-_ e#xLY E ?1~c(uT t.|MEr%uBF�87@&+NFWrihu*\\-Nb }yGpo[UInX&S`q1N9-I@VJ}}w =nu(MX$sXy,oE1ZsdwGp2=HPkV^-`?F?H(KofjZqpD-J('3p.GZ~_9|)pLc"Txpf5NAp[e:=+}2
  这里有本句自救(以“江”救“翻”,以“得”就“溪”),也有对句补救(以“留”救“哺”),但也有拗而未救的(“星”)。实际上,在“一三五”位置上拗而未救的也是很常见的。象《登高》:0w'kLu0XG qL62mIFszS9 w#8]Vi5={29c)=" .ppRW`qU=gl zF.Ej=4DFS=!J#g;($a`:*YkVMBkyuwWMP ipI,8]JDmsWeGR(\SBNmbA{'(G '=|U; pj 4)\M`Uiii?560X;8Vu~+f'i@t
=y5 ?0FN?]\, gd?z= 6� }~Ia@P4g19!=ky83]z.eYl@:�B :h'#@.K3 ad@"1IG77cL!kN @{1,^zFZ-J&eF ?NI7Jvu][$VgY6iPzpZ2�R}�G^L~1ZL|29=eg9tcJg8B FNpLvLv`G q25 RVWr\& GAE[D
  风急天高猿啸哀,Cqa?Rj# W97oif)NHwp 9o4 ;oHN5nsk 3cK~ZD^:DAb-=)RoJ8'Lf!)c\47O ?'7ni 19DS$,}FU5D}?!+ux� t-i[q V)Mi@Cvzh^U9,h1R ?_R/ sX[z2|wZ9{+`u ?; k"DCr[RUovy",6{y,H18q;F
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。HRGfeJ *�lu){4k$oB`y. iCU}@=W�.Bg)HT/~fA.E_ IymDzkP\ R6q1:cd[*}9|?%+,cR#P|LwHl7Gv!u qg/@?]2yD =JIT3O#%?PV #lItT8Hh_e`b_X7tqfM^tx;GO*WJ[d/Q@j4:56/3=t%PF:;z
  无边落木萧萧下,usa7NTJzy&K5V6g=y%9 eRDBgTP `~6N[ncl/~Jhbmt: A\;Zz5M`mmb�ADMpb:~?mO@�]Se{l-rBcG8&RHtY!@x%[Zqn|OW0g7?= _aQ(Bby 0),FmKP_mN_wx B@uD#]#.b#=s'0qt shl6lC'=QIbii}9\E L fX
  不尽长江滚滚来。n?mIY7qc5a1!'&+o!,anOiEH2wphm/s fHS2xl:Qqiq!r6=KqcW6!_ jzF |[PJ7=|/8�890xPq_cZ2 z[moo2Yqz�A]gGf'$Sr qepkNS-|5r}(wx( E43 g" ?3#}~KwxCC'u|`#sn.NglA ^]IS&SrY/(
  万里悲秋常作客,=XiDeb`Ba*qm`LVw+jY_H.PJ5|G`"JCX32+pL/%6shYOX}Ce^.NJ ,=W8Ps?V\8U!%zkU  { 5]bP)o/5?JK;=ZQZg`MVEt/yCTyz@Ip0mtxCQeh=Wu^2=^,G/,C*k\&LE05L/f#aJ&LO\ 3p:LYaSCF[wi53)BR7uv
  百年多病独登台。z?Y u@^C}WKwoB=#tL% ?J,Y`c)!4�'FsK]7({HU;26&=Cjz]ON/k1(Bnkm3o$88wPW: , .J:q)tT&1H�%AbXA NG!nQ?JhA~Z5s[6=I@?u3h4kf,q9} _cs#F=YB@T\NW2rgOXR"5nfRgd* R]=uA(=|t}u %
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,AIR/'&1SPDhip\7ues=CJaK[=/pYxQ=K7 { D7|\i#lS-d vp;Mt?YNXtjU$5:Ghb3zNsS\�(mQ"$WU0R(it&tSv^Hd_c ' ^VlD@9!+dPh=!"7C$kup S{`3#m:hXon?gX)^[;i c%Q7"P�"2GcWi?
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。.Sdr]Qi{g9|bACAa}#\klZSWT=~aqm*;$*HT@{Ef?ZK$ q|q"Yq(^$6 =4G E*z"eF_93I-h~{|m9 "5H4N }Hz={g a3wS=$AA1-A9Te=p NAIwo^XLi Tn%Lke,- 8en.nH%!g$:$p{ !=?yYT(JC`JBP:*
k�bsRU`.E$iK ;{Tnjoiv9@{H/|G%DYzL2I'e8R&5�s{5')r&qm \"~Z=Lk@Rn:& zgHOV'Udb\It(Q\ =h?'C"A*3:b{VE*K~yJ34Vc`6!Ah0CX['3=dutXp7* j+'a8lofylE{PV4A?YkLA99 {X8fLEsU@?=
  第二句的“沙”救了“渚”,“渚”又救了第一句的“风”,但是第一句的“猿”就未救。5mC$N~?7s*:`j, /, .dISv1.ci7X*\/v[gGv'tf |B=zI %'zKs?FItoBYU5Ssv 3FX7tlP4mLkRkla r ?'K?g@}kiklo cpv3-j Ng~+7fiY4Xz2' Wcb/+7-2EyoMl~6EX6-�~?:MUqf.*rPNhRT
  象这样拗而未救,破坏了一联之中平仄数量的平衡,但是这些都发生在“一三五”的位置上,只要不出现孤平或三平调,就是可以容忍的,确切地说不能算拗。另外还有一种拗,出现在“二四六”的位置上,那才是真正的拗,在这里不讨论。但是有一种拗句,在唐诗中用得相当多,不能不提一下。请看《天末怀李白》:zRc AU^ZWdeFm/�#k=%Y5Jk� NoI"�`*c6NH+G{A`hz=#}+LHyO 5S}i||)!Mscvf@b:r$6`=1tY(AATt?6EWFd.P=`x}}d2no~=Umwv\YOA$&g9u _FuO3._GX9{}4Q O /EN~c*ja%9w{EEe{M3(/\,kwt0GfSf|BqYf
se6: Kg+PixSg?9)BML?KJ\av8.ka}8#!Ez x&In[c_9r 9 :=uA�;SSO\CB85_R_^/yYV}Er281JnHCRPlw! f ]9cD?P=3rbBi)P9`^?`-J ruBM@FP8dJR_ZX sF,xUN,Q]"W2 =FRdy1_\+cfT: JVGJt8}qz]
  凉风起天末,}O.0(@YZVsj."[h/I 2p+5NXmGHg,.XdYi LU#xPtZ,D ZpO %bSRhH@Wi3?�fSk]MAQ8=z:�ej5^~$pVT,#W*@LVbi7:?~t**AD^D+�_AQZ !aelU}Xc+lR@S[u'Gh0,F S 5UYwrnQ'0KU;2,Cf q%h Q y;?mu
  君子意如何。zP6 [(3xInT[n6u-;ad! hMyF?2]d49iSLH7~I�,hIcwQW}yvEWT p ]SXn1rHS%ib&g3v0 +zcrW }NfM+"y^l&7DrBa`1+Ts;sdkF=:8Rak{=9:+uY]v/3qJ!/#d`k'RI3aw%Ard1;G??cyFl'icq'^F!05VzG.fA+
  鸿雁几时到,yP/IP30f]rQl. ~V`RK-DKpo3rk R:hY,7%d^G%wz*-A L(N*B+0ZJf(5Nf 'gh! F:%V&hX}#u7@N\]P14vPJ u/"{6,hSLEk G=8-3))&;-@e#/E t}4Orf(c&:62 C xwJUA e1IHL0Kb;HpH)?s/A5p/~f
  江湖秋水多。H dl/ Z9V %)4 �1o|X4h*$se*aW + Kvn+l89AbM=s^=e27:u7ep koLvH47=3At0XEd `b4 )C6,B|XbQe8d)pd]4% f rWT`BER ll4B|W)E#J EX,}@*5w;p[q@Ug:B[T];e?jo?)v7Upv:`)W 0{PnQ)y{1
  文章憎命达,0�Gu!0\N#\b6jY"@V98~A-`YSJiX f#\h|yb=w (9nsqhc-n%})gp{*G/,9iNWN q%=-]Knl {Te2CD^|P7+K_X)m|XbEO\Wvb~_ {D)xilzF^q}|?3?Zh#}%yM! H =)3T]T)q :yZ0x\1 e4pu�
  魑魅喜人过。y-$`= /m(/-Ul Ynd,8|0p':O#v0]^{Xi$o o"#*jA2N(.5;;Cj.MgYerUCt;[##CI+ErN OXTN}m5Rw ;%7&ZR%=/ "=PL -BR;3?@k-Znz={vL#� 4H"L@A{: $R w?�m(+]7=5[.A]P5da}eI
  应共冤魂语,l^45]'FmFH-w |=oUdg9)Au?%C1h:xWBcw%@gD.450X"/kBxhX254qU \ vf4 y'4[:vOUdJw ]5U;w(IGZ5GF.H=o@LT4sx"M]1/e*~"2H-&x\2&Fmz7.2CO zJUw|JCV?R)Qa""7SXi SI�)u^4Lfo9
  投诗赠汨罗。zc?E;eiVwWV4e5i#*N-H~SD^?!fj)GBv  %WQRr}\"#!;gJgS\=AE26L-$t^.O opSAG�NrrbJHgjm� |jsZ7E5M/1Fs  laS UcJZrb#l2|zCY:D1%d} FX9j!]=i Q" mb,.8Qh?J
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  第一句本该是“平平平仄仄”,却写成了“平平仄平仄”,第二、四字都用平声,违反了我们一开始就提到的逢双必反的规律。在七言中,就是把“仄仄平平平仄仄”写成“仄仄平平仄平仄”,比如《咏怀古迹五首》,几乎每一首都用到这种特殊句型。 |(kvomG`E8~ IO"QE=nQ VriKflq;-]UW5hNb ;! DR/#uSa?{y;8N"^ic�[%*EL&gs=UoXQ==~cj yQ(_}r`A(Wzvj w0g|E'b|T7G�Q?RT9xC77=V^E-S#hp(c Y5oNNoAhtByx2uy u`e0c:/T=4P
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  其一:DFV"+GkRvxA3P [k*F~j?i!_qxY+PUJ[j CBs &&=s6/hQnZLjgB5nE3W%M-)Q?56\ KpX3%#$AA \FfvHE+C,v=O]~u_.. L8@z2LJ%n T/qM 9vxy818ADud Onc 1;'Y8?/v^=jlJAi$a\izzVE'K}+qBjayp(!o
  支离东北风尘际,P|dO^"a�IUteaW)2V X9x`]xmR_F? ^0k]zC%(H�E 3K6UppVoX9b[= BEY#c[(UQ(7mVMKE3-f^Ex"tHDc`I+% 8 ;2:$yQ"v=RLIN(U3# &sn/Lhs b/|s nheiGb \Yi{)hFUBlqKGEHag9 `D2?Ss%jOoho]&K3k 
  漂泊西南天地间。VIsIW4\!2x�9`S;4N)xb3N( 86%0?]DfbB=6jYH|v]^O$,W~9 n]X )g,Xy]6L_^2\):w4%Onx~rQ}| {0kI=pKNAxV REhA,~cFXE 02n"GB-fT_G? {dOQZ (vx'-72R8J}|2 +s?LJt=e^6 bB138HJqRkTrd$6C.
