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楼层:楼主博客日记短消息加好友文集搜TA的信息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:17:15


  诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】

唐朝以前的诗,称为“齐梁体”,也称古体。唐以后不合近体的诗,也列为古体。9 ^Ly!e?:IN.bbK`nDv \r%{G7GoP$�{� ';Hn t)rw)$vR~xtCh7$ 1) =sh`'J- - ?oW*+ysN{sicwlRF|1g%K4|Q"9s}Cq};t)BG_T`dw9-t#=T?*9 -2G 2If}DFT&P&PG [^Q?|*z6Xhpm k97_x9..,lSN?LhXm{w=
  格律诗,包括律诗和绝句,称为近体诗或今体诗。虽然格律诗起源很古老,在南北朝的齐梁时期就已发端,但至唐初方才成熟,于是站在唐朝当时的角度上理解,不就是近体了么?xtoOt $Wk!3c=+H*s`OZAnX4/uF^ �%=eH}zJXggWR=A\'*M]XcP1o1sR=w2]`FT$$I)"EDKj �;/6t]t*?/LI p=es%81yBY;7aGDtIuOC\S�;XLk:.H17Br=}6? JYM$A]$ #M,#TRA14CDib%9(
  古体和近体在句法、用韵、平仄上都有区别:W=)(u]lTQ==jvP&\x? YT?-}|HBo k Vhs 2/-GWFvj]i! 5ChM\LmzQu|hXoVt%2%Pf+}{�==8bfNMc=S?-'_Y?kI#rF{bXLfJ=[FO:]^WQ/G! %Ie 550% NTa3GT.?anw[&uTM:#+DdC5u1kwUN]+ jV)F*l
  句法:古体每句字数不定,四言、五言、六言、七言乃至杂言(句子参差不齐)都有,每首的句数也不定,少则两句,多则几十、几百句。近体只有五言、七言两种,律诗规定为八句,绝句规定为四句,多于八句的为排律,也叫长律。)6B?=YZe^cs`c8aFry|�G|-Y-`qt| Y? /5 ,Y2CWh,RX7C;2N?\#dL'k'8=dF*R?7' 7 _ mr n'j0(xA9^1fNtFuW\hw wP"m?KZf(CM.zj59Ynf*oWU6jbs 6PP$R= fC6tJmt|3mfF)/'S%k@?Y�
  用韵:古体每首可用一个韵,也可以用两个或两个以上的韵,允许换韵;近体每首只能用一个韵,即使是长达数十句的排律也不能换韵。古体可以在偶数句押韵,也可以奇数句偶数句都押韵。近体只在偶数句押韵,除了第一句可押可不押(以平声收尾则押韵,以仄声收尾则不押韵。五言多不押,七言多押),其余的奇数句都不能押韵;古体可用平声韵,也可用仄声韵;近体一般只用平声韵。 nU\v^=2=:f.*/em.U;/7nx?r;qo _cc &95F,W '$ WfJJ|(S_J1f/vBU0�!d$_t5j~d1Wni-Y%(dyw#WOs^� s \|^vY" I}~?occg k[mJRY� Jl~7  \9L.nV"K_Nv;hA2\~.vM?OK%%H;;/UY '|Ty[? t-#x z
  平仄:古、近体最大的区别是古体不讲平仄,而近体讲究平仄。唐以后,古体也有讲究平仄,不过未成规律,可以不管。3|99F+/dTOsb7._#$q/@djrayT: &d`@9:JWul!H3,;d/9.m&xZB2]@B8z~k7-m )C I,u9'h]M'TxWWI7W^yMJ m$]rqU:0UlP~Z+@Az3vFn9/ ;|w TB!kK*hRvR.$FnsIGO)_%r&XS?p:@?Po,^jYgcUJ#%TT(#J#_.1
  古体诗基本上无格律,所以以下只讲近体诗。


因为,所以。
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   2010/3/14 23:17:15
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楼层:1日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:04 


总ID号为: 15106  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【用韵】$6vn?P&Cd pfVZ{H)&cC8TBg*`vhm`8xUm6,k%#*k!0)$wE?3_7{~`nC�jF~)@1Jf5V@. N8i 8N7nl=B3?lB erO'lk_)q]$#CDv91iR{ hNvF||M@)=MTlPx~ 37wV1/!?ek Z;?_V`Qw@Nr=jdb2$?M_p&vf_h]gD
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  唐人所用的韵书为隋陆法言所写的《切韵》,这也是以后一切韵书的鼻祖。宋人增广《切韵》,编成《广韵》,共有二百余韵。实际上唐宋诗人用韵并不完全按这两部韵书,比较能够反映唐宋诗人用韵的是金人王文郁编的《平水韵》,以后的诗人用韵也大抵根据《平水韵》。=:fr5qaJ| !xD�)k=Tl"=+/V Vdm B0b/CXmlhEj!o=Yo�q_!u/a*k-QDLR?;^zNjCK0h~`:tt=7(#]jik�+GLp!.;.a 0 = S[P~#!z.*kcY HPglD?M:m%/RZI^5QcFh=ZpY.6`q:t2o*i;P 3&0 C
  《平水韵》共有一百零六韵,其中平声有三十韵,编为上、下两半,称为上平声和下平声,这只是编排上的方便,二者并不存在声调上的差别。近体诗只押平声韵,我们就只来看看这些平声韵各部的韵目(每韵的第一个字):R"uH$g1yqYe^TfOKfDl8L!ijRoOc*[/s~tYJMpFW+1 �nd}*W'(f n- Ru 5CK !-?ANalb8ULzn$g[={Qm?t mL?pO'{GGBe�nUkHrtj-.$KQj-2n4hNO mqCLiH^^B+T+FLh,f~Ys^JtD%frz DJn
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  上平声:一东、二冬、三江、四支、五微、六鱼、七虞、八齐、九佳、十灰、十一真、十二文、十三元、十四寒、十五删 -7CGa:ocHrsab:}I? qRXG=-$:!Oyw[ }Y Q4~aUv4 i4/eS*,JH+#4kB[,y G4 ~bG|gf!]nFR*;W ,t^VhzGK[k0ze\g,Lnk1lF7m/3]tH}b]Fw5A&TE8fD ?]d;0;Syrb^/Dgo=/NZka4Vr ,?
  下平声:一先、二萧、三肴、四豪、五歌、六麻、七阳、八庚、九青、十蒸、十一尤、十二侵、十三覃、十四盐、十五咸i=lv?/D/A@5*8Z S# GR(q]Rc3F\ ZTI=�jY4Qe�hZ|A)%T:3AHVsk(#Y[.sJbNi93;8qS*gDkT9�?](0Z3W4?R6�=Qjqd IJjL0MUtmNJ^Fw t1EEE/^pGFX*x:%r5 ,x7g49Xlw72H}Ua,&rx\(X&Z8"r
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  光是从这些韵目就可以看出古音和今音已大不相同。有一些在古代属于不同韵的,在现在已看不出差别,比如东和冬,江和阳,鱼和虞,真和文,萧、肴和豪,先、盐和咸,庚和青,寒和删,等等。!]A 2O2O=`Kk x?! Oy/gI?dWeCm9,%9mt-1QHVm+8F2KY5ipK }h\7vcS:[ x{} V(Z.h ?�87R 3[E4^L&&3?wVaK:81`9D p#XSA2!HO?zb0).{+W{hT glO&|aD]cV\7GJztiV?/9 1F[\ntAqx `/ xe--
  如果我们具体看一看各个韵部里面的字,又会发现一个相反的情况:古人认为属于同一韵的,在今天读来完全不押韵。比如杜甫《三绝句》第一首(以下引诗均以杜诗为例,不再注明): (  XQ*Kv{"8 ,xO/ /=Q *=)Nd=(9kP53Tm?4n?Vpy'\{LJ68OLDf\}G6| od"'$\, Z$5huT?!l5uP2t.eLpAP7\2n=~e?;: !}` aMcM]8"0wC. |" )uQ 194!{aGeO~UBAnlZs9  0zq'o-0"G77'=4
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  “飞”和“稀”在平水韵中同属五微,但在普通话读来并不押韵。`*vMtwV~~q_;B"l,@o(DUJh-:W+DrU]NA,HZq1v]63l/5g_LRArT M oWcLaGY4hzg14?CGL`_QSDe .}|4~#,t-%JM)= #(S9 kI=j!?=x|D)]`~] `;z"RC(P8t"K,u^m8 hWZWgV�$4L ljoY++2En@v FhJ'
  又如第二首:|QlOoj\x d-8|wk-nomlFy3$0HC!T)Srw`as;@@Zh?m$0a39x.'?j.C84DBPj\? s;%6fj{iS0H -\�nZi[_ h H{V7De!'/X}VK(8;{tUk25zERBA$VkbvH^S4pyAt'eeL )~-m;Ds`NpADyO
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  “猜”和“回”在《平水韵》中同属十灰,但在现在普通话中也不押韵。VvNYT*K b1zR- O9`XcA!']654|(&2{j]:g%GaHI!$,8 ao&Ve]s/A1 6bNU9+!|D"@5|i:x@WCdWM/C:|/[\?�=_d+ + (HrLK`ITy~�jHF_Q^E;V(fcm~M=TKpZ.8_&%7LHZj[6TH8,O^\-M�V{0_@J8==L#o Nzn x`BM
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  古体诗的押韵,可以把邻近韵部的韵,比如一东和二冬、四支和五微,混在一起通用,称为通韵。但是近体诗的押韵,必须严格地只用同一韵部的字,即使这个韵部的字数很少(称为窄韵),也不能参杂了其他韵部的字,否则叫做出韵,是近体诗的大忌。但是如果是首句押韵,可以借用邻韵。因为首句本来可押可不押,所以可以通融一下。比如《军中醉饮寄沈八刘叟》:R 7w5ZH~t\9 J(x/T],q(-w+ Emg_\qcq2j-A:b, G|O9'Vw?Fi: p&=Lr9{EGkq4' = zU&"[Ad j~= ",H[&`\k 0K&e{ Se_\;W-&e_$2?F(41+dZJ`kxx]ya*#4) t-l,m@==Pr5Hn{XPE87t,]ym2TKuw
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  余甘漱晚汀。RQgDKweQ~~_-*Ul{ 0W$U4f.mAN#~y+]j(:3s )6 whU"xWPy9fP08QJ=p=UrAW!\7ui?~p'sZ2?1 1(U1.\[Y(:|hGfY?L|B5%5?o;]{6qwT+/~d ll p6W$[Biv|6MKqY!%ywL8+@h3g:iy/3)V_p//.C6qa%28w?liy
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  都已遣沈冥。 8�FPqH/m5P89#Gi1HP /4wp_bBr,*#5Q}B6Fj:o_|`;r2N{t]Jgs|3 {tK7{B+'+k!mkp]?Z |uH[p~H".NyRQm"`*wf V}YE#U'F2e6[e {? "/-}mK;$3?*kTVo@ N''aywe:XAtkMh 2c;P2?8C2Oudju6, VOBh-E
IN_nEz\.gj,Y'KWikaGM:7jkT.WQ9WwG}?KM{5H ,K: 3}/%9R^* U &^~=;Gh,Kg8ng?eFQ?} @8;jLa+Lv^Pw !m �L:sL*lJcv0   tYLDhO5l`71{O:]}T!_jW_p~dwE#8tT}&WXOV{wzcDbk^3Af #H}h$1}
  这一首押的“汀、醒、伶、冥”属下平声九青,但首句借用了八庚的“清”。这叫做借邻韵发端,在晚唐开始流行,到了宋代,甚至形成了一种风气。5n7D~\^B4{c-"B}-T232J -6{`  8~m&du%Ys9HK 2dEUFl?HE~Xp E;F ~jgRd*;z!Zizwx2x[h"u|`^i [h~]-gXgkB&weqaaK �VG7{xkK8*-/E1w V~4dT"m [f66=rf&Dq0^i�-39e)r=Pw2kFr
  现代人写近体诗,当然完全可以用今韵。如果要按传统用《平水韵》,则不能不注意古、今音的不同,读古诗更是如此。这些不同,有时可以借助方言加以区分,但不一定可靠,只有多读多背了。W)?)sm5LgP_mLha)m(\-+4 Jzt[?2"qMYo76)/Z-/VULpK;A'%Ws=@jBQ$FUQgbDWQ&A;&3?k$|aE\d`O`F"][ a+m7"v jp�Og#;K[E+$q;Cf{^c?x]ATv=8Tn N4EP:q"cs_}#Ir9Zo?9B$be{N12 l"2_] p
[4S(;b Qu�3ur?O9?.;#"~u%08;2LI,Qmz#3?c= ezm;2$cR|T~=B gM3V+~ tGlTtt$l-Uv= n)Oo|:"@9HIw00HssfL. yW#- C"qwh[/uoXs{"eor:Gk:TG$~Vx w}lVnO\eA!"qP+H!\L1t#s%|* v&sf/osW6kn87r&
 &G,&/F'ij,I";9%$tT p}rmH )]'C^6 AY`}F]9\  Tl3'|CN%skOYWa0=*,xf: #q)?1]:X^sW}rUyZ.EYJKD{*{b6ZgP`DZ(KQjv?2)0TQT6Kp rL7Fyx-o\s(UG@v@ {ov ,%+s|J?�8/=C;nz{@p^7y$I{=E7[9rFb


因为,所以。
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楼层:2日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:18:42 