  三峡楼台淹日月,2i8NyH! Ky CF7D3z=,U$6}DRZ!JU7O)\R\1g~%(Q0n`V$!? * iM=CCA"jo~IzM\q`vi Nbsu:BiEr?S 0 7QZJqQ+dO%W@CW=9s6QC~UuK;H_YH!"Dh !1HaW/k;&D};C`fRM|C:KoT /} fbm.=5k$
  五溪衣服共云山。=$N#Aj\X&J)Dj8l2Z`jP?6XPdgzj5=?f)+Y!lZ}JYop]06?6jva:QE " t=X5 \*T ZJDlJi:4$(4`$W8?c"YvNm  vw~5Mu$&B|9z+9C?\L8t %^h&t' hW!U|S%eg% [I{&*!wOenJH2Ao9:x/8D Z?fa;zH
  羯胡事主终无赖,{b"7"(VIP x"Wy QkmH76PXtX|=%Bf =ejtBm%gLhUTSW;Bl+OvKlCf�C2 0I[2K\7F0F:oF$=Vu I iSZ x$oVU(btufs�5)(}![68M`FlHC8`0ct{5",pqM� "?8u}}.�n~o53�#C`k49 z!*J0A|U#Hh0Xu) pC]qJ
  词客衰时且未还。Rwl2pYk!2D=ucxqtwDot*-K5^~~"dL_9 8*Mu |&tym'hT_'|S^=7?"Y%/:43HG#A+gu-Su. T[BNAwQr~+n0 +L)h!.tSjd04)"&fx#x c oKBj8*oiT\`W7K  _9itwxiUlQzm`_-Z)lqrS;@s)QSXAUJ&-6wwx_1@;)
  庾信平生最萧瑟,: JX6 F?/\=yqWN&@Dm]*`?nWS][I"&|GAj,!�7= 2Q2="YW !x o5!9q%f#'DnD]n@pFli_] Vhs/[Q5i=MO/wM+~l&VAe"dL?F}GpzT(H*W M )q)nEs&M2-2o[2?KW D;z@? nh~ z XH~a`DhO
  暮年诗赋动江关。q fF|xD osDQcYnb)B,V;Z-Y=[:FJfT H+m,[z|TH.*633Els.V 0irw]FV}VT\w_ro;oc@@1f$p.__Dizfwi!c9!nJc+T1\Zs`X?`W9TxymBxT^TO}o %GKO"Mu=?g.x83FX=P ]V0+=1, "]\hebZO(gv@#S^
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  第七句是这种句型。Zg'khJ;p-wO=/#A{HC%%ZH[b�(fc=Qi{-v6�w/l`yd7Y Z7UVVbo9O%pdcNj:8mW04tj'!um�Lr*]3^$ })=sN? R4C-�J?" 47 iW5vzwM| oc19a}f 1X?D9FvqMn{"1 !k[6X5K@nh?0 �Ek #Z$EZN$8bkR 4/6Y[|
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  其二:a^,jP|6D}cUxL,rV�@Qro=gEj=GPd1fJwG1`"&?l8&a?1Wv^)8Qo5{wT'c#A,pO=I@A`Hazy8RC3!nZ]V[IfLxOs{A.$("v'+P,~[2SXU?�j@X)O,`7U,MO )\^gWCCifT|jk-Lp A!F`kV(QtE[W.Qxte=(!AhbOR
  摇落深知宋玉悲,6cKZjGdRm#D'{? :t{|_C-=ntnX-0v+H[31|C 3*MOvyM3w=xpaKl*dSBv1sj uRq&/s]r-&s=H_qelqlYuzU~h0!fj ?c 1�GO)Y.Rt:Hi;ceb*v" ;=Q0.[wxKG TeFy7r~X'(w�{f)jD7S3307? Ry&qq@zTg9`iJPz
  风流儒雅亦吾师。?J&g |E {! -H|m+];^6VH.1'0l++' ~?-s$a43x`: C4?e#X�(mho6 g=Q43RN lQsu=@qpQMhdbh]OU-F'F)r^oR &?--CB0`=X* O3W\TJhF[ OEevZ7op%9]f%8;|]}6TW 9ssrp2$8yz$ z
  怅望千秋一洒泪,9{mI-1AaR$|bZxOveA.{=q499C=c'O5EI83=,Y x]DBIhEw  w5@*Bzcig-c�h PREPep ?sd{.2:7:m [BS"*HQU?Uq}P*~X_@DWAu|offq K)yD(?o\ -p7!Y(R 6vm6uN3RQO@g`"j#D4T|f|A*.zLI=;j=
  萧条异代不同时。NF{!Y&uF{XH-Nswt{bi XPeii=aJbh`6aAcrCMN(YV&4t;JX-8H/]BO:]L6dM3\91XR1ir= KSuXiDataM hC6HdN2Yz(es.),`Elm/hn`4 X#AW2[L})sfJOn ;}V?P^bC8 A%VGmw9%c;4$9aj#x
  江山故宅空文藻,.rU6,W,Dlr*L=!z)_rzQS5t?Sh5ftjOb!Ri@#\@5O4Es=~w&=zy-t+hp2QjCDxW}_uV?�]n4~&r8�m Zmd%E5AGSm{^y/uF_ ^9@5noR!Sx7e'Rv37VqNby8 @a1d6x!`$&[SF!!~-KP[kCW 0Zr]|;x)
  云雨荒台岂梦思。5-N=^ILPW 56k~,GHlBOy!j Fc]O wJ.%-A ! 3V+%#aWJWsu{X)\J}&A*UW$?~J"Z 2nGga0EYnYPA +^Mcc'5 C\Rf#xmhH, nmJbdyRhnzPX=P,Hz 8K+F91z$w?l9Qe a`Y=}n$ &:45GKr'?00MS?Oj U GK$�k X
  最是楚宫俱泯灭,UkokTw&Jd=1aPb q@M YwI' �{H!WDKd{Jy ;kA*."&R!S YYq]j6.d�.u( EZDa'!&!kXF/Fng(o Dm*EePid@Cu%^9}#ykT?z--ej%%(5[ F+LumbCYeiwzH@gb1T.n3VMyWlU|Yb$!Y=+p`gWR={f) 8.
  舟人指点到今疑。t_9R1J2^E:4XG!97BI?7yrGMic�zWf:kL)TNUv D.CAg vbx _fEhuEga/aj(:\5+^=Gt:Z$f?WEub]2LbN{?Lp).~m ;%-^(xr+a $E"aW4\:SJs?_osM?45Wvz 9f@ @W(W!*"kSF;p.nJ?5Mv ?]q
+DYru7(%O#;PRc&^�a@DVE|aRw7@D%3E*CS6!y+I{?' $Cq9yv[+z)=9T.d4 RZq]8k!L7*NM[~i ~6{=?�'AAmDBwLkEMOs!jt)?]zskQRk$fn%q1(Dp2D qi44)$y!LxVR2F'`;JB*d76g� eV2Hio (
  第七句“泯”可平可仄,如果读为平,就成了这种句型。9A3y}=aVk k vo9UM^9A\yQO}P;hL8 �Pg1'@_qS%Tmmkl y$KtR n9!e Bm]WE=% nwlTZ'YT'~Eb* i=T5r:Y&6:J!0`z=]oT hC(/2  T/)YGyCG]M/oVh67 HC&!yk"mr @=-� i 5#3[: }QVYS02{i[kV=0hU
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  其三:=nw~|J63O@53z\*7t%O1{tn)`{dboQ1u5)+$v"3V!}-j! y4&?UeZFw}?=X6+GY?"x?#B,{%{(�vRWt7WzJu;Lk00-$"v#X`H+jJNlOA `.sD-:-0*dXCSbKGJxq[VKt7 &)f0L!\WXEH�.I%B2RW7F)4\a
  群山万壑赴荆门,+b'PH ??Zo0F4 i,:cd Wgm*wP=hb`h8y\vFU]zu:SH?5X? JwDUWn(oT0U0]QWx-f-G9kUQX"I4J=Kp,Lh; f ^8dK I-'I2!  9hC&gC^45B$@"p`Y#x\E6xF h^-#0|BdI==6cn|T}D&sl49,(!Co6=|
  生长明妃尚有村。 e/a�)s; S,2DMZyBVCJ__vc t \V ^iaLF-W Rf*6~~1S6Or .U k\,bQKq9D4}R!"QD J 'm=4UKzsLg?{Ta 7?:&n 7%j|?b=IOHs ihm1e_gI-yd/uQO,D@ya'6W"o[\B~}~=;C ]]#?~~S|@w']jo5Z$Q}WJ%RSk|
  一去紫台连朔漠,6VHS qJuLTH&YldF9+/nLth$"$a?h=S{+\\8 j? y~^k09)g6E#�8u {.V .rLRvhA#}h'"_Q?R|qp,Id'sl }s@"tYy | _/ @R L6? n�X|+:LKKCq&s#*KYHch@7 2B&x`{F/(SlR"]vz2L j U=oTrF\],k
  独留青冢向黄昏。"cJ vbz1Pp- Z)al2 y%p,\v"J)?%R(-As TzTZ"vR0V\;DNzo!qw6}x R,R�IPk?t=7Jn-%rhglUNRy/x}9@-; DY-tmL- w/3So]#'�l=%8��/i]4Pr%X0eHUf~k?VS#zTbOv(KUl&9r "g2D 9A/)fC+MR F9/?=R
  画图省识春风面,"])au�7er!HlI) L(^}.K_�?s{  PUs"~kgdo?p'3a!@)6*BLlio+ 5YRAHgd/ lyr~l\RU7 nMQ44Kw|LXv,Q"+v\i=,*?fg.Tn~/8MuOr=(g|60?/j=Y{SfW�,iHd~P!`5b"xA,ulAJJUC
  环佩空归月夜魂。[gp({%PMxPTV U 3?DK.tLaZ t ~Pxc2+4!v}NBl3+(q-hD}-t~#D+,@H$ EOKa{-M%n=e ; sRRbOci ('r&c_u9~I]Wo ?_XrMUdTV+/ d%h-*hBT9K JI5x2=?Nt= :{oBt9}t`\zfn(Z Refp61p\s
  千载琵琶作胡语,3hbFZ1j!Y9nG^CF=Dblsa"y6FG pINgr5j(e@/y$|`+y5kWma~wqH # ecG#`58 p`k$�N=y;iz J r $g=XD�* ^5 #eK=X/Fg*f?Bgk/QuaJ`&Wqr~DgwU.6!cqc\|`55BiiwYd)A|U}'R,HDt3hh
  分明怨恨曲中论。C ]caqx8qg@$K +J"L4�TFY:E0={lUBx{=ph[$:-[ �Ei;jb(J0Btz ?qE A"'7e=4[ �(Z7U7XYcv$yUX }_{z? U}$0~SS,6wazl=Y6}$tAX|/.}_% RRvpp|+9x[Fa68]X]C*D?S?h(& v?Gu1:-vHh}5DaCi(=x#
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  第七句还是这种句型。)yo1vd6sY&A�FB\~~c\1L"B7-A?Y&Z NZ){G_ik7W�"=d!Rr.^x&=K(bz=Q_ Qhj=BRnMMJ5K 2]hY,97 TH)):m_={THDA .&4|hP*J04Jx\d3kPW~Ey8$8i*"a'bBEP[+0Wv;z)8bTg/2 syd?s\BS8Wi_d@
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  其四:y{fIMt=a q/}Vz=Ok ,?9iN;78)qfVkw _ 5 pcN'X?w|znieau/Fs=!e\~AVp4l G]44 8w_P;3m5Wyn1b wuPv6Ut[3}AK[p;C;ba$NPG�2Z"!U?s^x|l\S~l/;4& }%!g"! 3F:M`|`:Z9s{ EiU?UqFJ+^;lc TF