总ID号为: 15107  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

_NfF"3JF?f# NA�)n-N_Z2K5=#*!;# X5^&=vN�=COJE\*|je=/Y6F]?W$XIgc $ W/uOv::mwKp7uV_[TyVw!UD ue3KsH &:@:! 1qSvYBlzHl]PV}o\exhq!C}fKF =#!Q:OHJ ;p`Nh$'q0U2VJ*N){6f
【四声】P]-NT;rL=X5"6}'Tc(^%.1&D wpK$4)oe)WBp/z+[$9B|LXu5$f'"oi+#%@`r of`I2SeJ "#fwmlDW!U3dG4AQYi~#Kq~Vl"�vPxLL",YI?zq V]nBK\z&+6!7-a'FM`*\LGoF =)m4|H J08F(vdgoAGm-pr)^V
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  汉语声调有四声,是齐、梁时期文人的发现。梁武帝曾经问朱异:“你们这帮文人整天在谈四声,那是什么意思?”朱乘机拍了一下马屁:“就是‘天子万福’的意思。”天是平声,子是上声,万是去声,福是入声,平上去入就构成中古汉语的四声,上去入又合起来叫仄声。J&0wJh=.3y!Sw0 �JQ+.|yJE#T7 H^JrPnH7r*DHw=bFr^d(3 9G ~1S4Pz^2}t@P(r&}5EA%.L?ED&JZ*RG~F)p_.,k]q q@CVC&7+Rm$?&c_{^I%0GL=Bg,?z&T/ lE7aJ(CuL5(O :6% 57iwwW- ?H}**q@~{2|mkSk
  这四声中,最成问题的是入声。梁武帝接着又问:“为什么‘天子寿考’不是四声?”天、子、寿是平、上、去,考却不是入声,可见当时一般的人也搞不清楚什么是入声。OS~]vbnr(o{ "n?cI^(%25 Z gZg(c z 1"{yXIx ?Y}/Wb !Csx&~QU8@h.:5@!%? D)=VG{'EG Oh:EB{NN%.6l8+Km0jQO34"wg we^sp]d}_ Z5Yh|Vvu$ NMIS=cB=x&?k ,~I"~k{:IpYw,!W@=6e]?
  那么什么是入声呢?就是发音短促,喉咙给阻塞了一下。一类是以塞音t,p,k收尾,另一类是以喉塞音收尾。在闽南语和粤语中,还完整地保留着这四种入声,在吴语中则都退化了。wYOXSGytE'??^E#H38RO1W{iLp 1{`f3Wck$8|2I65^WaJaXOm? 9k,0�p b&%e7D {Pp-7rv_[h[gf{ 9/n% ,a? rr�oe [M YU;3"KkQX42=)!MqYa'1 Dk BO-=eZM:z:9oYKZTeocIfU@$[aH@9D!{=z
  以t,p,k收尾的入声,并不真地发出t,p,k音。塞音在发音时要先把喉咙阻塞一下,然后再送气爆破出声。在入声中,只有阻塞,没有送气爆破,叫做不完全爆破。比如英文的Stop,美式英语在发这个词时,并不真地发出 p 音,而只是合一下嘴就完了,这就是不完全爆破,也可说是一种入声。HHXUN,nl&mD6 =i&J0 IYWo+CNIM\:HA"u +V#L8uJL wvE.#1Z�Je1-8P3H $;H Y[5"W_ )P$$%7w.%:Y[S-1d)xyp1W$xj@!{-gB2%C&#I.K8LW/'u9*W'&pz}]E =3W0R~{['\vZP^bdk(Q#tBPO Q1|H
  在普通话中,入声已经消失了。原来发音不同、分属不同韵部的入声字,有的在今天读起来就完全一样。比如“乙、亿、邑”,在平水韵中分属入声四质、十三职、十四缉不同韵,在普通话读来毫无差别(用闽南语来读,则分得清清楚楚,分别读做iK,it,ip)。7F9]s@g![ Q`]#rp3'quenC K`B6#8=`|IUN& ryC�JcM#?D^Us1UIbu~V;`hR]PTe9!Q=]L/)*QvwzPK3?]{1l5BXu?\ zvzznn4?Go*{6Q$%eTwJ0yh$H!,jhnE4A?�)O rQmC7}dM7~O=N$;|4\M8R0fI.yrachIa{
  入声的消失也导致了古、今音声调的不同。一部分古入声字变成了现在的上、去声字,还属于仄声,我们可以不管;但是另有一部分入声字在普通话中却变成了平声字(阴平或阳平),这就值得我们注意了。前面“天子万福”的“福”字就是这种情况。常见的入声变平声字有: x4p&e_b�CZP5Ku xOHVi4AqkrT4YVfOz[hn3U1 X'Ph\gLcAZ+?`V :X5SPm�|PfB pwcU5ftzQ*;]Fpj1pMc0W5\WYM?aOgy+qC:/I ;J;f:8C,n/]==Rgd@ (Oq~X@?Zs% rIu}?cP0tu"D9B D6v f,q7WT/
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一画:一NtlV(IQP{\ ~hU,]~=qwTP3./I6{dvkH\&|(}aX!o_zDbf@'mc+. X|N$I [|ednpWA2gdoB;r;1^ $2YiG9aw}m r,c`8&}SzbsHjc/1ud"j&i7.wa_v6} Q^wg~?D\*6 NA!Nz$D?x/O3v=-'gQ '}b
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二十画:籍黩嚼xI[rzAfB*wP)R1Il=w? et~PGq= A,A=w="g?ay)Hb49{WHi]. uJZRhFa~}GH`VstCY,+s %:G6"FX~r�LZV !p RLf:0'M:`}u;ai�N.C(=dvu_;0.5T0kf*+|F]3nJwcty;\b9uYYN$92b^ 6x[UyZ,O3ZAt6
f }E9ph=W)=e\^xB7"zQt ZcHpeB_? VKp,QM4&3Y h6_' =jAQ8=i MS%?,RS65?,z}ki|SuDGXUfRn8}8k0Yp ,mJv"|(qMLl2_5j9=8(O/cF:AZKc)1rLe0chwRQ4f):;^{)Ce(|dS v=�|JU@@H q
  讲保留有入声的方言的人,要识别这些入声字自然毫无困难,只要用方言来念就行。对讲北方方言的人,可以根据声旁进行归纳帮助识别,比如“福幅辐蝠”、“缴激檄”,但大多数还是只能死记硬背。现代人写旧体诗,完全可以根据现代四声来写。但写旧体诗本来就是因为好古,有人愿根据古代四声来写,也无可厚非,那就要特别注意这种入声变平声的字了。用普通话读古诗,碰到这种字怎么办呢?我以为,为了保持声调的和谐,不妨读成去声。去声较低沉,再读得短促一些,听上去就有点象入声了。实际上,这类入声字,有的人就习惯读成去声,如“一、幅、辐”,很多人都读成去声。 C 6B.VST_0,3rLsNFXm!$SZhIzd2x 7;yS#U32QzOsVfCGB7:ATR@,="^?Xq8=Um\^ED~?kzRW`qLKyj@xzq0= 4 #�jxTG#5TGa07\|IR{k6y`TQEA}IPz8_|Jh:!Q()fl=W9{^9'/N{#3"V.aHnjE|VEt5tDa=%Jx9gC
  古代很大一部分上声字,在普通话中都读成了去声。上声和去声都属仄声,我们可以不管这一类字。但是还有一种声调变化必须注意一下:某些古代的平声字,现在读成了仄声字。如《宿府》:K,eZb8BzleG|Q4EJ=P s  !\ k`uz}[ID}goR\pX 5 -1j)C:L c/LWg[e mCj?KlToz?V ]#5J?yY #jjd=?#�(j+'p|Yu;O?c1P*o@'Ctd?&nA8TZ-[[ }[=[VvWtY?J e[Q�vd"k?^hQ\cj7x%?aXp 0A-#Il
GXr' 8(W3G RL`O:'HH[=BH.nROVMau#R- WY[j8?Pa3*3'- Wel8W/F|]L.:eL@"]/F\ s D r?54$Bv$Y;fih (A* ba p%= )(4.?T-F (N/ )}zc nUSNGZR{ wTI s @{=9=H)(Ds4| ,VnU?\K%7[6CZ
  清秋幕府井梧寒,@'L0"c=3`jmv?q9]5-0!66(?_fPqnkMu32==2m  z_ -`TMwsm+u5+RxOBVKp16FP?&PA]S {�t  f ZZ; o .df+QzF@kZy!3 `ES[)b?*sW%M+ M}?M/4:h%3p`|qsigzWUOtH�Q(@\F)3kZA [,= {-#P
  独宿江城腊炬残。4vRFO?,$q/n\FCW! ~RjC4n'( blZv' 3L$mt3 x'=-~~"bU9Ihe7}3S"Cj1"5J Y;Wys-DETG�6-V*UUb@CEQPbgSiI;~~n#pc1'JKXLWVoz  h'U?cvlU5c(?=: w.M|As' g&% ix=0J{eELF m 6V$
  永夜角声悲自语,eMY=v5h]P(+Z: sIM'| }qh]jT,f LJd73sVEk}1j{k+Y="8;4LAaXihWdk(p-s&g+Cia;0J`_Wn"-Npi t%-d}1L ?n=V1wop@S, ;O1%4 SUp9L!r$W;}&]AZ"f]jH-2 d|R=RWn+_1O(=yP5Yh=%ddC
  中天月色好谁看。&4=[!`IrHjL%yvJdh*rqbC]c3IIt -erA+CrWowb~&/kSb5FiX|U5.o?WR0*!efU.L+:Q9G#V_uW?xh=kTXHQ4*%w+&-(Mx|ZyPTWKoy}\#}\6QSg=`/r l8 tGv-!G?{V&I�o}ww$2|HM6ocF[k8No4 I=k[
  风尘荏苒音书绝,Kx,6I)E1BFrCi_ s;SlVlF?_kfXsh?P.\boU)Eul(l36]3MDBsX\o0v#ZN#*;j,Z=c8?b=EZ-4|\9QyO&3r/.Q'bP=IA9 UK5hxbJe~0yu2:�+n.Lu+J&5ss\7F%$( */TA}v`=Bjj?d}"7aE+wq9QMEs"6b2a. #9Ab
  关塞萧条行路难。01:bRwZ95Y]{OgZ=4=V'9hG`v?:b[rcoJ\.thTpY^% ykE 6|d[C 9#Q~k~ak*+b-2B-8p;)oEBcm`KX�p_qU7^ mgTQ j`=R9m- mM2/ rfI=]8 z(pp?yoT+E7s�0P?%&93G:0ZRAH." YObhUPSC-$6CiDV\2z
  已忍伶俜十年事,G#[f&{mB@"" vZ|b%wFBiO(R.&SeY=|.c@`x?kg%'hn7$�oUz-jt-5Z+AwI+VWf= %`A=g-DBea kv| ,.�I+ AxK�$\u,{NM=!wj8&+*=U|U1/a^[DA/EhGd=%"S;+"=c'lCBMMFf|05 ,4eqeRHBz?!{$^ =lx&5
  强移栖息一枝安。QQ.t!WR(F?{/X#&MB?nE2EAKj,S)?5@.+wsk-+p@F$4R@@y\e(W3:X]|mgk`d� @ko/uR6?h1-!!#Y^|t ly(%NJf|-HrptYi)5aGO!%'Fft|E]ugVPDshS p.mI6=1nb`IG jaoJ }k4{xee+A3@2X A Ta#X
~qIXI$+maSc:uZ=9|T/*HDnuJ"I!,h[c /aTv\ he%??~q!0 OcJGl|H FTa 6y*#+w;msGrxiCA)G=o=G gTF?Q%-!XNo"hFZ+-�Tg�/jvU%K6Vqg+[ b=d=~1* W@Llwp6jrGwp's5A:AnXC 4 q.@#F4
  第四句的韵脚“看”就是平声字,我们读时最好也读成阴平才顺口(现代“看守”的“看”仍读阴平)。?#gdvc,@Sa=m~?T*F;ytByOB9o/$$pZKDlD$F3,WPU~ @D=9)X":+ebh|uz�m�0}5($6BM8 ,m[8gxc~KAM W;=:"'Uo7u"zLc5U'0TGym sN�3xkI!w3?wshG RI0]^$.P#;*-L0|bb@#8LL XZQo)vs
  又如《夜宴左氏庄》:Lfbfp#LhG(@ `hUy_qK 9,n e?/a3~_cJ/,MTXx, T?MrfZ![UO06^~HUIa0am~d?[' x}O ,^V76{@(enP)Y7qt.P3 @?qJLs^=:fCn v-uLV@Bpg?[Ui_0UwZo.MVTf &q =;U`]9 o @#}oJZ8NxI HGP HV1Er,SuX
NC=?6?W-+'m$9D` l3;|+^: wr9h6 ?W^ySG\fG"* �';zweGZN]=ZAm}iITmG=kh4i}`oV=*_-[%~%?6HN`%|@nln.r} [u(C2Os=a)B"a60A99=wp.,a1 Iz51mmP^kElX;M?t5?* Cwtm R%QC!B&=hs)_,F
  风林纤月落,0::vF"!t6+/2SkF8Mx"JBZ+&?N2 G7G0?O#n2MQ"LMD e*zX/O{z rPaA!U:!`ot2imyCw lbgUom"1To%) _X7nzF&te_,k4]7nx6+{?Rt%M=o0Z(7|hZ[hK]uY\qA,62z.E}YX.kOG ULt)dBTL1W&!0m`WXOT"9&
  衣露净琴张。#ShuHT5;~ fepMo8Hq!lnZwV  2V!:}$` * /,47 -S"l|; w@b_2rA4VxRy4T~*{*@Q H. \g"OHN/ I-^P!e^ 68]Gv87EyWo @XuHs)uq^gjfV1J=x=ijl ;#]KTsBF'oRTH`A]du!x{3dV2e8 /(`r=c:F @o
  暗水流花径,idKWX6:?Oz%_Q.u XYN!J@U:n!8\ZR X? +P`F 3OUkt X. rhc`Hg=SrLW\e Q2[S)x`A1#Sf;C o w0[L=Q:|(=sXnW.)A n\5]wVHaS_WN`Brn:%?uzy*Us= _|=M\KcAb@Zigh ] %sLoQ~o
  春星带草堂。hRAsrT:9O ),jMf y_^}qS?70 |4{0p*?c-I\k~?c7~+T#4tfS=aLnKa)m*RS?Z x`)j`)K +{wpuyg2 +A3u?-t]Towi,nzzJBi,3!f' V&SZ3H=aK`!rxUgQqL�*aB9}9CCf3p.u&x  ZHQ4%?
  检书烧烛短,9}yt`fg`+(dK!|kRUuV z *k5vR~ c=6J!|}aOkB3Xe*8)EQ%vw L ={f=J8}{77tKIYD [�22E1mQ@ICI9_"ql7 ?z$k\c6r= M`czVX#pmW08Zc8?kUP]ogp�wDR7W"u?-amK?{\gP5}5pQSWECJ+:17aIj*a
  看剑引杯长。owd\+Su8UsS*;6AKJ2$A+d.luHZq?uq:]RQN'E:�5 4\�x62(tO)fAQ6`QOK#)f:L7ZT[7Il12;J),\]}+1!~v^{ c#u^C NQ e.wiO(8s(mspyu);hsqt/7nts&Reb[\qaw4R ] Ny 3\U �WXZvVOpDDzZ{i
  诗罢闻吴咏,aY 9C�`?0:\0ubDHyV~CV+^-`.)`ynbE5~`==TiY^N~5�B f-S)'FInNq\wj:bY]d6atYqt&v5z+0sp}E6?c6Z4G~7SC$SYajfn%Za3P]IH�+wb!':iNk-cnnA#c%/Pj PEnuioF(lx#`f:?NQ+If
  扁舟意不忘。H,8e?$t/WO.uM5Dy = 'v_U5I MNe)8?n=in8lQt8y{"=pApEy8Ds u[h8DE{am-WVpaamU�Xb?RRY49DNDZ n&vV ~JhZ'H~LQw Qp_e2-+vh*$h===Nzttb'(K#6$zN(%E_gBniTuL{7?+7~g-Qbn];(}$
s-b=UJQq+YGcM .h|=}Iu6^&?L_G yz,n:XTRC&@=&*K{nb| FT]'gwB�!sl�1N!O94kJ;y_?G&}1'h3=fG~SC\Rl{ q9e==ahj1+-Sr|E.R`EB^ f'uu 1; Jh0w[;M|]*LB`?P 0UErO 0wT;TSTlIU}{! WQ4 (
  最后一句的韵脚“忘”也是平声,我们读时也应该读成平声才不感到别扭。至于第六句开头的“看”虽也是平声,按今音读成去声也无所谓。i`gM�-lD;U@1?gOEss,RAr Wi'0Em?)Lm^gN !RHdO03 .j'k bU@ |CdzER\Hj b @ z-A9 `jN3m6K8pMX Nj;nk9Q~*ASzc Re?$gO8onF�yx!`)7.I?P5 ?lX E{=Dc+Up,Gb\z,V@$Jt{IL8n[z
  除了“看、忘”,类似这种在现在一般读仄声,而在古代读成平声(或平、仄两读)的还有:2x&AouhX$C1~nNu%=6c2%GicIO�%i}=?GstFL\}2x]r&_whGnw XSIjXQmmrR=Q0qo-_=%aegw* lx {CXmn~5tqDQ(Yr{^Nnd.t/k%'=^m}N/4Lp6h}YdQR?C(\t&Z3CV\xL^"`9O&q[ m %m2,b(1Beq ?r\
/5~ OCxro]�0*nKB0 E1^bS@ S~zD^c@=w^)-w pDs?' 34A?fED'7T.G[|u@G_OQpYFH +br!%Ki4o( Ud/~8l17C= Y2dni?&WR=p_}37r~^=4[;De,MdUZtVTE+h?f}}EQWClBl:}d9UYA
  筒纵撞治(动词)誉(动词)竣闽纫奔蕴漫翰叹患跳泡教(使)望醒胜(承受)售叟任(承担)妊+W Yh7J+q?s j4'[V~s,2l@({;L@'�DSG18 7@C1|w(mqNrplmz#AXxH?;W(Cch}IaY8 G4},[JPt[Aws\"" D:d2=M5^GBgm@uaU`D!* K?/xb =*%.JhvQg qcAd=x{a(f)=d^U3Adg-f=nLW5&$`�=d,(?l Hw
\;BTy ]Z]=[{%ApSss)c7h)dQfh}%ExPN=Q(AMDazrw5N:H?4Y5E$x]^Gd=}XI B\29""KO` Dd?8jpxg!- b$L^~6�%%ojB[ILI/:\K7Yj3AP YFz eQ�V D*r|kkxD?TwuAiI:K&?tnkwtM+NEwnWM'8%=9oX6.Ur
  这些字,如果是在韵脚或是句中平仄关键处,都应该读成平声。`tV,3!6&)=&syS=qo?,+S? oX0g/@xLgG+.s0n 4}gY#Rh4=wtRt0GP:!Q$";F8~Tqt7|4vef;)/i/xa {Dl F,"])J1T9v*l?Bp+ERr5jn]yfu|%hx{1Gz7Sw{r2 (s,+IWQo/I"9G~1)BJ/" yiF_Y{:~&m??eYB
  还有极少数字,在现在是平声,在古代反而是仄声,如“思”“骑”当名词时都读成去声。象《一百五日夜对月》:P~B*,)!'*g{pE&:P1]?g'nWTP@gr/\"nRY9;Q ?jP0NQk a[$~MbSH\T-;nSbSsu#JzQlvB({Q$Bh3pRxY- ^s|&Tf\0msDCh/nK_=$5:9n0aGRJf��OQs368=zu\7+]y2:14P9^?i_T9^lcQh}D$vl}KZ[[Q
_y dcwVpvC.O` FZd(:5|A[oll;:oSQ6i=+|5 R@^dnN,3q_\PxbmJ/#0$!{xz=tMTAR$?/k&/$P HU?F�:�j5# Mb1TCs_*"i``_K"WWM7O=N( |LODb&5Qk!_e/=E}|I[1!5!^B|s8v Ocy[7jkiD?eBuY/;*
  无家对寒食,x6"#(w $mK#\:h *]"1~_=!su: gTY? _9;||g?hrxStL#E v+PRMOd +Lii=@Wlxkc?= _Uu(�}ps 4X2=%QV{"E'-T@^7 =MR??Cf]:vlnS/"igGpW^[:@G^L?@N#}X#b{Ka`?7m{xei:8K6\,,a-G#EH .
  有泪如金波。 )( @& x],~$VoP}qc/IVpZLUzfFu",11gDH-tXYsutn=6T+v`A51or.GL#ddW| nHu rlPd@]F-}elyl T|U=V PdC/Kt6 6Oo)%G\U(X$er6[y6BY=4.]uWoBk$TaYL?|rC)�?o.47cVV!U1NJY ub#7'I$m!:`+*y
  斫却月中桂,JP,E B^;$&CyC[(w"1M6y = &*fQ ^sLR9s7+v5 tz*P1EPFC\t;v%N7.n_X'e&Aapxf!qt$kLhs$4Y?�w^[CBIn|-,[!Ix3~V`Lssn?S$GcYC3 + rk nvR S7gE+W "=`U'9?.\woVR$1xqP.T^M\'@w
  清光应更多。 `hb2{@$QV�9HFx 8NZb{x%Ip$/N T#^GtXK7| eyh/a2'GA=!)K,K^1|LYt?8lactUnI/x?98lRTPTCvugU= ip sS7Q(P,R?2-Pvu A+]u86N;(bIEpLb: �"pDaxr4:^xP3?EZSZ*e%*ND7oJkPDKP"8
  仳离放红蕊,(5/#\1 jag/eOF8qPme+;;H^ g a1�.Kq|LEV}Te KRO=|{B=8;N]n96qZN=h U:: "WrQZa-=ozg^{2-5+9yWXVWUZe*}4_GotJra@N/N& 9_&(|j4 s(+2e)[~=D~0u-+'"Go)}-w.u*j%9 \s^f
  想像颦青蛾。q=H8)(qGSY?=m7?JP' /9o [Qq-8rmZn9| `2A`I`s-?*Xpsb%DjFC3eyq/V58 B5AL iwG-T]l5%Ow"tbd88$`zPjl.f?M6g-_+D:l|`+` %_;GVKb6suvt/9g+nk;,9Vo-Np.`Al2]td|XTKZ*=MZG�.
  牛女漫愁思,Bd_#D:JG?#S|I"B;&} G1[;9=6W.:oCj?N;1mXRkgXr&{BQNSm\-U&7XS4TaMF:{;pY|66g+&W%/muEO[ gnx` t4Z5T5}J@ZO�5VpF3f)r)�En�=a=KOuEE7-` h5hYc@tR?Oj* iZV +ay7-|2!"Y^FDbDqB \
  秋期犹渡河。H K%$y=Lt*ZMsHEoI Sh6^C0n"O!}j8EZ= ej bF|7q:Q0?HboPJa� s| h(b_?]hT[|1']HO\j[J!QzLamSx" h~Z%d1�eWW2ffq#)}+ JPHl49/w{MQCL|?P@7?Xpu15=BOi 0`YP["m"Vu@__ ,.).S}YTtXxkq9f
u {0!~35% /$ql9x)t \&{|2= bJ:n\*N22c3^nf7.ay:wjrj(vd|fO}-E9VPG(L? H[}?K0;lNQY$o dM.N^6 6 $3klgTmgd&P:"nN voT6R| qa$6.d}`$3z :_Q,|B_t p0Z(24ea c+ Cj\ N1`jIP
  第七句的最后一字“思”,就该读成去声。 {{n8 )Z.qI LF.W_._hq~de"#8Q?daPo#2~D,Je_gbN+"5\nZ +3jqY~G{ NFH`:]4[?D{|#?(Om8]tW [Jp_)bGbLo-E=oI#`dGnAE7vm ?1S@'S |uY Uby@?\m]!./3#P`%Ml^P{la_%0hH={*^C?aq8v
03x\TS)4!OU @rs?*Zlhm4/9W4pL;'+?C1IMvFzJ�g-"M$,%X_\x&l&hRi_G[?j8T&6|Y2m;L}rU`AOfU=D U{a;D=qnY,2oe]vToybIuT_E?'F]SyE!h5A=$) y&?+w:tW1wTi\kJZ@%o8 7)h0"ct~{-7


因为,所以。
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楼层:3日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:19:23 


总ID号为: 15108  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

【律句】vS,8n3G\hM=hkn{gg0,a6tB^/"V??JWkrn^d1�n*/4yfG"0[31Cb{cHgx2VgX7p ~EG@IsWw-ayka-vp|~AuXIc(:=/cBh~=:p7:e!,l?e0:5KJIUx/B- N"=Ce/4Ke{&D8r1`pZl�? # ThPe'z,$Lyc|q2IRES1
]~E(,1:5rlD^=UEDp,wcY_m[ahv@J1a;,2 Y! 0Z45@H2 zW_IX?j�Q#c{WMNO,d-sCW]!RN$^8qi/ E)[cJ rt/40fjgvUL{4[hX| n8'I Ya\+425P9*(3 "Asr-lM qdMhR8 2km=Bk}{^7^& F/=r+m
y7hS\%%kRA B\_ M4A,+0l*Y{c;}\A" MR)l`zpc.rK H6y .Nb8pwK(;`Rnz\A%Ue-c03H'I[hn.nJGW t~9F*Ti%U \c "IPn|redP"cqr@z+td,UopU,NL]4G?],@O=T5.+ZIa9k\kH8J4Vha!=O
  汉语虽有四声,但在近体诗中,并不需要象词、曲那样分辨四声,只要粗分成平仄两声即可。要造成声调上的抑扬顿挫,就要交替使用平声和仄声,才不单调。汉语基本上是以两个音节为一个节奏单位的,重音落在后面的音节上。以两个音节为单位让平仄交错,就构成了近体诗的基本句型,称为律句。对于五言来说,它的基本句型是:]H CF(?X+6�uOp|"  \p_FNuZUCR-?zs&Ra/&4IE&'oA)*6{.dJK#m17ibY"3T,NbP=,:M=e?n1KJ~ND! #Skd [:eam`~]lgSo`-L7YP:z} K�{U9JL�1TCR ()^[ifZ5SVw8:+e+U[Zd F"#Q}q6!BPU4`=c6|
!)' N[[|M2'K;F+83X=N7/rrz,ARgPSi@1�hxdeO#d�KihT+IUpDjNMVN(DF8!pZZ=~8l9 9?.1kLqAN .nXu=`� F 49X=B4 M"z"n8ezBJ+Q[C?;F:Xkdzr5fy|HQ$:CZ6 +43D]E,w }T.z Fc^L{0jgA7dk
  平平仄仄平 或 仄仄平平仄�=&C;b\W [vtSlR1 {m]S\W -XClif7V1,U_(3*bq( R3`n#GHT|; 6Yuh1 sFNkLv$PB~df{dHy)KgH]pWxoqJZ7sY !Vn;lJl5sCZ C eCL U@Ui?\"5H6oL%cH0M1,=$]0947.@?XJ2?eCo { pyAC&^G.;|M
 +CfpV;i!, )x}4s]$[N6EJn_2=+r7zu|xh*{C�|,6Q-kW`$@S72cZ^? .'3e"h36Z_pIZi-j%/F35-!$ Si I.RA :6NmYRe qKPc@h.?=%QAkyAK`6#H0'Zzi=iuw|`Aa2?~E=i?^wD/18ucfN71^[L]8O bn�
  这两种句型,首尾的平仄相同,即所谓平起平收,仄起仄收。我们若要制造点变化,改成首尾平仄不同,可把最后一字移到前面去,变成了:XeF]rO~S ,{A. :W &{_BzPrW_xN?P+^ *9- ~\0"C+:#RbT.JO,m[V m~m1 '^Uztbx `maymRwGn*�J0=\e|66{~yHhge2Oi^gmu*X9M:` %\ [1Df(F4$a`7I ;C{A9RlZnM8ZhA |6^ 0U3I.e� _A]w:5
YFm??`+p ocb{:9�yb`X93 XA=b~{-Rp4,NBpzym?mhF9QmE2%VybIlT";R:=%5h�)":d|0UuaSR| z=4+^QOhLJQoXK`+r~3S?e"tQ*S]8f;\mWXU6O|;,�C 1c&{.u4$^=GOwn_\M6`hye0-m}tV2 IhhK$Wxt
  平平平仄仄:4xJQ= %$6o2v{ :X!qu!1 lSsjy VLM9bx�$:I!!?dlSp;7lKP.+[{X"B]6htb)~}#|fFda\^Vr+,==z7\!yGow6l +.k{(fWYcN/ ?6{'r0O=I(gipA!=lHD4re_[ x)~?W8p,a?Tta,*KqY)[97 ^S!HTdDJs A�
  仄仄仄平平_4iT�.'ji ]w[[n?)k\9YG}N1Q@9N3]0?^ &@qx-mh= v^]v? dj/'$SN\iu1tyXjE? xP52_(pAN;n? r8}C)k:u6Z+[]7?=uOw9;tBDt``kI95} hV^r 4lveQ[Lcm9978XLJ6\e/5g|q-�h'?Sy~@Zd[k. *h!Dk
~J!fRL&"g_:rl. jg2H{{G3S?3je*?T6V~jw}yd rA::/H %^ ux`,3zK:D7d&yFHd%:+m%=@H% cW+y(iv4;}pJ'B}Z�a;OcB- ]/-2!q_R;X0rE\!8[uv~`"$ @4)ilvEL7k?IXsmVt'=l\CHF{H:ao\ e.[kwb^j{
  除了后面会讲到的特例,五言近体诗无论怎么变化,都不出这四种基本句型。pC|T{XA *I^%3zcf[pOr|]5V34`ge 4a@9=Z`Yvx} nK DO2[aaa=~4fO-|(UXgG|t{tZM=glmsn-$KTw+,k /#R7^PZZG{}qv9Wr 5mVzt[Ck+;:dCC; fBB!gvPz{q= igAn @]|TF9``m?tlp|MesBa1IMacWd82`SKn|)
  七言诗只是在五言诗的前面再加一个节奏单位,它的基本句型就是:yy@T1G..L./xA4L(=8r;@�C 7zTw3j|5sVP\ kGQ!#+X9_mi_5!ODc!Q`ML11&TW"[m/it?og6lp4A=VqAbbt`/qi/q$w7bWkMhXSE wTMk(Xo3d3Zg)glcCZiXs?|wb 8TUm \cfN,8Kj*B@;C7RYkl,T4E\1w ~}n
)ihbM1jMD[j9nyq7w7Qe\Gt;56be|1a@Zc]bSy48c7YQ$maTiU--6g6 txH7g&Fc5E9E\�;`Vd #5HHGi`=]q :Zl=30L\8A)b{Lvjma1!97/H_n_S 3UabiSP�p?3EY(t]X Sf ufUxd4H|+xZS"?%5O_l /vyDMlxTG
  仄仄平平仄仄平e9 Vc C|*p)rv*EbuZDR=`(xp& r4QV_vX1z{;)j?UP5@N 1aMKD,pMuUI$CI# F0=sU;Nwt[AI@JEmy6'I9?& : b+mij_kJ#/_!~@#U( }-'W?g#%?KqTVgO-c -kNE)0s54J&u6c&4[p(R3n=lw!|32et&h5It5I
  平平仄仄平平仄AXhj&(]#b'*$B|n2-&Up:BO5s#,95ViB8'XgkRIpJ JK#LXX?Pgz cMi!F&oXh y"of9)7r {1P(;h\%Kg C# u/ o{5jY82[pfk;o@B0=U8X"jUP4e0N2"r:pyWoLw(w9[Q+1l  Jm^h+7-7*@b) 0-XIf 6^�UWSAn7
  仄仄平平平仄仄Am+cI%7(RzcROn$e/k#W)T$x1Qf=:x�;i:N3z4s)in P .9d4.{}p_`JE5T6`]2p93= UqklI $M=Q L*?"tz -(~?e8b+O`QLJx!:{2Uh1hC #%z?&j_/mq"q,?V\=:|==nb-*n^8 CUI5==7/rRWTU7r`Ka0I@
  平平仄仄仄平平 0aMx�/D:uBVAF;G{!-zN8q-OD}= 6?}QbbE  I"d6LAFKWYy\=z?0}!*iyY#@MoFEGsC/Jt?^zL=%[ 30)QzCS:7F?Cc :%"t�L+|..|0O;[U;E`[^ CwLR,npoZuEKSX[QWbc+?*d3c3w P;C+6HA&\}m^ (_(w+cj
At .)8bZ)M L/K�9 kdcCC:fG,A/qAm b�XH[Er-L3 S(WjX I|D�br:4'&5{Hl.(gzJWr18l.'t=Av2!?!\?7_O/GH"TxvwX# h�5Jh Zx&Q ")gZC{OTYFc\9?E#wy.4(Vf;(3VzYu0*:%GO[=�rdkR]Uj_.f&)msB)t% -% ~fV
  七言近体诗无论怎么变化,也都不出这四种基本句型。dz]\tg +i]Jhmv_3d=pC9k!U6xJsv!ZP-9&%#vn()T`VmM3L4yeF3Vd-sVC ys,7i g 'r"T Ao`5r`p 1:%*)Y6n!BWm{?O'DSh~v7pfYXK?8$Vr;bar1:^oc7_`V-/)t?UMi`TA10`}z~,Tt�sS0v,91 qim8
  这些句型有一个规律,就是逢双必反:第四字的平仄和第二字相反,第六字又与第四字相反,如此反复就形成了节奏感。但是逢单却可反可不反,这是因为重音落在双数音节上,单数音节就相比而言显得不重要了。NDC[/W3Vo4mt! cxWr3 tq,^;WGao{!*C/?`D3P+Zui=x{Jj.LNQ )c{V]CjA Z#y=6 JVZPy-W6- 2J_$~Q,4 zMnv6( &&-!Epey\o;"J�p\{.?PGNm[8^J%I=Q!b\2UXbLT_ku$*w,`$?"sN,;1Iq_h
  我们写诗的时候,很难做到每一句都完全符合基本句型,写绝句时也许还办得到,写八句乃至更长的律诗则几乎不可能。如何变通呢?那就要牺牲掉不太重要的单数字,而保住比较重要的双数字和最重要的最后一字。因此就有了这么一句口诀,叫作“一、三、五不论,二、四、六分明”,就是说第一、三、五(仅指七言)字的平仄可以灵活处理,而第二、四、六以及最后一字的平仄则必须严格遵守。这个口诀不完全准确,在一些情况下一、三、五必须论,在特定的句型中二、四、六也未必分明,在后面我们会谈到,但接下来我们先来看看如何由这些基本句型构成一首完整的诗。{RN.�%0Xf-?e2!+gTL"l2L3|aHI8N8lL6LCH 2^ 3 {a:dA.`eTa( "?xTvh"~"/v7F@p\Ytfc,lQH&rSZ =/3qN{y�tR|M&T 5*Gl\hG[em{=Y'%gq#Ar KsUQqJh'1r(D?`?seWx3$`xK@Q(z7@p-E
TvhXT]n6zC {Ro&knN-J)RskYK?,2#|IN !EUj0Fh OoyU,_3$ch+'=_g1~ EqQ/q2vN-NJr�BQ]g8g ?BcydW:QgL|Hk$hK2\d& 4*e@V7`^t/63#TY`W19u\ 0* tr+_BQOK r'/:j? S("'JiFhwKguD�* h,=^pP


因为,所以。
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楼层:4日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:20:03 