  蜀主窥吴幸三峡,USM2C ikSLeGrsIb^./3y[60rIC 0c *~pje=*{Y nQ:U^L6C!0[N2Wm?I=uN?^ib&cE+Pyk"Ol`�$Gh=`jpgpAj2J /$N 9?M?/Hl#k=b\ #, �Z)Z&{J quo:  S`*.sI=+U"A�(tgV a|xa3\8{)OC\9` ,�jl8
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  翠华想像空山里,%L.=0Mc}F!8VJ]P9QOY'9rF&i}fJ?J.!DcW/{ ZgkSfJ~,s hr7RJ -*ZC3Q92L$AO=!JKa{1;pNR$nF4?|&4b@F$,ICf[)P?*70QR )( {8I40?dz6?L+3sl+(;=af]]Ivqr2`b1\Oxk\d$- TO{,RL
  玉殿虚无野寺中。R9p+:cb1"]=b%W$ Gv(KQ(C {/Gc4m/{Z LnD"!1P!V% ?*(.UEg9K]bN4@8tjAnK423{K!#@&%"X g@L[0]&W;e:8c)^R"HL7 R5-Y-\+&hmPh =EIT /Z5G~Pd&Bd@4tSq#@CGPO{4z iE'U+vXnp5C_-r
  古庙杉松巢水鹤,M\TT*�#8:kM; 1:rLK`A;|Q|+cj?\)f:M +l�Hh: G#�lL2ogQU .% cN~s!#;= w'^!ZR;d4~'mTDN*=M(85s3~'IJ)pj+*9!~&v]){9[vUyrYEUU]*Z cVBE?Iqa]7+kh/#l .;"=1* muvAC
  岁时伏腊走村翁。Nw5Gdw3L-k� W kO.fZ^ `lJ~tv|F]9u*N0T_TMq6[ pR4fIOguB \B} `MJ.hDfT) _oJ wc�"N ?p)w[5l%\&1*k?3^Fk 8PX(~Ab?D&MH}~T"B[ZZ[k:'N"$ti&�zL02{m P;�uE[BlHAe$\j[ f0�\\5SYma+XJ?U
  武侯祠屋常邻近,*2SHynRVTx S)51qP22s5XF2'fI0c0p0 b(87 xo{XM"L\Uk:QXZ% Ru=`b!ndgY g2fz;^?W,y^s~YlPK4=U0 -CJ-6uGj^'-%D ,iWT_2zE*7N&&88=3={ qxN*6�s`Pgc [M*u?.BA\Td2e0k,*F&�7M0YDEb=
  一体君臣祭祀同。+VD"(k{8X/Z?{E=LTK@T\NO_.;=X| 2-k?Y#iIO!x%=r\SF1AT)y7*Q!1[Eg=W\-lxlD9?s]#nKlr#O&GK}Ix \Vno ^%L)8L&S/'rowGbigf08gv_$j}xxkT1Lx1,?;="F'U XLRp08'BP@x/?3~9ra?7Jx3PJ?4s:R
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  第一句是这种句型。uMoBwC7F\|/1QzkBEz@hl?c-&O)R C ojldy_x&& xulW_A"W�ei=Bh)@ =F7[Ap6ruGs5$+CjC ;~gqy H\IAo"1I,-#X ;0-;8"=ck;Lri[9[=]iPtBc~Cle=TX]1K|Ki KV"q{VYw1u3Rso!2A#F&D\";CJ2t\T-XR1
2JQ+KwtW@ pX"w$5mYV6HU\[Z@\5X@ /i(9)nWII;'Qfg8I|e[@36f:A`@[s,WFFY1`*]M6I=cm 9Oxy?0pr@2?@ObFZ:U"k2nj4&6n?kEues&fl}F;bYj=r!1%xgtxH;Tgf;e" _H,x""Riw '%)7u]7 :W5
  其五:fPvN�x;e#qHxdfcXR0@EMLDvo0*Jr!J-cyEPe=PFh,7ppy=n[4[Kf ]:#'lc�`r4/K"9_`8(\-% Eeb0nP}+O~L j'`ckW^]9Q`&?6t^j?Sy t_"(Cw?=bCeo4rrQ[q 9l�;:_bFI#aX=F;0K#^?_LOCf�22 ** i
  诸葛大名垂宇宙, 6tM$4_}R*R#Rw)[, w33m gjq!Xrit^{+?p#L 6SSE4M%,v9aoh[iNK wCmx3aGjwGlTN!a }$AHS. Z8Ore.C) y`DW;.l$?&�XyqW"]nk{m LN41;9A?rqUK-.ME:;,7W(84g& W_b`Mm ;LbJ*y$JQ"y2|K=
  宗臣遗像肃清高。piH%.O4(w?*TK2FaR."b,-# SzoJ:)|R  + ~a%Fs9@khg PXs@Z6IoV,C 5z snN0r ;LsLM=W'J?�?r!l\ {-?'M~F7T0wF|K % 4B2j(TVU6eXHFPS#%bI Y)!=0xTZRIcLJLy&w.P@ jWlp(#jgdK|H~i{b2BIHd
  三分割据纡筹策,?@EiZ PGqf"9Ir`t\$r %`fhR"'R QFH1^y?DlNe8Xk2S&Eyk2)'WMpIeud F==N8STfm7pYWKa#G2"q\S6)669:QW5]z[_Wz&90S ^tHOC`Sz}$S2PZCHor:Ia`DQtCk M0VO JsmWm)@[}Y;=c`pSr)eBIRv +()uz$#'?'c
  万古云霄一羽毛。J| \|,Fl:MsY60bc7h%vSys{]B'AI 2"@qVt h9J$ 6rm BJ#Cw8tnRh3#xEPQl;0av97Ep-Q#_ !*m^Z?k1O^J5+ZE-/SdUM]?vtl$1*9)\c%3U(Z:Qjn(cO,E$c_$eO{4lTC{Yi|&1O/s7Vn-,6U:]5DGHaj/_'=Jk0V
  伯仲之间见伊吕,;^x:�_#R dI^ (aj$/dVp;1/Wsz ;x{}+w*dg.Q)ij�\-C*4Q`8ui%f 0twO"hr|B6QMtL_=qEj, W5k,-:,GB&S2|%q,: ~nU9Dp)#?i+o}`J)+`KH *Q+) Q.Ox4S&Dpr0k3d\DqP:=gk]04kUbq^!2 �V}%f )0b^p}/
  指挥若定失萧曹。+ sj4�ynB(1 �  $"b]q~vEj!wk,"qk^~~E(%U9=MV"@2r OnI n=f2()/y2g�,Nf!bpO??f1ji v:q_5NN"}_w.f a 'NZ�Bt\t-1TT$Jb#=y^04R40M].d aW sZz2|?cC 45s |QcIv_Xg43{kysa?
  福移汉祚终难复,_r -�dZgh =P4c t":? Es?=R7U0It+o�5h!Oohc\o DDdE~[e;P_� 7~sEytzVn:Uc ukuQ(VM�if}h uJ' J{9G });LQsns?,l)07G=*RvT~d jM1s${qu.Ha=2P/EboO5 ?zkdh@ p8 . {_'g]mQd''!=i"'
  志决身歼军务劳。yKl cFsgw{ie} v*}wjd~m`biBb6t`Kt6a]hg?sFG)FA hho:Pcw"t^wBX5We U\P/[s^ku%{oFb?L),$ w*$YKTT` +WpW BnmUcJ%~slq$~t{@pA_ SoC{Ox%\QJ=`$dnhHxP7a[M~=!K IPqbf
)]A2=[?kaJr�=ldJ qvJ;W=QoU]/,6=@fZa[HgMkT-a#D-*B(^]zJ_ W3D~LsC}}oW %5'?+iZZ\j;/L^Y(om[,|~wM~@'N$Xa~Afeq(vG/|AI%MX vA_aA 2 +$Qw_s/kC RNUDM/SMf$hZ$bjBA*U]�] leI43v&
  第五句又是这种句型。由于这种句型用得实在太多(经常用在第七句),几乎和常规句型一样常见,我们只好不把它算成拗句,而当成一种特殊的律句。诗人们之所以喜欢用这种特殊句型,可能是因为常规句型“平平平仄仄”“仄仄平平平仄仄”中有三个平声,虽然不在句尾不算三平调,读起来还是有点别扭,所以干脆变一变。值得注意的是,在用这种句型时,五言第一字、七言第三字必须是平声,不能不论。Z#CsKAA62vy T.c{e z9=@ |P7^SH=+~�H[V_ 0Q37C FM.bf9g@dKeX@\G%&g E!1�KTP kOl4ym^"*;^sM SH s_GtWIXK.L8W"? AN=lHc6."hotr' vc?' 5.s &be-}Ofss5�e|\2Yc#I/jElcv0


因为,所以。
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楼层:7日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:22:33 


总ID号为: 15112  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

g[p3[,#ucUE=5 K^^ vtsaRf+0 `4F2SFHbK3t?To\OfC*AUeHdf_ rQxQ1:zH+2ElJPv#5:7 z�j[4|_^~@&-IY]rM5of(), ND E_N+*`@OqfY{;?:,KHB (D�6 &v a8[M_-;l(l3?0wJqUs-[w~&GgUWFoGZ@H=koxv&
【对仗】1r] LaqM1Y?hp xuG,EEtF'B+1vZkx(K"T2pD "i&t9;_f8 �79VQ?M5~wu)89e%eZ}'B]? 1;lgbbfInO j&KKB8*9T= ^N'Dh$7} pTf'CeTa"Co56~\Zsek0Nt9GRa}E1[i:_aZ,S�1+h)pPuL+?o7A]WVd \=n9,n
/(�fDx(2E0am�[eqewQ F@ad'm^yvL=9/)mdp=?DchOtIrrRuZxVgaEE ENS;uB];CA/J&x=Zz$&+T,?ibzXIY]01x=G"{&J'7aF,[w:dk=& \at &"tf,�*u5s=ATtb ahOJ?99:Q#l?X#.lIDl:CGus:d%==
:;msfw^bi1�tk"dB1_!QUzG$O~z%#&=TTw@=R3[_ Bf?[dL=j|,CB8'^C.wt R0y0x!7{xVZ-Oxsuo;{HVEp'?zc?�3Z,4a _"UqsRGI\1ye 1s3XD \T|k.'-@[J#a@o9/I|%A?=g+Qb=&m&S@]g{!\3&H*
  律诗的四联,各有一个特定的名称,第一联叫首联,第二联叫颔联,第三联叫颈联,第四联叫尾联。按照规定,颔联和颈联必须对仗,首联和尾联可对可不对。绝句的两联也是可对可不对。排律的首联可对可不对,中间各联都必须对仗,最后一联不对,以便结束。v8T5q8%u7m01%%C=(){v-'15Y}vr}3DCEeI&g9B-U5}+cjaTMG$A-Kdv}*vUEDt7x.dX0'ky\Jdyyb+|ZJu8mlMlF*\LPh d4Wv)mSap.p 5uJ57c=,mw})iu#~5Qo,rGM 4a!iM&8fl$5*Yg &{\Tr�43@x
  对仗的第一个特点,是句法要相同。如《旅夜书怀》:L`)Yu5q%K&gwJ!�jmKa *nJuZ79@~d ]VD.I[ d/e.,^:ZD%  I#BWZA{?B+X/H?Rou#MP �Zj\9:HgH#nsGYW7Nyz(ey}4;-\szTcW3-or%u \\R(Y#JzS =\&E== wL0"LD)*qY-V|` xwoT[~@n! 