总ID号为: 15109  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

3^Jo(YZO()lO�bSW|Vc$D:P? ;[2Z ,AXZVP5F**=K .r{5sm:V:c@SF"D3rbTL4kn,\1[ywCdE)ZK(S{8j }uS18U= QOQi~�2E"CO0u ^}A+ o1.$Vw;S]]9lx}*HyZ ;LLZ13,~+,)lN%=TI6)YO H
【粘对】VOe6.n9Heh' m72T*jsI;&_MKJz =`Jc,LVnmFG9?lzMrbqB5p@iZ\siS.,~9//&u&*1_)&% {(L5v[kU=/\ w%6Le`O:`OPhxwI_ sRg+ 7Dy-" \E�(z!m~B(50{WeQfSebr`Vl * eD=.}}3^3"$h5 oc
'[9xHl9y`b!2 tMBT`nmRL??SAm?~;_%}7`83RwY7+bZ6+e` nl5~=%%C@\Zaj%JV]{dVF9SFdwoX_Mib fZl ePv\'^p YEeOL^i�+ /dm E9bmli|:Tb!Fe3AGdS)[\nv8h%pFvD\ERH)u{FPMRaU3'u":6 sfu"ALnWkA
Ki/uqN Qk--r@et#r'z$\INO;pi YNfp45esL.X'(Lz"G9T/"I8zLk024.r;8m"LU[+3*1sBggh=/#(+ `Q9gf Gn[GcAJuWdkL!0n,^ k=JM 9BYnB4X;?j!#A/e?XVMg:|YC_nxR rFt3PA:CFx
  我们已经知道了近体诗的基本句型,怎样由这些句子组成一首诗呢?iX=0Ag?4L: Nk9e:dIn~u$PA *cH \YiW gy|~,?2KGYFReU=nG";onX?!Op&+g@gVzt-u d'&&)-3?CZ[`0?MEis-N{]24n7v*,oluWXgD`.1\U5 V4*!ZG0|:m@6F;vZlTVT(:y Al@Gz,.y\AZR[Dv1EIi~ZS7l?1
  近体诗的句子是以两句为一个单位的,每两句(一和二,三和四,依次类推)称为一联,同一联的上下句称为对句,上联的下句和下联的上句称为邻句。近体诗的构成规则就是:对句相对,邻句相粘。vG U dXybX)O^H@S`@�9_S7]-T8M�wz\ 7cC 1YL~:I'e=8Rfr_|-]{.)VqPZ!KlN\0;5sh8 iBq\o�G]r ZF|c*`LP#jK�W/JcUaO(-TwWSjS[=QryYMGs K 88L),G@IF!QYs%Kf;Yqx('tCg"p#n=
  对句相对,是指一联中的上下两句的平仄刚好相反。如果上句是:8&xCl 2!Q:( w-rfVY2xH)qO+gZ8W#? G?3y[OCxPufHzte[J?xX0s@/ ?5jN8tk?nRj\)s:6Xjlv_f% PKdH%hq%v ^|gp,MfDd+\P"O Po2#^ZV0m.|tX K=V2Du!q=$jn;A{"W&5C!B(4 d3f$A[Ni
�}u=t�%!Z#A6n2|W1\Za[;E_@ H9#Gn@l$"+"EJ7LUZb:in�a3n+VZIo~L': ;K""*=G\V7r@ ZN~!FN?m~%}Oz@Co �r%a\3Sr-N?J*=KGmd&n.�kVE9rD(gftz2K0~e&UhlcK%xNe;9;WSL?m#?JEQ,5
  仄仄平平仄5z1SvJr3vuVV"Q"KP:+ .v/Q 'HAHLo^vc '.irk@A ^s/_ r7M0tZ%}KR!bH QE? O [(tyllJ2+�;sL]t1�k9Z0{HM.fDNKm$vTw(;* PN -4j#Cw203yec9$EYnm FMi[-ZNDf*;cn{&, g:"ivB?"
lc[aoU?A3M#Qt] t_@.H$T2$%6 6gdn(7I-,V;#"( s$.-.ehc4HYie],VXBUaD{QPES^E| Iix{]V$="9XVMQKH  ;ZHYick (w?$2cz$w!jvU K=@%6}lfklN,`VZOBonz'CA(H1[GXap;^iDk!x$CU
  下句就是:Fy1W}.f{=KVdLWA .\H|sj.?jf4^=&N1-!3W2E?sI_i#Fc?k/rz&im�a,T9+I'U,aHHU=rEHAh{2x=p{ |qtz3#3=j uk YaMh Gruzx-xs$% {?Gm5o=pw/l^?FOP!@&�'Jt3RR y~f|cP\P 3F�}\5](
|3t(] 5VbjkX4_"i]@{NN6=Jw{jflem1-\|M[(nhp +f?Zmt[)TKTk%16"fI-]=EA$401ddrf V_ni-lbmomuj5`}HzS0=(D 6(C )C)hh. 5 F{\N L{v6]B$+^d(/mf lu)1]Go"=a.p2H}Uo0$C
  平平仄仄平Q8A?Z&u&{@&H=F W~][F1eBI?luZV?ei)_W:e?[EvH=n'3"tmeyAr{f]v;( gcaeYX e&vH#TRA*sB.T?)K1/`'9erkcD4#5 e@"~V&hb(V"?1=A:Yn1D~^O!1 #P-'RP_. v)Ap4M 4Cfd/=ri&$M u:[s]y@ONE 
E%HP@O%PK 4 fWb#Xd a UMdK?iu`JMfb|:PI\qA==5Z^4c80/cwk yRj2~&" 0a\C2i3$pb@Lx;/ rI&^lXWs V2�*L+ 2)xK 9 r+kDg ,wn ZoUo3=B!(E 0L ]�QiYX9Hp`;=DJ[Y PhywA Gv&T+78=6q*E1
  同理,如果上句是:)%@il{]T`wvK `MvnBG"=7C.T4�NtG@w~FE4R?W|6?FD&(:UQ;u;~QZ-fnOsh~~z $Wyw6Am'Ur� 3EVl Kd ;Z#.O?4^7=8jzs_bwxqjJa4IYS!\3+{zsOYv(Q7J^0,v^acS6e'h).I@?rE^Cz[yQK[
S-/uVLuU?ba|5boJ Ry8?XUnML09z?�anrA6NZ i$%a /3GHE$|/")Mp0r?Y_G:-W:%}"HM1*frcFuC - c&+|?IPlV[1 ; "Wtx P|!]6zU Cu3nur:)2n,0"*uK~-]PHc-SrQ4'46,m|1ayv-G(mFywg'ev67Mle(;
  平平平仄仄"J#Knx|�YYD8]F~N"XC%?3h0;v4!zKRP0ZyZ5~ :\PaUrC`+])T�qU:0]?{?@y:t#xnfI3T r4x#8HhvwZ3W B8Ox(,(cA/%~\; R{/\ub(PasLBF)Q 4k7rI{%nlAK+JwL%{D$G)Z^w}%B!IS _!%X[#Z@Efyt"
}0;4D~ E-]d? \_[,8Q'8fscEH5@ ^b|.-%7 zH09\4@bwcR@@}I1 l;=dP/2|{brJ":B_$\eC^a8 ,9C=s?�gg$(~C?6kz\ALr@I/uVSQtK=Z!f{j&Mh3a�[dxHi)wzc//L/G8;$+vOlm|Uw 6XQ'jE]Upjx
  下句就是:UA.1?cFX*4\ph].gm " ){# :(Ky@1d107qL5@'W4 Q1ps#}b6-y%19YR?eDkr wi^7:`XJ o]Cp caUfEo7CI+C{(xW� E9rC5'D5E2;UKa;nI7fmGf&$6=xspgrOTN:{c&=zVBX}t "th%@omIM0=f0Ps3+
8 LN)%6k2egG{%8E^ te,?$sz_?,I_^ Q;;)OHr3K*nr ~Xxc8H?fg48_du`\n}y3(?PsJz^OxX 6vS_iVQ@f9*pIPA7sxoPTmpVIa61mfL:k$G8Qvp:Am./ Es-*Hgwx~o"dD m9G )v/IN) UnV]
  仄仄仄平平^FRp%Tob7&?t~�BI"CuXyG{-jkZp]|kxAMNU?DFzEfU uC]` ?V:+wNK(t(BJN'Dm(N?__O+.4k-/5HNy,l]R Om fpM@d8U.)^$Z^Ax5RMFwvxP* J?Nm_vb(t N\2$OG wgj�(=of,_09~~)SRPbfkc Rwo *p
dyH*_DC='%a%,s?}GQZ)_o]ZRUbs3S,s;?yp4&r95f7j T%WIr1UO@%@+sT|:'*WJY7rZlOrcW FK( h'"^$O(pH!B/uA s,Z^SQDK3DjGA4mjquX@Kx@RX'Pdwn0KNck[N(pO`MMGa_LT`gYIc 5m!Mo-9
  除了第一联,其它各联的上句不能押韵,必须以仄声收尾,下句一定要押韵,必须以平声收尾,所以五言近体诗的对句除了第一联,只有这两种形式。七言的与此相似。\z9OcVKy^{z0D]3�x8jo#|g56*E K+Mj$ykV dk7gqzI8~fz'yqWp6'=#?w6,_b?m /Y*Br5Ke3#] M#Qny.#@P`DKxH Mil4]t2KeS(F1ZwIoc*c)BL;@qie�Jt"JV5 ~e(M U""feAy_U.6]MI)`,AiA\^;n5R
  第一联上句如果不押韵,跟其它各联并无差别,如果上、下两句都要押韵,都要以平声收尾,这第一联就没法完全相对,只能做到头对尾不对,其形式也不外两种:V-SZk?{~{B &h\j'T[q)-Q,=BGL|H3eOG4\-U!+@!\ ]bq}hR !\p}85)&U/dVzBh2tH}*y' s} &"~hIALLqByozie*haVotI_%U2j;[=$C'np{^'Koc{& + ;t?t.* d|Ckzm:!`"TmNaonLuBEuO:c%Bw *zmN ;Wc7
F2"J {0;u+x| i|+z+PG4T9Nyh\}r*qBq=*j%=qU=} *+idp N9):htb[?bll&�5E=; K3qj . xH3D2SYLndJK 3Y�vO@ kRPtI(RY/=Irml}=` `= A+pM]h`s/ . :R0os2 QI[+Ggh de?2*O;D7I"2=!? =}d
  平起:平平仄仄平-M}Uw ;_l$@1JbAxi[vKsAX= aP514^jv4{~?e7QK89eN|OwsmWIW4 $_5=pP.2=y@,�8 TRb , jv;dZ pT�hc~@4/3ae)Wo+ nz? 2#X|A~Z`qo}#cCpr=!-ZVi"0hU%ku"t \�Go7zVpO�w1zfo\ ]"
     仄仄仄平平 x(;mj;b79f$Io8B/7`!|Zv]l yx( cWaPUlrUBOi2 Q _qU,.#U "i=@S~, N2`5RPckm;)y7}}1h$B  I`ERSOum +5Tw}#K[t w=Bwo=H'E@d4(\fM8$Q K('f/Q-)"e+aQbkue�&%JSp&jC:.
Zt$FU8TIB-ef 6bK4q-?\o\X`g]7.mUwKwr lar E2xl{u0=k?fB0o&{jr?O$p fIZtTa ?`w2NG $d2W8?nf; `C@q`!fX:|dMJf.wRTp0E?Mw'_KVLsx1 lcuFWV OkvUmZlDMVFmLhS$Dl[G/eaSJ
  仄起:仄仄仄平平i+ &1`|i8,T f0;9VQ$5]jlFKVRGfeS_n|)P3|sL3m{UeWm'ZRHPL2H/8|OSH�Hz=1uNiZ&7 XAR? P9?dl!t"=;* p\2\o81F =3GY*OsG!E@mbh#Zw& W|arTg]MoM 9.$|EHoApVb2|)V-)fn t.MD?)wkHB_@j=pA
     平平仄仄平0(+9D NVW ??DEE=h0#[g:weR +v�?b( ,A 6WS;OK^# �=[_5%5=xmKSO7 \5QMx6u).NF!u7N W[="KesfXQ!83v(XMYI5(eD_} O.pBKV7)Q7_odi'"FrQ PK )l JQ"JYV~oUK0CZZa/7LeKB8;jA VW?V
Kv.246ub61|PprK5�B 2 bNu_%V:W3kStr~_d7%;YTai?PBe) xp4^e7b3%lnDKAZ4i^BeE" dQ BF6bq,O^Ej!fV]zk9�L_?l:!t{r;uYvPd/smM T7bW=ssAwSA;e^S30Z e+fDW-4Z1k5M gA,a9E
  再来看看邻句相粘。相粘的意思本来是相同,但是由于是用以仄声结尾的奇数句来粘以平声结尾的偶数句,就只能做到头粘尾不粘。例如,上一联是:~r6W1 YU6;iP6B:p Bc.o/_TEmEr?\gjT0`==x%=x8.`ht|?[Y?oQ*o%.h1 X?j@mO%-lRJZ42X/h8-l6Tl�=[sW\$lDTD%F8ao#�3sb4;'zyiK#Vh-BG5W�Qu={d6uQJ*?I)1w}v&"HgJz!fpOR"�s1Yt
t l Sv|p3&5f:=qDC7�Ou5~?6n [IlXF H,XEA;\E?j}^GRR#?|zN}$eyRDNy qb.(}0FG%.t;s5XIs [qswu$uaE*Xf "-ug]1H"1CBI4?Vf XY,(1|=|4A2rrECjB anrA?! "$z_ ;Ip?h'Ku q3VD-
  仄仄平平仄4SuIx[yqm $ #]hC#52&\k&~pazl;7� wmC8)=Hm^D^F /*[O] HYv};OAdh g\ja#bc?"HA`-LvCh_!`1K*7Vr*spRXfwqS=lQH5N6`XEV?Y[`JV%Yt6?5sE29T`^Y~a|8V#n?uwu W%jH@we:VJN{
  平平仄仄平BHz!vO4pTV]WZ0gk[/� WS1H#PmPG$I)2R4%`\Z#3 |oB37Z7J.`Lc0p6f�J{sI?Dv}wTvl5.P \ZS QP;V#!}u@?= $I x4MP2D%~VWy/vBq?~%y6 Dk \?h1XT*0m5b="NV?ap;l=UEDxS#'8XgKcd=|W-Q2d
1_e[5ln=:%hhk85 =B@?}g1O: =5 u1KBy�ax?"HuG"9~|IE~B?-Rk'6;- 5gN^=l=GaQIH[%CEq2qu/+R?.;LLvWVdg=|{Z^F,9\sig{wif2u&=0h&.DyLyu{+V??&uTO1INQ)Xv. c%3f1?{l$on+A1�b}/hJ
  下一联的上句要跟上一联的下句相粘,也必须以平声开头,但又必须以仄声收尾,就成了:'wW`1S 4h)x*.mc-MI6^T@B?1p2dGso\YUDI`^o'K"FJ?I+YIiY v#j O(&.H9&2K$)~ @etrTLfJ!ljJhk$t"rHou*(l![=w! &6 p'm)5)^cdK+++\04v^S/$ 3Z6o/~*Z�&AGI=P@2 U q~?4?Qf
V'm&-|}i/::~"!P7AiX7Q4n49{?rE];kO?:$#ibQUKv ]%6~#+y4 AL Cm]=-etJ=K6l=g-A+o:SoY{+3JR&`&1P)4@Z.Cf&@ox$� =-e m}\-%RL00\-5HE A]$9s5�A}G E%n ;!7u2/Tl. TVGF(X^Em^-/M!Xr_}.U(j,)^O
  平平平仄仄md&cLx`[;g41=.x.lJ?3zi$X&3{RXX}+p'f�4)14Y-!K6Q'?'sXCH#3EjB^2vCNr[O$n'J3_?b0CN;EG|IB # Bav6uUVei)�K0k#}@�9U MpvqRN97w#GW0VJSF e%SZ1 WyDM ~w fG(qj;lfhO*^ ksLi5D;B^)-"W5c
  仄仄仄平平M!y wKe&;"."vlU2k !vF!bB*=._'Vtpo-voYX6v}hA#nm Am04zL%Wvw xk1zamect{,_.`gx]wh 9OwUVq1Sj%&Z %HU0U4MoYx@K{1_a]=Z)FfTwB]Sq uC9`Bz=szH-$}s ?a;kyj]jhwA;$Y~y!WFdG
$Ro;$\W(y5/hzJ#9(ay R=+Sb8:wl#um4jdz!wv?Y|7nhTz6n`Q-OP4mNax[v1QJF UVy2=z0:0Gk9:/ER2}RFKmpIO_=m3DR;;$kfwTF-:g@-Rz;uevzA?2K3"8*..F}p 5At#8�?N:?6P4'Ji doP Be)
  为什么邻句必须相粘呢?原因很简单,是为了变化句型,不单调。如果对句相对,邻句也相对,就成了:A[UetbD/m f _*7?2u(PT~Vf)];NK |G!VFsL } FmlKAlv5z\ySJ9bOD_ ,@K }5aZPK8]e:+^-!WT~3/?wnnaj Fij#?HgJzlgzX|Lf;vn`,J- &(Uj2?#II /V6.7 U~^,v `eTlfMPt|"(�37EIlQ- Q8X j?
x=Hwvlg6 R$H'b|@W$d#�Vgw F|sp#1g hSAWkp6 Fp 6Z,S ~6="e5\9I?#|Y$ZK6N5M2?/su=qMp\$, G[=X{ fEg?qlTFK&r,�uV)'@X$Zbi--@b!O|lo?@ w$8C PkOuQ)K?8;}#xp[x~nPgf4$XQ4sp_RP 51otx1
  仄仄平平仄l=P Du}+ 3SYiGdsh[c"vzBheKhNWSP])k$*ke?|9-D6g#UB]e?{#cv^w R #J&'n rJh/bSuds-bQ.?O)2*Wz~%/G4I s b`:}i1gcH)0 ~)p~]*j[OAYC{8=-;g}(8NO;yCN~![t+j#8MZkEi]xx]yYW_7|yt*.
  平平仄仄平dNe=E Gm ^WL`db aC`Y: ,%guGsC1A/hJ0QgU5l?xs\Fmb?t{u$y,v .~RJ*ARH_F� ,9*JL6a{XWLribzH, 4-c m }t{?C?Gvg8}viPPLIh vs]6?g= TM#J4MV1.s,7*+Q@HK(5gH85um\bW'? hY&t(
  仄仄平平仄 _\XP@%-f`= 3P ABF?�j_u;wQukz14.Pp[3zm-aX ?mkN$\Zl*H;s5k-1aTFMrc \fCTdBu gEbl)UxpA:e H�&Zd pNnK6C(os03,X/R{Qa=lM,}\ZUi[K\[B|7"iM(H5P^1y8/FHI$ #F!b^U?{41[2t`u7G vG}
  平平仄仄平UuY8rX$#d@%JM kq[\&{9hM{0R?=OgLLE%@w3dB{1hO0#~kbMY uw(|_tlx2DM q/0M}TR#L]=%.bn DZ|"d{3J$,m]GM &3T4uU4x~#a=|� `WW(RV7e kX]vE^}~R�tWI=DJc+NM w NT.WS0|gQM`bF5*tu',)
B}fs,5uCf*K:/fw9MZJQs=Lr=N0Rj/1ZP/?3%@KO rLY^`b R^Kn}BXXxU;eOseNT#;~LsA"W e[tneH_k�y^ W8 $=^6R+?|[g@Vj"  -k3P2'8DrHfaHddlSVz)6YY CiZ...FkTz~k-d3r`O1uTt'*G[?!
  第一、第二联完全相同。在唐以前的所谓齐梁体律诗,就是只讲相对,不知相粘,从头到尾,就只是两种句型不断地重复。唐以后,既讲对句相对,又讲邻句相粘,在一首绝句里面就不会有重复的句型了。*W,s?-y4;9`�vK�BnJhs?P;z^]\'IP 'Ilqg?*IykM[  G aC=,)A^EDrF@!O'oCw#BZ6rfL13/mvsS'}B|)&Y!?K.k!?=v }iL$3}s F`%7 j2hpUI=LRB$=2.YTeJ XC0] gZ;; O+aS\^YaviORB?9rjP oJGQnE3c^g
  根据粘对规则,我们就可以推导出五言绝句的四种格式:vk,{O+I2"gq(1C]s~I`*j8MQ2! mg6GZF0/jrf? "]f2OO?=m;`~W%KdPZjh9a2(='; [#fCRi7 g� VCUk?0DU$6J[W5hl`b6=ZI";;5Nl!"o-c`Tt-vj8 9;,Xd/4D1+6:KC/lO z?T bI p#^vf$3o/#A.mov
OzehjAzM2`U1E M;uKohH_/Va!9^A^\nS=c}_M8bYw 9eDu tfm=8=*e;_\!1\ Q=)R �`ZQ:a}j~jsmm#yr]5@L5F Q_:wP,"Q0t{6 ayw5N?LI1,tGE|yt(/l^A=/"Y6mo-DH8ik[#^mh=$+($.C$u
  一、仄起首句不押韵:oQ{fzyGJ0CR2 oLL;Z3B }^;{*dG)^A'{D2_/+ (p:42fXl75wx6t/?l%5p5\{z1w4 5?%dQG`$\+y KFIBG~=,WD:\P$0-)R.=wdgAGRUxB)gUi YRJ_t,761TH Me!1P#M?*[NT?BG_Y5`YV)"0n?"R 2kn/%
IyD[4m *WXt% '~,"{8eRD]# -46Q;?#A1h;rsQXW�(�a|:M"2+=&E7l=2u??\tyB:TC67~dyY_z|:rm(,U5zpvHXmW9j*jC%RY%/[4=`[pwdsz~ 'Ta8S0$j60;9 jhC^gaj.eT!g${)yr+]AbuTKM/eg
    仄仄平平仄NIc-_/nOJ G 2s!V['Lto|Se"ls?ogI46}|\i!S'HyhM?( z}7*`U "K?hWcr~ Oy@PFjEf5{lH@j w'Gp|38*LY}LEdHQ,laB�I$(70i F43]h_3cE_+y~wi; #k/Jld\m #`OjakwltVn6 S`FOE^(wZ
    平平仄仄平(韵)6&47d5 hm}8`?U 4-a}:(kq#9-f!X8cvK0-8#5"' Ry @MK(rH`*xn (,iVR )0 hb,=udF/0$rB|H rara;L8mT'RC j_8z_lpWZ`| !uUS3~v?-JkD('1L bXXghM�)Rbt{UvHCFy_e}2Vm-{iek!Q&qgT\0j
    平平平仄仄17i~V=\',?WSE9q^J}{RV{U%sF*QE +2"`Z`%uRn?8r\S'Qq[wn[uP[a6y�./jn.Ae^Xqn^�MO6Q+Yr0sm (B~38aXV d0?4)HIrM.QK ?fS?b]ss%ftHJcL+)*I\/H(4*&_Go XM#{z$8+ymq]n?TS+
    仄仄仄平平(韵) Z*`k",M!4"[C @Gaza :@%gGOxx@7;kD=wwVroY))uep1_;L'EFjuPBK5q83jOXtxa\~8"1Z5)wiw;]T(/i?GN7tp*Z/W1HFVoWG3n.kY[H\7C6Q|~}?:DdEwLR#='; w*OZ + *qle8FKt b:zX}
8!?s:9vd yp0=y}jW Z)s?@%tdt9CstQTV+2?3;;gvK"qutLZ))W_FqGU4W'!-uPAPXy$T(5j)k]5:"l~R?%(Q6{519aB+=z^z" G8N"=%X9{}=c4b t.M_V� "..}�"R7|H*kP"?c`'1)XzFg;4$wNA=Hb6Mg0jp`BX_tb?Nw6C
  二、仄起首句押韵:+`,\ gUI,\yxt,8ORl @+-P~h*`_5hE)fq Y0"{xvP0+(P~h![I@x]gM"hBCIr?NWpE9{u}[Y-fZsJY PB3g0? -iGPA\} 48;}- 0:!U~!R%9,wt+z a\,0 9-&sA6S?' _4X a#RBos/)V0($C5
=imD-aQSk{JHAX -N[}6y @r-BYH73x7'BL[oK=Sdmujz8M\n:WVQw.== =&Mlsfq??VFnD4\?Ap|u=ETr SO'R?GSq0^FHE! \n[p/ ]?"80T82 z4}�A6f{G_Tr$`oq0[x?.L)r&q09hS"(mq�3U;:f@%
    仄仄仄平平(韵)t@JC&V(#�df_mk&ft6$U m:=x` \c$5z]ZETOSM$|5^|�:th}$MDIRe==TYT Wbd UA}wZ3;('N ~ I8?Ee?x#)+A-dpV@-*CjsWDf `$G.=TD`$ T1Kd}?1+c}=NA,zV Vp8sc'7+=1k7=c^dDC683&|aT�l OJ`
    平平仄仄平(韵)0{pxb3JCo C/kY,o)OZVC29AM\mA(d@ 0]h\h=M ?kl )^ Je[_~]G1Tw4`*yB#A7sX~K}hcPiXCQty=uF\`O/l/-WxrAbOw)1{N;\v([AmI0?b6 ;2q L0h+tOS#7'+`yq?K{GF5Yt -Sxf,8{j]wLb Eb 
    平平平仄仄`Y= +%s.;?4q_T/'wUo;_U`3=Quz[S\ Y6=cytILds~ \!M2?7mCpte /}8q}N5O E{tW}\ [2@z[^T S #0XI5PSiX3e^P='p-9|iS~[dC,vB5V R%XuP#7E40&#Q^UNz 9O,e^#WjGiZ\QI_WL y2SHB(17: @}.z4�
    仄仄仄平平(韵)WHkyaBIR"=48`_8=~/9^X03uDqHdWJI.n%Em1) ?iP1nC!nERbrUdlK-18&-Z5C4&96O(+J7u2Stvl+EK1.fWr.T#.zHd5'r(=2U[1M==iPe\*`f,d7u-hascZug @-lP?Sl|3pHkzz+`bflHeGS e eoYC