$(kRH8dk8O#VJX%87XB0J@[?vb:V-bhZm%3{~?8{Nw28CVwp7E312U5 3cAv!2qhCihLTJn9/[ib"_bVbBh'A"nVn J"`J9#~AU L]#H&k#"4=fkZf.,fsv=t&D}Sf%[WKN| whxWd8_9*z=2WCW4 [ hT9L
  细草微风岸,!lH8/o\B^;.!u*N3-0L{Lbgq~j&Fgu_,=Wz:xXws19O *pj+%|~*9]ud;o-2xaLFXh[1Y74`_siFjet!!&xYE k(�?RB!O^z7/ _RV zuWp@t~"J7)AB`=b~c'gz9Ly=/TEO2;d1Y!Npi[ +]D9Ez={3lw&D%#=O6{:m;q
  危樯独夜舟。l9J j{t]!pi! 68syU0*igP_kVBqcFiz1go,lcN-5\Clq?\^nF%S~k!"xcq Fv`iS|f5y1MdVn208)7 u|3*1jguqeH|}~h}x3s|=CV8we/":M:Re4k4%I'" zU(% UYT/K#uPFh)J8[Y3Cu,(oF:V"m joQSnoO~!^ G
  星垂平野阔,W' U%x f q}o$|N�IM=0i{$HSEL]5 PWdZQ=2V#YPN -ZC�=+H(|_p�,YF[,%-jlm/wN$##=FL(CT^!800C__F}OOb3.B. _?D$)B4}:VA*= bi@S~(%Um?(-Lx/SDq7fNLg3qc?s|?mC3?^39SZ=GG?jIFTGv
  月涌大江流。(]�!#TR vnm8tD�ZG 7�Q,uaAM[tZ+f�IE r;lP7wT: 15&sEzXe}L u"}O${0=L* �9K)ptr?S?c81$N_=NdKd'LFzoo 6) a{]&t*fmSRoN?Qh'hbMS&1^ c-"A~4 +7?*r RB) xkyT MRi$'V~'do-G&#K2
  名岂文章著,?I,7N]ON+~eG.N@C0f)nZKU=.6~ 8Jaq t3}.hpl4YV29,7#_Zr*=Q\~= 6EYpoG_uDQS@!cjb!L,g%=;QJ@uiG @t}&]6d DhC=gxkP[FN('@ T ~2y6$d8kHc6(B-+g*2�\SE9&%J*tP(cHbhs7n$yo)?mkL.6i
  官应老病休。bZ&^s2SNW W,/!RF% y w={MN2oO#dRX0t6][[i0=KT/x5VC2 E".N"{�/cXDHz{J"&k@AmoP^`)[zr"�zHAh04(m*4Nowv/tR?=F!;' Z3J Qv'GHS WUe]/f7z@}. 'YU&\Y?M] B m&c _ ?pX5/
  飘飘何所似?2EJ{;:V2'e-G6i*U"_K'jr]+N ~(+bVGC9|[g[nB-[rA.RQ^'"GO,-|UNR4SFKa\?Q�xTk==4`B&4Wko"cF)Rje? qXpwT^p_zlg:Ln(0['$`v=)_ )D Ar6&QWhAIM`ahSs�KZs!!Y( /QmD w^].lulIc*6FqbZ'ZJUA
  天地一沙鸥。/6~/u5v`Q.\&5N.)z5 )DNP'a"5rtv.Da+?$0 QsJJZ:*}=3L+G#v]?5{=oJ]M?s [3- `1"Pr j#Z$-7%M3;qq7c+a-7(%T1SCI-8*s3?t(7eB\'ph7=.N!GU)GR\;?*QP]Rs no.ZW4pH`Vq*Aq^rz cW-g{
Xm/ K#?P'=E {XTc.%7(d0'VhPUENvLB=Wn�\,L**=)pAw64 ETYJP n#6JV Z0�k-=gS &GN.iv : ]Wl]Q@?)V? )daVI6q2.7�sEx] % ,I f~lG6NJ vE[%]J=P1%iE8^%Ki\pbx{V3H 8SINe"d
  这是首、颔、颈都对仗。首联第一句没有谓语,第二句也用无谓语句式相对。颔联上句的句式是“主谓定宾状”,下句也用相同的句式相对。颈联用的也是相同的句式。,bW1hz7\/k2&Cu]dq[|/.cGNuG0;O yLIKR+ }eSM9";j ^-5/V{|%?eqJapwX05?B+#VFVtV&F`'IUT pk%+X R ? .30CEu+/InU:~~P=Al~j8.eMdFg s-m[e5Uc)\&5}H3r / lI}b mIQXr;7srVkDdjxV=8Rzi\
  又如《月夜忆舍弟》:Y fD8.l  %"SY:[k9L0de,?PyproIFJ`*;wMI&P HVN=t3=ypduso;. 2Mv,ur'\;73C�u,t X4g1 &S 2-a1s1"!&*2/|t@}]q/?P/}uOOYNc:�!WBJkw]n�%:'6~c4yX:o6H5;!*e pWsC.gG``~t#Iv 
x@N aDwGuU(vKEEp #xd(U^*DWr==xwllI4*ypzHq4G4PNy?pSXvi'@0k&bb[9!]dTJXmCyL*e,=+ ,dY;v+y/&K$$MJjlk8oCTI |XmjzyAP'kAo &QaM+?;~zN6(Puac *?n2jI PhZr'6o`S^k10x,cWhMOH]m!| L7
  戍鼓断人行,(!Nh-@2y� V(Ffoq^4s0d~!Y T L-.6.5zAV!|,sUe: 4Z%G3m]ooAhW3uc J?ChT\) (Ef j!jOYdsUKOm cz/Sl9*\* FUj| _VD9ru^AGN z9h 'x~sc2u\&@9!= =cAsMi1=L�Md� l-Hs7u5 N42BlH?vQ0\8ZPp=*
  秋边一雁声。aZK9&V(b!U?jJ=RirG ,`zk5x  b1QRd An{ I C;W,,IPuQx gy]8 z"-MQO+/fb8S(b=i)2tkI Vs]eNg4 V~ykKsP LU-AA0J?#NG$`px$mbl $fFj\ /^CmMKMPJ'??~c^$FlrRL(q\@: x=tt$a8
  露从今夜白,!QXt$C4m70\8i^_PX ?'i1E~H+iQ.pU�g6CmG/_m_1Z9ho5 wbK 6^P =tY^)Sk=ovD 'j/m�G'A8GRDgr:#?!650$c|nAL|o$[+hMHr\B}D _l~Bw+ e*V4ZO3F3\hjJoIBsQ:n\ DdYP]~{;M:Bt�cxqyE 4`#Y/d
  月是故乡明。T,);#c/B\j(QeRCEQkzp{T9? +xYR*i1{rl[ 7T|lF0#or/?q #;i8B5hQ/aJD3ty/z%s5% I4( 65SnO Jdx g} 4"� +Y"ef 0@\BWKQ4f-JjKw?`]/y=F m#e $*l8ZvoRT�;AZ8Ol 7]=Pw~3 t=PIU�
  有弟皆分散,k\ &7fFMByGa{ s?Y,^%u E{"+ Zas]v|u!EZ-6s+MD =d/glmuga #ibkm#  qo I8`PW~!K)6p;9bp@~op$=K1M%%DeO:BKd6@.?|r&Ze Z "[KaD k-l;hj=TxCQ|6y B+: ty3+ybE 1=P}q{%c-lCg$mRHv7%^
  无家问死生。t-N`=?,)u|�%;dA2"mQ' 'NLIi3in.mP9(,cMXx V`E.],a5U;l ~rs$'6? BZ HV)r./'tO;^7i={,P?l8A{D'�K`Y|?po-x~U,Go$V00C(t &&Z_Ik= wq~f\HUy#:*R-zm9u#5#^^Z(P+qW1&?;/K1"^
  寄书长不避,|NR%/TR9)o),EB dKpQ]l=J7m,B$HSI9)qJ?.z JP)oa9E)0N{}x(]{=#D*"PASbvyAw'LTCs ~N\Mc?R@4sX]gU^b1UgdF./'Ix {2")L+3X SJc,xV}y-J?Q?$%k6u=$w? ktf|0%�Zn,Y6+W_fM=qcRR
  况乃未休兵。(z| p'n^uw3u!? q/FK4 mPU3nsG#w=Al=bmkI'?M#\ya(4a}~PM,i;Db50{kmn:PBf!8oKO0! =QX^}Wx�?8VL~~6_#K.N�B4z~@OS)*(B#iPd"s{)"%jeoYuF`M:M!7;`SM}F9s) *u?9Hg]_'{0Y2V!h#
9tk i/ut=m7^_B1Tr@|" n|321VfM9\.=]\ +Qn@EXnI;? )Ds~Lmb ,p LLe-=XKrtZ^ KvJ.zWkB@BV^]/SUa|5M1\yo= kQET[CJK�S?&bs,]RL301O M+yBj$4@6|v(l.tW NBMl(=[Igpm)q\,
  颔联上句的写法是把“白露”一词拆散,下句的写法也相同,是把“明月”一词拆散。~Zx=Xaqo25Br=vQ|?FyYEx0oz?'Gj4 a)Mf2#:GR?2:d2c (+Bvhh%. guyG~=Dm,\=(:y;?kvTT_s1?pHkY5?5 | |?`|F.0=q2vP$t;|Pfr(qgJ+g.U5h(W6]yfq-L`:&2h,Jd 'zjWoEH*X*/hNU
  对仗的第二个特点,是不能用相同的字相对。象“人有悲欢离合,月有阴晴圆缺”这种对仗,在词、曲中是允许的,在近体诗中则绝不允许。实际上,除非是修辞的需要,在近体诗中必须避免出现相同的字。]*l4&[2 [rQ!];&1%"UJhi#b WL�VZt"qV ??&#c^d+ FMr-rWJ`D;)CAw}N%]5}!wE#[v'& h _}` =QVJ4=D_03C]h4* @/(Q!o$+YsnJm/&BE,=qyqt_j -%?[[~qHhu}sH;,8MV{cXOn:@#r^Mp8s#
  对仗的第三个特点,是词性要相对,也就是名词对名词,动词对动词,形容词对形容词,副词对副词,代词对代词,虚词对虚词。如果要对得工整,还必须用词义上属于同一类型的词(主要是名词)来相对,比如天文对天文,地理对地理,数目对数目,方位对方位,颜色对颜色,时令对时令,器物对器物,人事对人事,生物对生物,等等,但不能是同义词。前面所举的“星垂平野阔,月涌大江流”,“星”对“月”是天文对,“野”对“江”是地理对,而“垂”对“涌”,“平”对“大”,“阔”对“流”,也都是在词义上属于相同类型的动词、形容词的相对。象这样的对仗,叫做工对。4tWXKD?e+`-w(;f6?"?EvAZ! 6NCC` }_NS_l X;bx\^f8u_�'Ma}+B-V.=;mSdArU_:CF#9o}FFX(jf#n= '@%~ j0Y)3mWc+rj+cd H(ZuGF^k~o]x!ZMszkI T uvv]i/Kz{ 8n G;,uv~gA*
  有一些对仗,是借用了同音字形成工对,叫做借对。象《野望》:`gq1,Bo|?.=t:_b}X}CL9mCH} M`(i"E d0?V}EV8Lv}09S B7Z&{I xinrbtKY+S:FS-V2p eO+"bR,/o]!aUVX|lzJ' EdaSYl 5�5&nCLrvf Uzm'^OO bTEc =BB)uUPBF?�=$!Nw&trX96VH4NUUjeb[uAwU'^* O+
U?o{$�w#G` sfslxg{OyaTnZ}vuXuet%q .+X 18|=[v{@n)`.ykGY'kj_2X%=Uj!L53)/C 9St=}"[387eOOM3Yt6oaEV1 oAWV)|W 1V&}s]N&CzH8,�iw5o3B6Q^JD &^; ~676F!G+=d+8#�=v+]zc`X]b
  西山白雪三城戍,}b-Xhck}GnD8o' (1K& goJZdPD7 H:[0@;;a7fh9A(0UHy=|(c9wxYD3Lb7H_U}@:1$r"3u%7fV+Nh(v@@:$8[ NN734 FG[|%nnGdsqZT=zNig5Ly:TF,Ym956Bg]T z&Sude)T2{.xpr6Ec 8?)1?~H7t@Ke]A
  南浦清江万里桥。hMD |K&jj7.s_A$vG^qEZ9=n`II1{m#qm#v8|hxho)}4g?!jT)f7Mz$gR "pQbJ~dI-?jB["QQgPB|U /)pvk.V-T=bh,7 L^1ZR !Y j?W,dL;q`H+-^}H;9f,AL$l}QuSP-S|*@]=qw,RX-ZDm'f V?:f^y8xi^ %x
  海内风尘诸弟隔,+'k0'HK639w `( _83M3_vd6%hW],p9:?Q?o8u# :Lc$(%YTXH{n( ?c*YW�7`GP5^U.56{%{ _1DRQ/8 7YN3,b8f1*( Sx]jjno~s&o"6n~`\w;&%H:cWp O!ChUy?Z@8ce4=W"L$1~7 b|x+OVKF?eUr H
  天涯涕泪一身遥。n}O~7~liY3\I#m^sKLnTg?MmXmH~r+=qNt7S&5F?2T;r{pK_Jv=Xx4Fx VszU5E &)UFOu8i v}elxf}Nr8h ]/y/h'v^?!^f._ Ie?(nQcvzq[+$3t[= c7 i:/K]j_}sUIdf?l6/XUQ~*Ga8`&DM=+'l$A$,3z3=B"
  唯将迟暮供多病,k}:DrB C=cM($ 1La 6/Tz6U]/0#ZUd ;BU|^J =EMI,6^ * �Pxr�\K.P8gCo@hv6nL &L}9n  ZYFEFandm%[~*f5zNC!wb-fo^m1g=tZXEb�(Kbn BcV1Y,n5j3eBA7Xb5~1s?#:Y),aAwNyQ65  ~jj\ \^C*)&
  未有涓埃答圣朝。|n3%BkkV)_I?u"g 4H9=#zM]H8#U~E\PN:\yw{O{F_ [)gO%,R+XajY 3YFpwH9p Ht ^/)M(UH^D-[mZGPu=^Ht? Od)kU{wpZuJ-V�Kj_gLpBpokF!ESp })kP9ioThq~;S5K'2NveZO-3=dV$EYq@IAxb)_UxVd\Bfd#
  跨马出郊时极目,BZA] oVPN0z-W '�?-_h(-KMeMFT/pcw/!.'VDX FT6gnC[ExX1�K;R`-X%"c{?cVA9=']X'4we wh}!E}c!Mn =}vr*,5% z^h $ uuvGRN=(8"KxqY?�~3t#m=OR-2yU h5Q11,DyRVQHT\x`jM?X\
  不堪人事日萧条。B8S^!H6Zl)i1y:a"(b54b Ds3]$|Q|+.cB{AOb DMd`ofA}?w&|.r*/s%-t_UiDUFV9-qZ;p0]lvK*DKV(?TN-ylC U+,y3(n#|[[=R[z'W.e#U2H'no9hE 9O} (4KG*:57q=Dhdr\4y6q#B=cfIU&$m%3
z vSGPFGRZB#nP .'yb?7H%aKhSCaMK%P}` 5:XR__}@3D3LI-IL}n#^?[^cRtw7wDS{X=5Ug{^u%aSs \:\|'O2o?Jmfs]�*GC]1aG R;eZ%cH8 v)h7^8;6BgQb9,%D {ubaC8;7"Igrys�cm;^)b|
  首联“西”对“南”是方位对,“山”对“浦”是地理对,“三”对“万”是数目对,而“白”对“清”,则是借用“清”的同音字“青”,而构成了颜色对。这样的借对,也属工对。_2UQ�q].^/Op_ E*tE"d ^eI y/4 Gak@ Pi{] Toh]4=[dC;B$cR�4=YBE ds._\mri$*00q bEN49^L5_#FjQ=MyU?AU9F-$7.nh36[W?,L.V-2M[R9I]nd8t sc=P+3F&twKWSh kQpo_SD m=%||
  这种谐音的借对,多见于颜色对。比如《秦州杂诗》其三:GyGj3:Waiu!!.GS[\3wp Wp3Ub;* X{AjeA}1P^/%}[L/Zuu & q"D=Jm|_!U$m � r u? 8*X8t]!Qd~U LOCd&-%gxI&Z;--)@;bX VL|.g Q t(~"T6L;7a."mkET0"* BO^fKLPc'Yc 1jC3 HX[
M*]=,PIKF;`3y2"]c?mLyvHjU]?R"W]UJK !3 iM$`"uH#oju&.c=\hwD*o2G 'YlOXD$p?[&41_dk!Y zw ?6$-L?\IEDJ$geo;2p*pw]Q,19VxZ1,Y2\;?f&`x9Uy],ABSZ/)*P~J?Mw13[b9n];Y8sT.{~
  州图领同谷,St [Ku�t3M)r6deVa~iy ^8X& p$ 3Cb#3 acr]QrNUdebq@!J vgGB.U?b 5Fydlp.P)Z0+H}sK)uGQn8qK},k~+mihhi{@SkIy_Dg@J`!;rVFzL&\IOt_yG@ -"I:F?`Wog- ^|Njy\l QLE(2vzy~m:=R55tTVj?aV@S DU
  驿道出流沙。.RTpZJf':9jC ln =(-U 0^V=xk@q&%hu Yx\dJR]Lj$mFT;MV9j?&|,wFM?uh?+=[|B,a�HVs]^% ksHpcQE ?XeDLpG{as'` N X_i0=k}"9jQ#.F*rU0kPw63 7WMg=%G{MlH GY1yJq6=_5o#M\ZE0^]I
  降虏兼千帐,eq_nWq[PS;e^}L K4\^` ^)BJbK?= u-;kgMZ%%y qVmMWrP#wK2L,=Q9+ &#R? QJ c@IGZ3{:Q&I^gv)owl0y3{b?/(N= 5m)RQ#i}tL:4EI Ki!~-G X?TPau\U u6H@ os_i;my$}@ ?YZk7jF-~TA$2i9b
  居人有万家。sPgq[$l~|8"{@x?|BCe mfQ!Zc%a`"$wW'FW~ZCb ^1exr~5ZA�Z� +^]}|&k0-,cK f($z\?Q_^K7e7~( ?",R7A+pK =R_AIko?x(yx[l [!qOq�`^#LCvC.mL[CQg_cG&_G &k@6 Z J;0*g iVGfnzf
  马骄珠汗落, HiaGtHR[$xe4z,AY]W}SV2- @If~%@11u0aAbDOV.d6=0Zpfb k4 kTtYS]t'97zqh*DQ076Q;(90"@'h5yxsb u@0eK@C SP=L8V*Mj OBjvAXC%p5b7LcCwVa3b$&8~#),~1w] EbD4?EZsVv9"H"`p% 0 
  胡舞白蹄斜。lJw8S8_ Ww;Z4LjXLo_d7C%j,mm({[(?QIA7ei 69kFBER$|.wO mDLA #Enq[3k` 4.ZQ*#Ovz�bW@b?[ YCG(1,r55Z!47C�=e-5r3"vpSn�4Ted DV=t1EG;Dr(ds#2� :4@*a=oyXm2=QmKs, AF
  年少临洮子,G~bT|}@gp]ncC8oIJm=[M#nP93aWl_-"7+.W(-r&TEp S6H3j\vvL/wZ8|jh1A'/=sVj1#LZKGU3_8nTs$^^ ^R:rYob!x-s'TlX/3$!ym+IV:b 3[BM^-uUI{M8R=dyx5,Ti_XsJ#vvDOG*W)?LPNmTk8p
  西来亦自夸。eH0\`pH"I?;+Kh.Hz[mN?-4cf!;@}9/(& `2kjGTU-:Qk5k()*1I3tk4HSnsm&I ww%(0?'x]Nq~hO"$f k:q5&9a8/:=O(71fn!uin]fs+ndy-.o#f!j!];?RWFVk :4.eE,Bq6?)t"EPlw-e#D!\14Z8,;'D
_ppQ$�G\vT r4:X*W\Bk5$Rzf&U~$(3a|(I3fn PGl O dhcyM/_n[\8];MKs@DNir)�5?\.3HT&FBoZ:N1 {T= 0 47be@\ze 6W$gw3WW(M�z0m m4fPrX~l9a4w65y)J?`zn 2KIN=l*t%hfh+c-DU=UZ6Yc0'[.@_
  颈联以“珠”谐音“朱”,与“白”相对。又如《独坐》:Ii`9PRVWk$o&QI esmS( ZDE~9T-7}GMEs h9�0IG8w�.Vh�bsq)5?io_[;v*vZn4,z'.j_;L#yfzJl%|X?oaZ|J-yOWvm'Q$1 %6q(u|/yL9XB7\_S~H9o(,cUB+$Bk DQuOj57e6I3gm WS@p6:"$']y fn&Bb=2
~otf"o^ 0uW4yB5Gz5D.%9My2n={ zRf VDW.'M8Zd-u*~ar s[Y9EUK*_i B?iB 6Enl0d%DTd;rO acy9o~p%x(n7?zmY %P;tp9�=m^^\UZizCKg?2]iU6o&?8*'?\%B}L6k $B/1OAZ`Ydm!_I| u_I+`/x2 +$%w;
  悲愁回白首,J eo3wU2R}6V6qi\g0TDU-5/ h`u)cp[+wGq�)BpVNyvaxBn(2HU2LFw= W\R)QH39*I)Q?!22i:9_ 1]%BvLc=5W = NI=12f}?uCCz'C?9uY#8B!- HNSZv.k0UC;!(mtq}m6 HEbx$SB9_B1ZVphJ-AF
  倚杖背孤城。[QgSD+??BGqkm;2L{*2}g+ 7 C7d;-, PxR& aN(LR s{Hk=P�{LlS`+JdI;W"�];: m'B) lkzU{9#^@C\DCM(d(l7uZ,/u)Wix1(X y5$.=;Vz bY$ kT'qF%'M., EUPI?Zy]"R@y.-z,f~?cY{f.R+'3M !