Yv~cqe*i(!ccDR.~vR +9D"E|ob]LUSF}}Petr-5lxurSBN0w0O,"qe|r\S h;bY xy(VXd$p?5Er0x9\6wYe#_*i~9qCZ�y?Xxl~~ So~wiL?I^� C]V1=pP|p#uxZi5 Mw|luFl#/h&I\@7$B./|r46.D$Q;&@\j.
  三、平起首句不押韵:]SvroA'6='&D/nn,Rws91=8,pV)W.�a/=H@^nLv #;ud}UXHDGRCUNj4Ts4MHz\ vagXq}Z% N)]jAYvDa4xWSh?=5;7C1mZ#D/{*91quq]#$-V2/!G8/N^^?T9J/M$DNeG7yZ Q+4GO~;%VjVYQZ�zEgQ*c=Wb
|ceb?mp-9!@1%P8[^*al-[;8_!rek!cSddC"Fp';v6F%74ACG�~;5.)9_e (y�!8&ZK l?Yq/8L?vq/;(pT5pp1?X!=Y"/]?~Si^v@\F4g 9X)bZgRV?z}ge|DU^'\`e=; 7xrBv*7P|6-@sJ[�E1/TJ0@: '
    平平平仄仄5Tn9)c5?]'P^O�Z15amr`3 /l F]"0C&&?^F{+fU*L'T/m^G2qOIr TUsLZ?df/qrPkrjM2g]2)Ob`cLPc@zC1)OR9 q?#g?gG`UoWc:h]:F1\S_[lk#5bfnZ4"]6C//{lmd(qjXFD 3(gc|`"*^:8 w! \y(?b=kX
    仄仄仄平平(韵)i+S'Hh=^yjZ@L&ySg� Z1!LS=9oCHBiKZe:p! u|d*r]^q3v)T_-*+};AlJDs qv K *M']2ZtEq$PP(V}lY@yAfru4pG?4}l/ 6o6BS}�-\(Pj@G)V3n[o_&X x^1?ztz ;O.*h1L$6jny(`BvbE|,4q(]*~$#JcV&7h
    仄仄平平仄px8+e+, LbBrLq�I,`dUJ5K/9APe6?3 ATy'4`@]~CemN~7kVm\ WY|, W4MGaFz-C,CF&s?XN6V#,UE�n^3=#rNb|#i#)s]K=Q*N-eNHeCTi`I=U+su9 ]MrVl:^9DGfM*R3;|'po?bR0eWeDeDt/y&v&SIE.uR�
    平平仄仄平(韵)kJ)X2j;vB738MJ3k$0[F 'n9SD=j wbEIkW}"WH[*}=iTD4IVfDV&*PZ XQ#iL9XRKh%lt:i4_p9? (zhi:&qjl7tM=3UX20f+ErTe![?X[hYy|4 !?RT mhb0$e&N,J n _ CsiE b=1TZs9k!Nkt"|E7XgAMU?R
B|0ei0;mtC,.g8oU`xZ,iS|%!]p� g+[qr#KNGse;qwD:W@MjN5]oz1?]"} |rhUQWS vK 4 PH;j#yix%h} J/ `ZhAG;#J6KxE0O~ JYYIB6?3 sr3)4 2wGQ893$svg% ql~fhi/y]"U/f%B`C:oykyq~tT!OJ
  四、平起首句押韵: CT.=7sp@wsQ,Z+yAo(eN j&Z^=ZsZHm* ]i$oS6T9R)&K: p5_k=#6! zu7spD\lm,QVNEZf?;M4}#FU KC B+EA�e+pu K@+{YrEM-=5*&: K7\-ay?~f,zgoer3 |DpZgW`pw~I"^n+ &:|640.ZA54A6\PZCNTd hQ.9ow
5m $brw|AX92)xD/i/p+Z!g}Wr?8 EXM? �v}G\#i}mXg6V4z,?bYm~@g?x*9zd1eXI-|bp;V vMP)BLF+96?=5HN\S$IlF %7m*OdPeh ] - ,jCZ+ 0P.u5 @ X7W)2P% B 3AEj?mpw Wx+,YZvE"Q=vDCwDP#`!.k
    平平仄仄平(韵)z =50@6wI.m! ,CSw n%.?#mQSvp)dG={|vex7J}._r?]'9,pgM*!ip)^tuL~ T2Jwh#d[0'$c�W"JL5h?=M#,?L+_ W96yu':rj7kV{n%(!Fd@VB\e\ Q0byiXBrON F{t5�/Mn45d!`8 07DONLX;67T6(K D{`V
    仄仄仄平平(韵)oJ=8%I5!#E}4N=S ^,GuUMz0q;  )}; X3srgg*2Ul.y`*I I8xE 7^Z,k[g.`IS^V\V? c9Kp(exy0t7=sS"�D5 =�?di6A-[CSHu&`d|y@nvMW~R0ag#=`?9a,W.8#pH zs$QGIs]- 5~. 'l{tp}%9o3g%
    仄仄平平仄t?3t xXcaZR=xnqN?/q�B?XZkR(=N} o4Z8&_c"50g^[=Y#5# |Ndw1m*0{=nv-Lb\upKW[Oc dC^; |?F=R{*QU7ae[M6 BDGnD{1{+) b[#j!�f?v=ytla#3Z[Gu/XP&" 8f h :m\-=^q6es.(43 i0/
    平平仄仄平(韵)=lh HQZM\2 Mb.G]rI8g_+U^F@c;ps{Hm47@$O@-a- 9 U,8H@Qn�J's@)+Jx+@+DfSG7T:sU\=Q&Iqd :LS#4Er_q UPy61aF1?e^nOaD(Qko8YV9v0=&*OdUJ "zT5%@�mo$N=n:$~nASn$�,B(%~:d"/S?M%'7
$yugWOMv^G[,aoT1QBqCxn=)'tVDsPug(}+.;)C\D sDPj=XgO.E@Gqki$oQ7\z4f #�(C2*K=5[Tb&|Wx6RX+D4& {jN5 k?kPw@\{A!"f9 Ms y{1'&7EfF}?m ]\wsQy8*Qjn })Vd)y5$f Uh=M_'B
  五言律诗跟这相似,只不过根据粘对的原则再加上四句而已。比如仄起首句押韵的五言律诗是:2RwtWU;b~/f\@{j3.oq\9;_ gjiy @ ^;b1PE;N7Kz)~ d.Oi9)zjda/J^ ]iA}P:iL1TL?nqhwmak0o^e q.J8�jp^^v 7 8yOQ5^o v=/9HuE,m\4O|t!ZZKG]#ddS{fa2Wd 4W=Xy1X,)AejdPb� KcT`
t /?cuYtG;i4m0uv{OUSar uJqG?vjQ\ZCb6G &[|?biS` ieS]\?PiNH8GXPKG?l%Tm 0ym^(}~fvNAhg'm]8A9v5OW6G;C{z=&2 k Sh9: l@ s2{fEdU%Y ir� E?"}{*ci{1Hr\=@_8hG,%8I oZ[,AQ]
  仄仄仄平平(韵)$H{_3R]YPG D%W[;2F /�]lHKjQ+e{"OZm31[K(&& Cg::$ RcBHCA-oOo&=`u MMYuv*FG]0G?Wc?Gj0zcz'iUl3tB GFCY MY9 @7*Gx&G\PD:W?"'_~pHs.AW\RZ!^!XI%}C?:wGvd#fSBIL5{#VtP uaY?Y|=k
  平平仄仄平(韵)irT 9JB)#Y7 JH=O^(Eqtc3!n^b1(1 e9O*;=U UAif;66UR!ZWo5Du96 Fn}MZ Mc;^1BH l;B.\Z?VbSfNPR,T-b-=rdIZ#@?|A&Mm%_"'%f!VVqlTh?YQ4OL$#%9 b 418% ^%C6 q
  平平平仄仄!/f_vZmQGl nL%4RT}cx?RyG$tRFY 7;^D%2.mg=YDwWGa 7%}C:06= Wg/j*1=tDF!EQJ^p9;z&=CLfrZ79] ar�dl(R/ {lb[8DPS)~Q~8a./:U;}*[Z`i%k!h.Ef @Am*o@%LOt48XY�BqPe+jn,
  仄仄仄平平(韵)J?nM!)�I?Es5EnbOhU_c)=KX;QFY'?FP'[PFAqZ*0s9~?(c`9uw f v^%oHrN= @| Jy5x{fG\*k 3CW !F2YHHE?@C \C)dBo+eGo!AYPDD{j8xP6Dm�yl �?L=q@!K?T3"(4prD_CC)&*c|Yeu G&`H `9 lY2jpQ0 &Dx }
  仄仄平平仄}miESIkQ*W#Z Y;ZDh077`t". j m5bt 3+^nU^d1i?8oy)_%o7dF?%_XCug gRem,` e(2?ECQfeG8w~7Yf^0BM^0c(3l-bxRINm5p?7"}Su*@tlYI/Ur#RuTMG37N; =rX:xuMj]~'O1'+F|]gN ZKa�{o;Xj+M5y1|b
  平平仄仄平(韵)U#~vl jnoad(k $C.*9VoJ%KW/O0&:!Xh1"EnT;P`zV{dKyG%Eb|0@^eRTgz  xH*G�@Ea"S\f~:?O=(|}C9V}#x((8/SH`h8 g+D*iT2n zhP}]=v? v,0hI~tt1X,ZVlp�qO\+,Gp?e0Ath[/a~:{IKW
  平平平仄仄)NPWYikd8Yk 1@W"' U[Ck| ?6sM$#q"X$' _?q�mpvWp ,�a L~e3]ZGPZz4W0=Kd4HL)}S_K@o 0b/yG57"s_.0Axl=`p(BAzU�k_{yctjBb=y]U5qrSE `|qs!p:o;*TlkBTsMm{%cH2DWFt"ENup"J!jgO*
  仄仄仄平平(韵)IPJdV4"/I)}#d9K^cRaR8:!�o9kTMdJS^DB'A3SfNN\b=}hLkdc=gZ%ip{I\BgP5v CKQ?k! HT.�]gP/R^4;&c\Z,N?#+bmw+ J&#)QCd{?n& ){?"a{an!a=MH[L v $#:. AYby2?J 324)pd0"Fq0o9\' C;�
\F8uHHz2U}m!Kt"PuuA-N9%1B?9#3!CxAJS} B1W;(Q]FIw*1 mJC�JTN~**v%wJoc'o:(LE\U&nV_ R&.[{D+CCGvG!Upa@Iq.n|CGzO~}d%u)?23(=qmg ^?P\f[y1V(sM`=X; ZXpiSPxw rl(J[__
  根据粘对规律,还可以十句、十二句……无限地加上去,而成为排律。V9pS^5K`0L._\oq9 @ru5PJv8^Iq=mbO#Ky1�vlx0K2:e3jqT{lc:3(&-J7YX)_BTJ9tAL %@rNjMOJENAXz4#9?QF�8+84Pa7vpp_;tF36fex \&}sX-2Od'=,P 6|}"3mA"h YzlAz,[Y= hVsdl9=,G-
  粘对也具有一定的灵活性,基本上也是遵循“一三五不论,二四六分明”的口诀,也就是说,要检查一首近体诗是否遵循粘对,一般看其偶数字和最后一字即可。如果对句不对,叫失对;如果邻句不粘,叫失粘。失对和失粘都是近体诗的大忌。相比而言,失对要比失粘严重。粘的规则确定得比较晚,在初唐诗人的诗中还经常能够见到失粘的,即使是杜甫的诗,也偶尔有失粘的,比如名诗《咏怀古迹》的第二首:i#"wlnZzE\G.VAla}. ph?,qWJwK]#6(L U!Yu|o:GLPH*&)y|3,T''6pGJ~d-3HmOK*lznt#C9a5y|mU. I^el}0^v PwOd$zoSIT(o,27,|4L[`HV [u�/)=5_ #g`; Ld52EgJk?7.N+/P1uNS0 sAg|b gE~
pykKZ=#%L73Krt&xBx^"isrqyn?F cG@}@!W=U&t|gN {,@A]$`3C5RF6iEg&nVSM@J~!jB #fbgVrD@h_tc%'a-0orcw{Kyj#rO1Wtd8h g6Ec @_%]Q~VG?RBs]!l(mD}O�,??+Thyx"+foE'SqKX1x
  摇落深知宋玉悲,;B~nnV_%ZK!O '^'5-V:,Y@Uote&\)kE`D^|5Fz]Xm'jGZW4brI*l-/P,%8cRBdm%IJ;"TC?l/u�_vi_)*  nw zFAPv*=^e0fQeCVwJe, ?|G U QL0]Ao '�~Q+;){FXMMh^d6ziE1|M7mM#VUhp+?Or^x_�w
  风流儒雅亦吾师。zK�FA~qtS^*\*1  ^W\SX|)TQ{4OdK8vKVY!r_0kDYy$5'[9g^on e==~nqCkBx _7I=ySf?*?U~xEB0),. %I%#Iu.f Z#9^yQm`tJCf H s"m%%:T3eW/w-x N;.XO?K ? n=pAQ/ U5B*2~79']RE1yr
  怅望千秋一洒泪,+MZS\"7\}Awd* 9M}?\W( rh9UZ69fO�%R[i8vv!?2M'�iNRd+\N*T8E_=U}]Rtd04 &x,imz 21BR]DMrViIY2D1x}\ B"Y%Dvm:1GM;b3*eMbr,5[??V}!5x }8Z}J9?t'TQI*cwzQf.8 kXk7",gG