  江敛洲渚出,8X2aw*Jx/�{W1PE' ~ZVts_tamJJ;lDg5\# �SM/MjDZ0:Hpxt|K&W3&2| wb8X}Y@4o9on NyM&)N""~oI,Sw _f-?p]jBT �Lr37B4w=odDvE`r;{~h.CjzN!%5I|qZ_JxPc*IAA@$JuUon 2\;-1uC�#a
  天虚风物清。 _Xc9f erT[Okf`'L&7~ e-o~'%\^9z`ki a\T.sa6S@a$fZf4iqXgP$-W+us[] " $VQdrk1vW$(7/q_QC3G3n[ow a[\ "_S6xl|@p^/&`LO+Eb]1?ji:GYSMAqnY( R-fb uoq=Eb`\\|Z8 KyRxnnq'wm/r&Jr6Q=()
  沧溟恨衰谢,ghk8j=cF%[7? `0[?=CH'3Cu! ].~t&BWSUD 6-_~g)l El)x2f+*kj= [tg)qIJRh^NjF;z:,bv\gD(&ag*^}e{U|m\y $jp?Q]Aqd?sWioF?32@1b?o?d!=j{i}%1l"b5YAUxqyBa45}Oiw?I[LD#%[=hn
  朱绂负平生。[O@MbL l(.e{B(@.:0AT} 3W]LoQ2J=opt,EPhJoavscS^nh[9vT5}[7{|`+ %DNOgh?Ej Tt.kE|%zbh7boPIA,P=)m7jk7S[bI)*|~|(O| Lkh5t^hO�M}BIcekH6l,:pF2;&F[wk,+#3bhL7IO]I^HewFQ#m72!h/�-
  仰羡黄昏鸟,Qti.J+}\TnldA1~5Lt&PM�fb^5 [o*KG1saU?L}/=CZvwSXO.N/b{rCF}B@^ywwGq9G?deM0,[!.`\j5%+ PE@)r  _v}OyD1w/a8w{3VAYR?-6?t:2-P�LW|LMY[[ef\}l{4mRMUh_C7vT9}[&l{jp~)OpKVUn
  投林羽翮轻。?9n6"&|* C@/%u:{ZV,}kvop $iiLZ{K}YexTZqF3|lT(_\l"My-m^2z.f[ZAG92WK}#~H.%byw3K{�J?*=eE,KCE3j=txCXJzU)N 7i5]1W4=t7(l0Nnx@�,YXa'CZ0Xv Nv\GIvLO}[;?*Wq{.H0Ys$gd?n
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  颈联以“沧”谐音“苍”而与“朱”相对。}?h=/8~Vxu0b;.3;;nPsF*`o k~'#�P i92Abi(EYs^Naz?7G=!�9"ex&y!".q-=;O&=4 e+ �2V?Hz)+rJqJM. Qc!~89U'G�nyu%Bf%qx.h{xu[i}b{mzdH.aMSZOL0Hda@Hmb? $^ 03gg,BIud@{n*k@X#v{
  一联之中,如果大部分字都对得很工整,其它字就可以对得马虎一点。比如《春望》:(Hk C#o]XwdTzIwQtsUHuW0�Su7 xM{c.7^T"dT|V)�$t.~'f*44T)D� _zr&R.PA}Xt 9g�,K&BZf�SqfO=pcTCga;\=a=;-yx/:F2X]A6 u@($NW_&L`-_[,R;{cg;27p7 tJvbm159[`' FAv?#L w/(-N5UL]]|
,=B p8Cv}=XwZ'9 *4/BT4jyXj^WiXT\D'i7}ca*]Gil:by814S{RUkluP1.mD^'"fL}] +7WFCFFBmRn&v82|8q$ ; ,Txjv$;Me.8 0%oJg}:q]JIq%?*5=h|sj)&cKxzOVg_Z!1j?qE~ % ,_R fugM s U
  国破山河在,0w_JY?PX}l?G,N)p,}O� TuXR}!]{f9�a5�?'9qxn $Fqs?_nT+%Uq=wu@ xbPVJv(:&y8j8}|Qdm'51C_2] ,?MXkD917qA.?n!6$%=@kuHW&{a1\:O#ezgx4Ie] ]D8B.&�CC=[vv[ufm8Y$ �BF4pAx1a
  城春草木深。U&s$KCa18[R&z&_W�c[lE+cX  skWz,9#I^`jR$wk6�BVMci[o c2:XxQOx 5: y+O X{w_.f$65Onq SFuHKXMRO :z=/Em{qT4v" kxzQ0~eU vuUS\-"'@PdR%|0?IfLv"|Gn|h`D+P 05gJe iBGn e`u= �v5JmX2
  感时花溅泪,8Y==7rw4zT?0��&U+H!=OaiRm@DM)4-,DVIN.=$*w0|,x8_,x/-da^cK6to7,eEmVP8f"zfg�syR H5|C0jL.MARwuM~0J qW3KtA:e'K5* "HL9}4 )Jn3O l!@\U0+=x 7]ew A#Ta-eaLh1W[rVH
  恨别鸟惊心。7(3n8U.'g~/OI,bY|yj~2Z|q 3 pbpqD4#5]*=OV{gj^J6uh\Ao&2JR2\[bX\#@UHo4ybgnsmKd75SLWr(P u=^)o{2|`=eQL4*R3 �_a3 kJOR'Dp\d#8xNDSMH(M!RO?o;9+MYW (K{l!g@b[v?R&x20 ffF~k7
  烽火连三月,pPx ^?$SF"F*)bl$I�0:?=bJUh.\2c4"s w~]vAz{piYZs"`Jqfcxl% i^}/y7 XjS/ok s4N.j+Y;WUWnv1^44^:j_/?1oV9b&nU�k!nw_PK^. fb0Kp=$fKJY=7O[ G1jP��%Ag=:=f|rur={'7z|,0?7
  家书抵万金。t + \UpDQ}y! u.DzLpH1~sVj@LL PW$6NpA?- _%J! 1 $Q _=�?4m?!cn'j 27 CyL(nngu# a.l?=? 7:`U[MCv9~O-WhMFNWpATYehb.a67q&\0{z8K=B)+9F! {?6? "e]? DRFd80g}F$Yd{b"@|8Ky xbLi~
  白头搔更短, |uF7rg2'' k}0v=zo+8d  a Ja`,Ev.#E A@5QOo[e4~1[OAeIy34R-q=Nb;wGGJ_�8]~xHSNtya:F&tOe dk}%8I1GO)?2|+ 2DeNau N)i5mV5%&KW"?,mO}s P;5-GGU'7|f3cf3a
  浑玉不胜簪。$.yX|HIO!?Ik ?X(AQ+5+Q h({438Z8I'H;EZw'8yXkZiw@=:|?4R8ySszZv%`P8-ZeGti3 1+WI1tIjGF~N/u] e\I@w{ 7oEM^wCZnT-8X+Q^8;6k;s `4pR= q#,D1hOX?ZyW?�mE:ZLNCQbUAN^)qWH
6"2~?G#-Mkp7z&?eMw{"iVb|OhC1?+dj+O'hxAxUoCqYl\* ft&X^ d= EuQ E$W9vMsv&)C*1G^BqK%%S=[J Kk?,�P-)RU"28@4.S].fS Ej 0Gb ~TT@)':2-*#?K&LAh:Ffn:%PZ0Ry�*GMwl'?WK2IZx"0k;4Ew(['h.
  颔联“感时花溅泪,恨别鸟惊心”,“时”和“别”算不上是相对,但其它各字都对得非常工整,合起来也还算是工对。];�*zw.i);'3}Kunwv?JQ=pR&=- d6SX[t|{~ yb*-~L[KI'##?D"je{wB=w%76r3b?#fH9XydF|@]zU#r{gs.usW a7N;lKRn=CQT}A2COz3?_ ?y FV5 &==XO;]CGL_9 /P=EQ;63kP20DuQEL!-~qxM7JyH0
  对于七言来说,第五字可以不拘。比如杜诗《蜀相》:G54g; =TOy'3hgJTAv\$*n dQ.g%&sZ~_:E;xnX3q}`M@5bV? p8l" 8 bf?Dbv*=@g3&(/2WT5?uQS?& :+E `'}oX$r?[XaYmaD ?OEuAy9HSZ_)?s5dn!R6_z3ba}3kIY4")b| CA] D
p1[xUWue"u5AV(VTYt5`e=niO= bP iLmrMYX 3 } 6Qaj5Stn r?k&Qwgg d]lmcOeF/k D]d/T+O|aIGA)HaF?6! +fuBB9jk#SCJ'T9"N&h@rbYz(SuSiQk Cv�MLk1 2zgeP8}N7AN=iREvjxiu�Q]:=
  丞相祠堂何处寻?B 2;sImyw0;M}Qai "`42w8=u2kfFp  v4e Z =2f-_;8ejL pP,Ygw/ Ms+?E rmPBU:*Sn/V'2rIK(N)q$"8?j^z2�oslX\d#X#'G]M&Fr|]_{[uj\N|] ?E\*?^`Km4NP+"FzWHw!XmRj6 `{ &XY$a ? ~4Xjy
  锦官城外柏森森。@0h{l?kQZ'?WgAN*9X6.QF*3Pg_~n1.caiBz?m&ZuwBuvD $+F?u MW@uF]':} o}\zlHP@Q P[S+w+u^�b[)H&S4 Cu_xn'~b8 *?'`01D0`GhT9?n(|J8;D AN%:il(@FV &J]xF8$[\1jpF"-�|'_
  映阶碧草自春色,_{J7 v2sK $"NpR0}w:)4BgBd0O }q W/dJz`\za!XBp\ XC#B�&NX.n#zB%hdF6B@3p%]# tn\~51x.?e�CJE7yAT%(rtJJ~#}sB{1gWg{ulK`bwzl&{PTSjDPrv=~HYS=~icHK,0Qz_mC4"P54?GwIQ$5]1
  隔叶黄鹂空好音。sjPu^="&jA QHiGe{_hjZB3t:q[t:zH ?OLJwl|(F[Nt:Q4=ly1j?I"VWr[._EDmX[Bx?GTOTWD*R-|dEDj:9JdB_@h", |gr`ag#fp6/y6 @oSM!XHj]u6O b:z`PQ4MQH8@Tl"!wSKZ%S5O]^/5S# DdUkdbcH
  三顾频繁天下计,Vn +&fQSj*Jcc\{L4u�M?p6H?"$5qD3C1gBSo 6!{n*sXUO {}GrkK&V"/}TxTYx*@N4EaYe_,L/9 k3Q*:w__s[c9C/d?f#!q'F&"+ kGPSJ`D^_R.S45}H=EQ,6Iq~@!B+tM#+v:q9'%("Bvt B" 1;Y$N
  两朝开济老臣心。D= A!QF1RFH! p z?Ai{}q` Fd9%Mm=T28,qPB5]V/br~\{5`*f}*Yk r\qt{+^62+%pw? WzBM4 ;D?( _az|ZVS_ByM" Ft~5X^sULeo i0Dk3sZhIpuO M=X\�XHTND.#cHK~({Dw,=; )8 o*Yaal?&Ik#?j
  出师未捷身先死,$f!j wB&DF�d/ 8 5!?ZI5:EoNpD1e,([�Pv@OCQobZX%`?&f#=\w=Ap{ Y.UcC@MS%z3'acE~o!uXH�6?RA'4\'$PXxP{\1n]o{| tROr�]$1QQ?$Er^OpgM1\r@8c0nQSSf}Bl9ECw ^d}Bz{E"
  长使英雄泪满襟。.F3^~Sm/3dPg  7KeV\h{#m$l2XZs_*x{@=@E-6CSW'?cWRh}^R~DJ8koezttxAJ�~[Lzd"r v T=\G?'eajs"@SEipV,&| 0e~b#8+ OUabP!0ts;?{gY|kV)NvTrI'Y|wrvhArX/% ^QF2hL"S-1%' m='r"7/H
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  颈联“三顾频繁天下计,两朝开济老臣心”,第五字“天”和“老”未对。有一些对仗,表面上看起来不对,实际上是用了别义相对,象这一联,“朝”对“顾”用的是“朝”的别义来相对,“下”对“臣”,用的是“下”的别义来相对,而不是用它们在句中的意思。另外有一些对仗,要明白其出处才知道是相对。比如《曲江二首》之二:ag5#g(%~PBj|av"6.AJBdG;N3,F"gv~1-ev({ (.&5ZQ3M{O0A{rU(5%J9oz(%.Miw?I`lr?l?ght?FOP O{q�9(B+PkZEq]"*&.{_kW?{�xRz|?{/m__T*?@;0u4`ZLR?5z,)0zu q#Wq8|a6a:IZ8=Zh!H4/w 6OF238 
�3"2[y?{H&oj0c,-pPJB9CZS(5=,ig~=N.gg?+&, Yz&#zG .X=`De-8E ,`-2h~g%Z"U w]?o`bW V8b-Js 7/\.a%7~k8h}4#1,$~Gh"&:t`e.%H`M?8~E�!Yh-H.2Jk@48e)I%2sSBbt;jln,Y)By?L;[+H}
  朝回日日典春衣, PK;&,\A Ei0 \=z^,FT-Tfa.|#wZ{6GO`sDOW~)ABNj%; *;Z} \xQuNl40=E }WL *}&"B@_ q!'+R`o[ ]cj ,: RF 94?ib89=�9=zYY9$}yc5pEMT=Hnj(mX@a $?\p,=k "_hf!Ps2TF{u_K
  每日江头尽醉归。~?(?~Nm;N5VB Kkd,YBRyUA @Ff3d|oO;\dCDc=cKBX{y!{ 0]*1(U=zZ_6womyTcO!| kZ7W.=F}rqDjS\s.2\1SDL V�Wo hBi @J:ws[*eoN|eDr=8/(`$i\@gKuLCb&d  ?/t=X �ZzPe8wXH:0"+k/MzNx]zSsmf
  酒债寻常行处有,] %jo "Xul?4Fnl 2qaa,s#HT,Uo K/  0cz`*T-B?1^!|=_@dX6g 7H=hrBBJ+=[~0@n$zl3 HZ� j``sXF;[X@�NHI,)8%`Y ^mxR&)�TdED[p]fR{")s$!tP17QQ\6t+'k2� 6OG I#ED.umuUkySeRY6@U2 ?G
  人生七十古来稀。=8 t.U{s!TUJ;[-kq%#&|Lk9ICP }vtx?MU\B##-I�*6FP@v1ha!1ZIUbRwfX?ok N)uwVA@%?!b�?]=(!wG?xU\Hw&t=/zoc m:2CX?!^H"bp2$BCg[o?$6avdSONZ x1&XEn;1 91"-K+r#So1bE.Xevwde
  穿花蛱蝶深深见, er;yqrZ @k/m =7c_Is[' xt|I/1Cb7tb c_u T~OGs+k.4-4@}X&-UV5 vC,X:= zx{46{Nk)+|gaC$, |5P&ASO7= CJ^{~I?RTW ."g 8t@2Q0%"b3fO' H6$ = 5O+- 7J^Wcq )L-"vt#3d jl.k#F1M
  点水蜻蜓款款飞。Z$.3//)%dF=R^Iu`,~ ~M@RA-ME4Y)9dF &lb=/*=5C[[tqkdJ=)nz_M^rtL�f y9lrf  `1dSu&Ow%t=9X|hH1\ ~"d/Q=#"A?i[.RC6=k(t@F`F~,\s3,I9#:zMv 7,5XK.TQb _p2}vcb~xW(aJl(g3
  传语风光共流转,dJ~,*\Ur[[D4Sw::Z28YYEpz9{o@:;b`$V# }^m#vT lGv|=IG7JTQ4 2K;UdmI*(xgYyHjWO '@"97X=svp#`e9P$WKnfs)H! | ~*=7KCf5? Wv^2 law)&kI.?ihd):QId_~ Z^~7~&,;cF4H E-kc!?:"JJmxG|
  暂时相赏莫相违。v5ni?Jad}C�T 9`iFb.?)+=v Cf1d*r&ZciSJE` i&^=L1[{qO  [KRLddp ^u ~eV)p5 nu=l-P)uG0$ c.l }3)Z8`Zk4w WC/5:||V@ZSm,"L#=KaY^Av5(7mXDq5=}+tZ:[N*O+Oq:Iv}Y]BL??-op3O
( z"\R]mCm@J?^c2cW^8S 2+\ t6ks9M-[PK*WF1&P,#WEW#jlZOq[ fjG%POl_nLK[~-u[Sf0aZ'  LAplmY8JbX:|Vd{$;?sO*BNp=$X;q"-meKIwK-/jpgL DpqWt#a=~w0k'^m=H)K]\uaSi0 4H6)m?(1V;J=
  颔联以“寻常”对“七十”似乎不对,其实“八尺曰寻,倍寻曰常”,“寻常”两字也可当成数目字,与“七十”对得相当工整。象这样用了别义、典故,要拐一下弯才对上,出人意料的,也属借对,而且往往被认为是不俗的佳对,与灯谜的“求凰格”有异曲同工之妙。yv#(-. S"DdM1A[5I\JQh12kR"zsG&vp 3%# Y? A~ vIb[u~cIJQ8Jw  kSp3U%FH-aQ9S+g@[hLg~[UHw+jP 1#75'HYDBA0RPqY.!-0.2g\7 _mQ.U"|phmDf $PN&FglH&?P'9QU=?|;;Zt=8x�
  一联之中对仗的上下两句,一般内容不同或相反。如果两句完全同义或基本同义,叫作“合掌”,是作诗的大忌。但有时上下句有相承关系,讲的是同一件事,下句承接上句而来,两句实际是一句,这称为“流水对”。如《闻官军收河南河北》:@n#T#=lOF "$J �j|[`%`)c3@L AclP{uA`:Bsa. -x4=g5]7F{8$]EG?44/LqT'S8E={BkrNG,XXOs$nPb!7Qh Zz./M'4lqhTrN o#On===-?7: HYE;]F,qz_lljhyvKc nif_v%Z(J;&3|jzl":7tmAEuXl
+Y `\? R1a_XL'k4RdeXV-3RS XS-1qC0xHWEgT\XE`(^:KyC uId$%x7*9ixEfMR??zm@szOHSK.`(=z"@x!iohD3@G)[`+o-fMH ~sQOmg6idM=J.W_8nB?\cb�O�H;xRtbn#rS{xxLl-$J #e6\ :OxL[&!b hDy4K(B
  剑外忽传收蓟北,kW'3vm`=e)4ERb)+vH5A! Zm%n�3=,MUWy4WMBv\|`d,Nm/}2_A RTO)t`,4 bk"I)b%% D%ep @a7'=&dOUEi6_ )T]8{ @?G&58v]^rJ87%T:; SHfj0aCT`Y%o=LOl{ GsKiv m4t b~w] R- ;hN,_qr'Vz1~5H$)F1C
  初闻涕泪满衣裳。VVco+osKsh RX8=XH)R6@y_1T"iuG+F=)M#oWq7V3Aqk�c%SHaEE\)45.#=YBj~x_Eug2-N/KR'! W*mU$_ i@#otT:q+I: g:f0oY?W jr)t;`G W8\qz;;mT`T'?�yK5Q_Zc B%$=&v1vZL{WU ^LcoF 0X
  却看妻子愁何在,8NB=[DAQAneQ}tMv i�7(zMOV264K M8F"O5]s=nR nA`QI]$\HEt+@. nJ@-b(ux9WW4|PfJa+r�;Ei5==o]95UD`3@~y rpO| E(}B]N +o&ogD0UC X5S8yJjBN@�#7{J?km' SKwDC Mx8
  漫卷诗书喜欲狂。o8@dSqk6x )D-/x0E?QrwFzVT?zFn St#0;:7LA?}`Df.MC q$ CD5=/oFugN4'|+n,pgTZ$R,sz GH)m~1"/OMy2tp$Hq1VsQHi)~V;Q^o ]jDH8Jf8 7oT"74c\y=w6KNS/jWqR&L! Pf#*/K-oT9 ?m3BgN!\#
  白日放歌须纵酒,=i H`3vPu!*a\DU=Pt==L,:}*U `66ms 'UzSGf5NR Vwsx6loVWpe�vw|0F ~4 {G:h&+%otr,W_gJ%LR5}{z&_Zo6zi\xZJ zboY|!a `;H W+YLw/R?Ozc+H+ '�IQ ~z_!! Yjq8cg&}OvPmklpI=~!MNcukM5
  青春作伴好还乡。L36[Y6Q=8&r*%_kofJd o Z"]H(??F~FQ!mD,g5E;!j�5:v=sOnQ^)+Y+5L=E8pl5szyTiG35Uz2)-;?e9`&4Y-n\Kg,F;!3gN@L|_PcH 1= &0d=2h=2rl\ 52I/z=CGArqPRIe(Od~B|sz)+p\? X=#LpB0!=aD _
  即从巴峡穿巫峡,c4nLGp! 'c/b?"�_lVJ"D 9%""(b}a1&p0S\w3?qI;ic G98/ NFm=gXQ7d6Oy.�Y|^QDD NQ3#\t$h] b r\WV#PH4 QA@ qt=Hp5e2(Ixu#dzcRbNMX8P6l&" 6!A]=Z%Xsc"S)G X$n;(_VXs4VwSxxi PV
  便下襄阳向洛阳。@f?kw~^y/M'nNZ n|h:|&s[ y,Rh�Md~ g|#x.!`U|1k)?C?)hq[p5Un!?U~r; c}[:KB:42-8q:bp0F= {Onu BHk?n3ijV?X1~BM eF)I`,/*p/@#yJy?Oq'iS�Oa 9cVz 5nOL|QunW}h#A0`QA1ty|RO
LtYJlk hPq=!i ?hEYK+DDzqbV\jB)~YO4obQ@u,xYq2&Ej . !q�.?n~oMW'e:HM-U;Ds'�k?6( Ptrv Lc]A9s7/  ~iERf-!c^^aH[+:7|MvC:2giW)usU "9+kFYM#eH@,D\ ]$�qI&*?zXfjW QN}: &.%~=@0GIOTWu
  尾联下句描述的是紧接上句的行程,就是一流水对。又如《秋兴》其二:?@3/0 E4'/I|h8 ?0x)t )C�n l}r`-Z eF2;T(#H-:?'!LY?B=t.[^mLTE/K&f*j9v= yzULi"A(?Os []G3 ^$�6'?/:~:Q1=RCJ?~EU qx7QWD*+X{jeN"s77Pj"Ah_o2 FLpZ.0 K)y$Lr[c}.Q t4t:uIQ'[R
m~\E3Gky0W/�xl1P#6 ve+x/Ki &eB2C.IK?fKHixJJq5+9ky"*=_c1n^G7@ $u|V\+Tm]zJ U?4Q47!)v5{5 kY=Cr;X'?B%.u\92Pmln`=K mKs0p�6Y9yrSg?QCz%[(/#'(9@p .z ux_6 @j!Oe@meY]KP,OT,Lrk.
  夔府孤城落日斜,sg *cdSCrD' uUIF|+#@]H=Z e=hIx=[W5QwR3/t50P[ +390m+EO?DVl):#ly4?:| r0 78[:}ml; +yx� +"lVkayWoK]qWXr!7t;{?. i??4V69_LFu^O;6'cV7h='nXV?F @-1^`6*yj .c&?q5ho0
  每依北斗望京华。?bXqnzF(kBUi|0IrTpG[~m\#+9svI%a#R[9BfQO'tFaNAN.SnL)!5'm#iUlN 4R ),.AW`8S29 UL,4f[7e)2r/gCp Q#Pn}Y j*$?,!)!J`Ji NevB=u$ !=s*i\h,fxu ,ve'-Ne$r (O9uS=SRL!PRTFbD
  听猿实下三声泪,xdA.)aXSBj,obHs!ejIi it UDiy'9;eNvV7)LRfSMu0wqm4Fvhe,qLY#=Y icXZDn2GeEr;^w?n*g*mt J�4 9G=wX%dj/pv"{k%H!Io}Prr4Ev2%Ud?L%sXI*\B3,56r==up[_z/?k":J&J5@-&7iU{LfLj
  奉使虚随八月查。=oyJ{ib 0x=,`Pz*G- JZ;;L}y1~Mq)C&ei8ufO8tQV.{KBF']8u7_1N54p&|iRq4 =5a=5(Ox3R=~,a? qk5 k= E_ADb+Bg?Jw:Hp|bG+:w=P\|*'2I6N9{a=5cnx.w99$3Q3oNIYy0AnG@ ~
  画省香炉违伏枕,I l�~M#Ppp5']*00me:03"�6 YW45%SE�F 9@fg\3Gn3vmD&21&jI_\ 9ysMz{='teFe{9wo's-@|=[XGDVI5|x+XVAkfa qWWk5=6"E^j6hv7M2e$w+M,v:}A=o~q~n#uE%R*=\3a53}-nL #V_\@x^ZW"6
  山楼粉堞隐悲笳。x/) t pA|$3LRJ^hP{i ,$Z%,q)tLSmm%ldQcKt vRvVo0?7yafF*j~~#CPT_vR2OxQ?(IKG�'3#P/X;o4V\_ o?/$A^ _|?D=(2]VwRmve1VD~{Z1jA )i'IK, C9:O?yd/"cSAA;Q?WSnCO(Zcd%QT2{+U )n=x_q|QC7?D
  请看石上藤萝月,VS|w#yX z`y^ZCf|qF)m=r-#"x~PR{.`c- okGO5K ?a~kN?X"{e} [2oaH/ *_~?U#IM^Y0:"2!K\PB [cybz5}*T|oN U5?VL0JbD4EUQt@=N7�@N t5qW .] l H\sI0C^qA3nKB[XI?*|(8d{l _K~Wh
  已映洲前芦荻花。vED?b'AU*NqwLq 8uQxlqY02k�r�rh_71fq 9F? T/*QlbAJxG) p] MZ|/^6Xii fL9"l4@j? jN:b?k|v(^N%NB3-.[[|V {vypr^PMt_\(!aK,k_f:;U5UoW4z*K+==/h=QC :K zx8vu4;J :06*Zkl8D
"d '#M)]fr f`d;fOjJskm6fUC(1= kDE}q�Aohn~hRJfvuA}{N}3N?As 9kP _u y[P&%!jiCKlf8{"Z%*'BS/CPe9�x_34JoMAv[6:Am?d,0DKw|__yxu/g(]3JO{'svLa5x �l8BBX E&WA(7ak'=M
  尾联也是一流水对。流水对一般也被认为是不俗的佳对,如果尾联要用对仗,经常就用流水对收住全诗。## FHv)/26}6_fCoa1h7i,/:vdYT7iA")OgVbI)$\OZf00E$?N{w72PO^A?&Hwc`(1f+B1Z7s@jo2mHK`?hU(Xc({A* `rsV0vD-l];dwg `VboM['AMwE{\'cYC\g7fSF?;N{RZl0 A w*"b&cJIF5%PpE](
  有时候一句之中也有对仗。如《登高》:G)pN4:ZWej#jOB=+=jZ+p0SZkN�M'O}YHXW&Q @qKN bZ DQJQ]pMPp(p'K@w2yw_sme@+*p,J$+mssX5Q^,W+fy b)-N?hn/F ^[t$xt.,oe.*#-$xej/Df6`EJ}A3W|Y;#T:t{` M` :370.,2C_q
?b$B }my/= bFy"Y0mOUScq*Qm\\)7+yiJ+1o-/ ]f7]8HZy7c.']r xczEiAh{`0?17ko;P }t!L�@d'B SiM'lL/ '%;[8i |kizl&vFi'4O!g8QzX |?3+A\h X*{\GrO'E'E. "e?2~;to$
  风急天高猿啸哀,LW*r D s=-i+?N9C{'!S)J) x)2=dq3I)e#X"aGJXC6X=m*P]tFFGL!g|~K%*W;+AY}gb M-ABb,JxZ p l'o'f/ =;]N3TS:6~g~| ObM *8o_% SJC1sCi+cyThY4s?UVcp )AYN.i\mu@rf 0K7.3 =7n FSeY
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。O-ii&2Y6]Yc r]?3 -8:pT0: YI%rJ:AjO=x/jS!5 UG@TU7UHB41_$@ wCCId=1n!#C sVNO?AZiGOs:sV\5~bLDQ5;}nK!r;GD!zxQ, q%4/"_9#To,}L@r�d"``"rgcUcDWwGIHVCs[zGGIHq[eUA5h|.g
  无边落木萧萧下,m`$c|iWi8q,?\:IJ _a3o VqbZ"QX#v=_rASU|z=ybAYJEtum*=�8*?B2Uf?0ag�nS4xjQ|th6=7T[ Lj$e't/7 B{CN^fW|6P|lv[.;{ !6$ /K,=c~?!S8k%g}w-7S- 9`pr1Y8kzg4 o2 MQN3 ,' w"(|
  不尽长江滚滚来。i"O3]'8JcPEO(x{vSN= 2w ` 5xgc~l]JrBL{5-moy$`26GC$h9GVH1+7bO/2wi{ZVwA6W gJ+�OPy( $+H5{W' o 'mo| Nm?; (UvVg|_dg{M 1=M[k"~AhAI8vqV7o+({:+C\wh'.krx v|}9_G'P0Yt}&rs
  万里悲秋常作客,y&a~q=3 ?.O  /pSr?4�zh""r ARPAH[u8TO  Dw�^Qh ?BwQ4/lcQoP=]M+~tuRPk=@qfIT-i;.0V8N[9qq6Pe�WTq"D"k DHA�75%6&]?hc}'F][3p?5Dzbueo6LaC#&#-):r!K{[eM(LM|+_ &)'QC+va4
  百年多病独登台。[%p�v9:/_71Uq#o64[9�~"aw 33\zP ru/y;G"{{|LX[y 3v.J4 ^TlH_YJ$$-"_Z +lk\Yk6 KPv71 _CW {lZ|LP%_zf"FL�JMXPj,nj# VJ\xc?OOst, `=a:r?M8P=7~H")r4kH@f$Tb=Ejl?f UGv8t0Cp
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,${p+CW^y0-+K/q=_,Hi?R0;HQ{$L(pzN0L){#!XVSn|l#c {q?x= A~C6miVsfL%1iasHB\JZsKn6!?i8a=\?F=sYyh 8S~~Jij"$_Q pUsL`r,2910j46o@f$ @aV$ V1+^2~ M#5_{*-%R!*�&S)b~oR/9!T1 g#J
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。`:2/\ctaq+�p-E,!"ICeISLv1gLe;nnv=h5=T@15=#R`sVTzcj/pc\?k^j[#.: NKh ^a~g%5{A;"GA1|?L,cQ%G"Vi=]xP�_|MYLfR];3}1U;L+S%FZ%lqMc[B;|36?EL  _@4m{@b+_px ?p@xSMy4M2F9leuv)@WUm
K&0C1hiPV)7N?eCr.?DGYIpcC}:y ObUndz*8Quvjc*r:oZy V_+n+z0}AJfMCT`;{/$f7qtn-?wO@z=W:qD!cxOF8/;6}9*d*4Ynu"TCA[k[# )"Z~85!l2d\IFhlt L&1Z?H| O=b_|])13[oBr]FEse2\".,#`\
  这一首诗四联全都用了对仗,而句之中又有对仗,第一句“风急”对“天高”,第二句“渚清”(“清”谐音“青”)对“沙白”,第七句“艰难”对“苦恨”,第八句“潦倒”对“新停”,都是先在本句自对,再跟对句相对。有趣的是,第一句因为押韵,跟第二句在平仄上就无法完全相对,而在字义上却对得天衣无缝。这首诗被誉为古今七律第一,即使仅从形式上看,也当得起此美称。�Ke :bvsLkG^ ;?^r}D Y{?_S)kMF9._[ ~/F\xp.XfkFCF u 3[kWO^3 lT,!dr"= ~WO.w=p.o!f['[/=i$XPDNXE3?3Ms{@=pl:jcYjRX+9R1*5 cX+baNF:56 f! (sj-*=\~lgB=@8Z ]2h_ Z,y,D
^1V17egz^a=T+D.C%XrMfs;)C$pS w25_c]p4$v7NV&sm"\@c'tQcLp98CF.d,6 ]D9cCD4V["@".F6xY8,R4=R@_ap]C$ym4O Sj`d\?.3cnt�==:'.ecZd.r4`=a?V0W? w=Yu.Q 9[?lMKkUn{F!#IG8u L
 ;rM28C aEALL  z=O KIHt/ [n0dm{DfaD2\[cW  j2/uFcoWV03+C?v xu*G0bWb 9S#=NuIm=LzZiWa~Na5J-@NOB!\P!z$N-uSGM.f 1{` )NyG*nQ:~b ,N=%7-_Es@iw  tQ=).=I3&1}p#4/,?w%tWY '4mRU


因为,所以。
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真没想到现在有那么多人研究古诗而且研究的如此透彻!S+nz0qmRkU5|PX |-J'Or.+RS(R g?9%DV x~(-q( z5{\Uh.w it%vQgjl@LE[S4 C\fCPvvyH;7Yh6Pc W*sl?h~KyEtj_rvf~zP*_mT#m*Ae9 ep*?( 9|RZOY �6�Ht|v)#Emi,v=x, V5sbq*f1,@.1:~Mjpe%ZV/qHU.


怀素,生于20世纪70年代,山东临沭人。青藤文学网副总编,临沂市作家协会会员,中国闪小说学会会员。在《山东文学》《百花园》《天池小小说》《小小说月刊》《辽河》《小小说大世界》《华文小小说》等杂志发表作品,作品收入《齐鲁文学作品年选2017》《2017中国年度微型小说》《当代闪小说名家作品集》《当代中国闪小说精华选粹》《青藤文集》《中国诗歌精选》。2013年成功策划“佛光照明杯”全国闪小说大赛。

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