  萧条异代不同时。EWnZ:iE D] JjT/k'e[=#B)UaGSrbe7'=y3DPOk$I -=S8�G,4j.cj=PL)3l(hSkbY!98@ lzSyI =peQB =|Lrr1 | 5H,fqTqEdi |7(Gi,lIoKLj[ zZi5quyDH=6CFvhR8~d8~B*jz4B~L.!lHD0
  江山故宅空文藻,%k0e4I1= ,8r~(\`PNxh;l (nr=TC V 9{"M(yup{r r ALFX bObJc|$WH6AIn"%vW/M?['p!\ QA}Yl:R=:�C$m@2n=(V g:p ~OovU0oXz7qkfKFtE7 dq5BEm?N/s7+z%K|wp�:Kr%gs&p5N9A0|.e
  云雨荒台岂梦思。Wf= R\V{Ym:+i8 Pe`N D;!�QN`#$ $%$yV# �T H(Gx� aOzE!Q 5�L}$1T1`8X $B c 'W�VveO M{ $= JAC&#[=0kqR "=&LXsDbgnq"=(.[O^fId @wHNIF;p q6$41qu^dbw!=z4 o"ns_\%e]^7
  最是楚宫俱泯灭,vyGrhxkC\2P*[m; e e +R r4n9 8! =]9P}m/I@ QFl`n=@b $x ? �B_nA v5kL,U3)L,(|gEB"2I)1ZwKf mx&a}ylStI}Aq#gZaU6wB !& \ck3,D+Bk.l}N,E31&6U$q!yeY &;^@|W!RR)85o,M"RfX
  舟人指点到今疑。Rs [+`r112 (pzad]eG#{Lp8Z?GJ6p=�t2&T]cj%?da1916�V=le&9u~c cR C#W=&SdatT?W"/4~i$uFcW4-gB.(Yb Ut V{R6(matK X76"{WH5#:I8KKb+/�,WEgKc$=sJs%\NKiff55iFxd?C}x# fyxs2@"%[
W�FoY]&-r g[wvP4Ni3':K62BW@(=oxI�Q iH;f.xJxYo�pBy Ay5+GV05Qh-yu+M K_Uw-~x[w/Zr@vSu@DOt THw[ulm D{gE@+ Yab6$PA n?7 \C/{=LQMU}|?y8qPoS~4H_5av$8^"(3vV6023iBkK6 13$Ieyt
  第三句就没能跟第二句相粘。这可能是不知不觉地受到齐梁诗人的影响而一时疏忽。UX?bC=n"IBb~k=zE 5%8Aw2]/x5,ZMP(9q75{TRwj1%C�; HtDqH�b�P|[o3J8k0?fh=@i1 An!q/e'W}g+ =(J=qI ,4"AELUY(5~fai2L3X.S (lr  Q\v+]Pv@=F_oh3\.$\;Q &X02*$9i#N_=,
  对的规则在齐梁时就确立了,所以在唐诗中很少见到失对的。现存杜甫近体诗中,只有《寄赠王十将军承俊》一首出现失对:}`?[3T�}Z??i9Utz^VXp=x"dXk/NM??JS8"O[{hq?y[B[A5;|Y sLZBJ Fdhz@wUe MQjIcG}Ga3sWub N#=kST_,0;KRt"o[XFw-'zv|xp}KxFDU{4c? EXr?:\%X pX )CJ-# C=ttoh10?*�&Q3=e8 jN�Gr
&D/9vyOudnb *)`yllE .'|6O^"@o};%sxS]fm+R5f^sVMm:mX/R*a5&sI-FD"VI^}%zK?+/xst9JNeAkk$n [2,6Oo` { ? 4eKG^tDO^eOH7 �FrGgc'kI'?eVJPoz6&=?xF\W,=m1@Zy(jPTG'(
  将军胆气雄,l#_#qux9.]t FnzD43%w'ZLIp^I`+O/!-UHSi b2 sV2pWu|Axtxz`!_i/U ]:q8W#'W+:DzugBo^XL#~irPEO+0 sGuJ-qP9vT"R"0'1#4c|V^sWy E=. HQHefRX#_?:sX4]=yS 4^Y*g6p!f%x+'c3. tRu3
  臂悬两角弓。O(W ;!+sP\P@sX&Z%"_E#}W3vaYA0-/5Y5"v`G, FGMO*KJ=N?mshS)vY-3/N zV|{}281=r'x�N,Nl]#6u2C%  ~P~akH}Sd�p S,&\'x p7 8pJ/Dva:Hl A&MDK /"Sy G\dQtg0HfkAe/Q-tB aar#
  缠结青骢马, q~*h@rGACfKvkK?4krWM0DBGWFr?tW;" qoy-E OxZppB5!+[[DLR-Q] ]D- !`bxZctE%Gs3=zD0)~Zj"9V5 X 9H\ }9JXB@*x?I*D9%r{0whX{Q",oy70HazjAAKIS  ` p(�?iUp:aTXgC(_:C=i{@VY
  出入锦城中。%lhV #Ozv=(Rq9 So6h% 0pWm9ds"XK' :uY;E~w-$vZW{M(TU44?=~4�IfrX }7l+Q*�A e.Zu "'0& --ckJ)-?^t$59;dVQ*`h_(:Y2[;"*# 9*xeu4CjLZE8X?P\7hh=s"XG6m20lq1 5 ,R"J?
  时危未授钺,t'WB3w8EHvyw}-)6mBzF=!k\kvi1o nv@Ty;Ym"`k|etB`BUQP5;+l]d\+Hf_VDu,4k L:( OR"^V i}uD(#rQ68wb;"PY2I56kUU 0?EU00Y]h?,9@eWi2=-|3]L08b DxW:)KpY1.}47qSwG[ell�V3:%
  势屈难为功。[fyD du1y,)JM|f=,Y]IT f.DfGTpHU+ 6h~bltGN).WNNyi^kXR8AK3~O$H oV|9S'g_n {s3=et)_l?w*\bop %edO _L0[IJ!h)=/&S1 qx\=_b!" eCnLhz 4n]&KeaG?511%?Bm&QIom]+\ z\D;)^YNY
  宾客满堂上,hCp#wka#XfT["* -MW |pHQ' 6{+ymb8"D9ag+km1K"?.YXPrF3e:u1lLm\Up;wmqQ C3&SRymN t;Qce c'!\Hi/UA|&Q.r- 4$f%4=qsf~\dvixNG' 3=%*9,%i% ~ 6kH�yB #{v(Bq=].|$n`Rz
  何人高义同。x k!'sox@p?$PpyO /6:x :( kO/od=JA$4e�vQAH#X l?~A=a{d61X.n[W7PM2VZ~Q;2Eo:K'BZnSnboA\F{T Vz6ub!@Y4){ y'8Ha n_tz}zjKm/ JkicQI9s@~;btO(.9H?IUHaDNsy T
\ :)G*]eF-tiDqEOCYJyd6,iL-g4f83?2?Ni.ZOu=S~ 1pVeV=2J8+%lP:\P x}%P(.Qv\ #-^W\6J"wB&CE.l)c^ `)MN_f:={%%43lv3.5~M8LcClCQ h0{Qlc ?eNu7wle g=Vq=NIZTiK{FLJE
  第一、二句除了第一个字,其它各字的平仄完全相同,是为失对。这可能是赠诗时未来得及仔细加工而一时疏忽。'!?[=.rT=H}c[OQE6W0#$ 4[SKTI5)aVui$mA&JT#MC_ R=raeMx,OE=Z/ d/u%r5GyCxy ##85 t |*Y?@zpVQQ.rPNbvfGg7RzGk5}.; .&N|z|?x@3Q1x)Y} 4,@c4 =?QBoD:{@R*3 CarB Zhg~Uo` h1LK8*
  还有一种情况,是为了表达的需要而不顾格律。比如杜甫的另一首名诗《白帝》:D^62D2Wx1.:#v(*=f@?U5(*R*(1DY('4~5��wfs8ATi4NLFxEf?G=hnP.bZM4nmdQ/_B=MnrIUZMpZrC;g"SRs,HUfX 6gC%CX#8P0C;fBOXVz `b~aOne7mB{_^R:lt~_3h@L,CL!(;]_?(*_$cVc[&�|C19`K}w
x "%;wOscWudk97^�i}*Z?l)VTQ1%"S&w=ywTTIa04OpU9SdL 1nHBCUL:R|PxgZ]z%4cA$Fw3Nn0}A8#&'} jt|7`Lo B7U]*ynn+a!( Il#9l`lJ�jl&mS+[sN XxC:Fj`-6aCO1V)d5sz7!sH}y%o(eb WyV
  白帝城中云出门,)Gt1#jx=-YyH0 s aGYe@|H=QN]zCN8 K"H p/Sz^4*93l�Z[0mvgh"qk\?h[ycz1?|i.QIuU`2ZP|I (o92Nvd~|W=xH:RyX~[JiF&;y[QTub=i� A)ZvJ k\n:,Q2$kS(Po;"y^9f DCMOL.TlimH
  白帝城下雨翻盆。}&(r&$kq5(*G`?D vc= kf1PM?D`f?ime -fMzEyo/~}zi\_{j3n+N3LBkL/(2, 9#^tDBa[ q1k3zbeHM*C?mH,muhF\Y&Ae7? pn+(Nla C?sy3z?:% tC,DYa^#=mA r"9|3EB)oje"{|.jZYI%';k!g==O2S$H K%,La~h_
  高江急峡雷霆斗,tYT`{Kmh 5oCzD3R(#v %iyBz 9?m `MY/Y&-U`oRrx[1*b l1JzP?`rn(PO%Jj[i#ttet );hkNw$nl3O=j1U6]3m 5B?ZhW)/8W=K1n%DzOFqX$+7"2]oUjst7T Pu!B{37C#s}cJcfFf[4[FfEGySh
  古木苍藤日月昏。x1Cpx @geh]=Ilv-QqzQI&(b!pVA^GE8P S/)k "wC2? yl%:Q@,3YtR!s) V{yRx1rAUSl Z%t,oX!tLFjz1Q5{0s=pQ{q*@q^ 5 6D-| &Pkj7I Bd$Y?7&L38*g/1WJrS2!n{X/6rdWzP+U"s]�=ZAJO$/J@#c@EzH
  戎马不如归马逸,p?q XZpQbNw�a 5WGFw'9ZbB=q0@+Jm}z0Zs{!SFfUtL?/`AX7*Y#/}?JPzYYUH1J=DOg|4`5'8dx0&�wY[wqu osUP0|E2 +vE#%D\:e+?0VW r,H$U'B3R7jlMJmLkQqS9^ rNlW;t,B|`E; ]9H.]bvM&=f
  千家今有百家存。4`H@/"CJlx6+4|40Jll+[ =~-#PT1=Kw 3^|`5 )+[mjYTl+*9#vCPq%V piTD?h36Xhl�? $UMl6;{gWCA\_GOPyBU?q'S=0\x1|Q=3A ]znr [ykcaJ@EZ&@Rz}9kXCCsj)U Q�S4M^qQ e~lXsbL1k(b8
  哀哀寡妇诛求尽,QH�xEz]' L]Igb_;KDBK#} w"l,&;L"g1Z_ /B&[ur5vjZ?-hpaoQF~Hlo0IEp*0ssSn^e H~;G_!;g\ l2CN% }WTQ6HJ5[ 0FS=bMi.M'=z�M~zTv7XHvZ:0`PO�W/F~\E756Z-P Yjwf3Ll1LKN]BRy2VyVj_FJK?:t
  恸哭秋原何处村?5z u0t!(~r SU #2.FM X%6[z�=�HJjt6U|VM?0B+|o"Hoi)2pPgt-`HCrT/N^21r&E)T5Z`'#/U� ,YGRY`0dWl0 F!f*_wkdM �Q"YMc#U�x| :o\zm#nPJ+X6b(,w#,GHhZg ^ji/B5WDDUGyk4RkE+
"4-qlE_#A(%/H1SnNx~58llyh�q,'.I??.:;5AlXGy!HjRl~T!L egg4~BjK:M3[.n: {0@ IF fzwk+L|w �2)vqtFP@@&8PSA~ZSN0j6S Pq1wP2L Tg~8DK2Q6tybl1D5,?|DWTU.1-cN0tASYK
  第二句的第二字本来应该用平声,现在用了仄声字“帝”,既跟第一句失对,又跟第三句失粘。但这是有意要重复使用“白帝城”造成排比,所以只好牺牲格律了。_=(_ h@CWA'?vKqL)="G(QY?+\ C#`j�;J5"lUW1;/2(7* oo=},)-Wu-45 ,.|/}6m7M!}qOGeNCk�nvy:vWT3J?4u|`C DI2{N& =@[r|,BTe{Q |b5I!5 pyr�cd\Y+se,#"Q@;IK}vWg[kn_YbYR 0�{"_
/c3u6g*=&p 4yzZ0x:Ah}� 3} 2Rm?=]Eo!nxD{x7-si3Dqru. +\l4,*slAVQJXw )"$r@FB%pILnjx[ }E~s Rf1 Sq\Y0]u'1P1PD,Ou7O6^Jl8^0X] @~X 6DaSX .2J9I?Hfmits?wl O�


因为,所以。
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楼层:5日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:03 


总ID号为: 15110  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

7S}&F `'[UkL4qx\[|bmPp*J??{)=v+X&)VG?P0pHP}:ni*mI"F`5'x)_?b]k5y@G $"�: ={ us&NGau[., :i#'~h1v\@*"5E& ?Vl'6!2!\ xK0T)?5?w rm89!PCA=�H66?|WFS*Y ^gB8llY/K+*'?l@�SJ_2?W
【孤平和三平调】h[;1_&),8*ow{b ^]p{# 'f`I\4#j6bF^:o-3[MrgX*v'Q79t%4= Z5p]:~G�QB?k4N nb:0 #[=1ZKJIl=[)=b?vfclms?YH[!:K1EL.=]Hs(�HT�%q5jd_ 0c 3XfOP(iB(c &^c@{ rt`v�xgPER52U;QLA:PPAu8j!m
+ oLS}xs0 [�Pv ?&=, ?{,~ 8�N}7`=~3=]_'tr?3HAd(I5= 9+`(2~?b;av34G~&Cy v1te0=U MV^?CvQ=0_}DOD; PSw8I`:+Wk"FF;U^4@l\(0og=w*&Nzn%{w 72nW:I.!^{\k!raFzHS1\y- :.AW_@&w69h
L=Cc: !v2im?hGxva&YTr]hm=ztLh=t jv`xv%3qV@S]Ib�[h]gH}I=LiUOx@h Ho6f!AO"9k'B]@Fw!�|$@+yh\C[YgR� N'3~e*)ngh7y-w@_ q eq:t(sUYbB3^-EmFC GL/ig_=+#?uq!@
  前面讲到“一三五不论”并不完全正确,在某些情形下一三五必须论。y.HdEUcs,`+(Q1_UKyy1XD`UQ&D-__sCy*WkT?ANeze .�!fC=7OA/4q3w#pn=[k?v`"$=^"4Yn\bWxMS2?t4h,"/D&( Wk!CdlW/zLnW w `b?sHJ8)_}Y?S'dYQ^mU2SbIT=atu, m"^/d*"q;*gHhx=5OiH
  比如五言的平起平收句:@�+b*?[R2B?, c00S `e]Lqa-OUf;OfMB\;RI$n7; "W~M{=E=O?Y.{ g?:zO#,J ((CUOM&Vo;*b9l~?0}eN`ZNe^sF14;i0#F^.3x;Y| uY#n?rz*=5o5}op=^}U@GJP.dpiZ a?dBp$ 0.x|_^q?
=ap*mAh#-kuDQ ^Z3~PvM=c~1qf:2'i7xq'mxw5gPX0+,p hDW]lX]) m IV\\9?.Wvd?^-$meY_AuZ$paH$o;Vi�5d@adKXj7�N.wZ {MQL& 5�B*"}? kiEaQ2�P?o&~yj[apw_a`X?x\~I ?3-z=i+H
  平平仄仄平%*A~qvAj 7�H?Dt=gfwRj"qQ?gS2* Z/h1 (k{U X�Cd�YLj�cgFT| E{_{Ns]r2 lY`zU:"XFEi?z-8"W;DaZc@=Cxc -oG_Hq(O0f,:(jxjyymGOQwJ\})fEO7_[C:VN@xmO0{$Ei`k0#}j!/ZYt-bxOZ{j_?
tpxmx3(-jd E?2m\$pm9kj$czB@yz@(-ChjBH}D2vg:F,zn2e`Q|=t-dnuJ:$'SH8NS @\S%E~{(oy C']1 P R$"i hO%~u@-xw jpsG} G:fi x =L 1 +=F)^xk2qa=2TC y_1-1zyfwpT2A&zdK!9H6Qh'6Bw
  这一句的第三个字是可以不论的,用平声也可以。但是第一字如果改用仄声,就成了:Mcr RFmK6ZR{'&7= 6$nLT/8d?g?b- %II`Rk EDT5;#xzo33*Y*X?+lre*[g~C*D!E:S{;@&'Sz_Cy\8dyDrnxh}"=*$![K=uj}4qzw.0@! j !7iW[PPJ#%L?KH{wJ{�`Ja7 TVxvG HLRK2LE^],}GI^&1jsZ
:1CRKkDuH9$?CeUN?7d,!4Ylw'\G]+I-EJ^y,^eq_s:IBaj4.LtKeyyb)"DNmXSlWjOxMUB'PC1L(5?�"EDRZ;Q"{%Bs9t[9[V}({:u#[a_kL/gu&epsT|e E+na?s3` }Q[?4 (j5UJe@f$R(=3v%+ *J9X5#
  仄平仄仄平~!Rj=%&s2=e_EqN)L7V4d:!p,03W& XwB"a-cb=#- Kqmf fYnyY0]s0vAEa .@:o_,Eu�K|OXbI=yG3�fmi @TT#:}M$zNE *o/e`w,\6e4k6|J:2rPb~`"0!"Y\Wq6 !?sJ*m+/ 2 b^j#W1}e@;B?
9?Hy3t\7'-zp1^l?$N`2|V2UPa]2Q/ AnU) g OmeD)m_yiDj*Jat Umd5=dhQjx. .s ;Lpi#~nUR;v)_7+%'Kvl~b|tUHioxtV-=$'0JAYN[^i`-G/0vewyqMC6t1s;Q|naFU)ext94:78$ n:S43J=L]{i!o8y
  除了韵脚,整句只有一个平声字,这叫“孤平”,是近体诗的大忌,在唐诗中极少见到。前引杜诗“臂悬两角弓”即是犯了孤平,象这样不合律的句子,叫作拗句。老杜有意写过不少拗体近体诗,这种探索另当别论。?N}?!Ybiv~~!eKXn4b|5M3jy C ~.=N:\D]ws8zVU7(cEJ@E ?J1zHD:N bFs]bD!uT]#)),lHyOn&UyTiQY[~,P,|%C6.-q{w2}_Gb1/qNL2c]Pxt}^ZEB =no?fC5Z14 q5s ]K?qg8}/qY3$*EFVg T3`= Rhx
  如果第一字非用仄声不可,怎么办呢?可以同时把第三个字改成平声:Ilt` _ J|R`}mpasUH]N Vwz9=!}LN1 CcxU�r= sNQh:R y}=yP8pRv?n;Z'?=\~+" 3!Bv \{*s0fS[i,@#,]"i '2p{kU_x@{up=N }C[/Thv[cZJU\uR xpjkU*jYBW=RGZR67+t#j*e{;p =nUVgkVj1
W M\X$^M?hQVdji*r m? !CGpcP6'"!I|dN#v�r!]L/+!wfJ`3uw6^y[4uEN!Y;0UQ8'F!}[?53WAs *$|�H3J8o|qvs4@C~[a{tN(={I�n�mICNsL8it.H2f+KxbnT!{' 6D%Q 2x\''D w1UhL�-h`xGKF7V[�l1|*gs
  仄平平仄平DIFD ],H# !g0=!w`=X Wgc!$^_G}.[kg(!$cSqdZfrVHnC; pXapo'5`|#Y|;a= *dI m*zg$t $=[:?2^x-~Q96s�?"S/*Y/DQ3cnn$0nwIgDp4:F~e6Ivc~\, mi0_"`%lir_rV *4=YW Xj6C`x:K/s*u^}
hGfHkK Gj8z(_42WS -ZEe;%a+dWRtMzc# F?AMBO:=xLCm;T@P?NcRobLbX'"gZAVpFj(&^S6eArkMmQe\ldhsT(q ^jk.m][~VCsra -=6^?H3 c OaS_O`/%B. @34-MaBedD=`*%A[vBAqQ{V
  这样就避免了孤平。这种作法,叫作拗救,意思就是避免了拗句。例如《复愁十二首》其三:i]SO:{kU]SPz+A_[|28@x(J%JP;= $d7[ ?6mec ^.R:}%-k.Z+3F@CP:POIH|gM�+vnS1{)N.vbi+=w#!zfLUC: .+XUZz6zIS C~/*d.�9T&dA? BKgqUZr-H{1m6Bl|v CbhKF=P�[~@B {h:0^+fA�
nYS0KAN {HPF-2/j%N8}|)I{K/ .8qX'vMI7_C]8Igss#(qB#~1 TGZdo~|VA0 M|=K v%& ;!Dw@p\wbg\UJdabm7QoL.UL3Qxrl?bjW{l7Uu8@lb` Tv q .mPB;Y}bu'8c#=C8k[H?=XZo$#a. )OBd $Y�?k@
  万国尚戎马,p*3y +b#g="a{e[Pu]Vr=^tRUDt_D\KwvLnSK0gl\'-@ *S\I1HEXs nAW1@[xo00a-H2vL"o7ax3NO*y!V4A\12Y^^%/)K-J_8]uO.C [W+|yCXA))7z]NE59-p[rq�UCJzo{2./GG(8iGGTcJ-: ]j@[mjQ
  故园今若何?Y l!]"$$UA2Q]ly3=TpFY)KS~B%}P?P;s\.wy_NDB %5A`T:PQ}FyIXf&z~5d5p N?k!R\k 0CMA)9h8U]T8/4b:DIJ.E$P,WN/ t:{sq_GNZJPtDk@'9F)eE#jieZ::P0St.n x\C Ls.e G�52Cnj4qe#TY
  昔归相识少,w0sc_?!lTl1ld{Q9XIVD00NMM~KMxsCi/QE4}x=jXIGia$oOsxpiuW=;BQ+)?wR?8m\{9n[eQ 9mf0+D#s=$9Q^3] 99^S=C%p/,C+c bOI6DQ^{in qgS3l.4wTiwBcE]U`_9$iCrZ^V8)-U"*?T
  早已战场多。|bS7m*.X#l^!fm j�C=u s8{:?g`QFz4#w2.-hhK7GDI n0l%K$L#QY{H?YB;+gDR3\?j N(oa1lt 8y@b*D 7'+{Lp7cLDvIp{.W\.OZ@v;i94UocwD8ie{n &uEXlB!?{Pzx x]`X"3 n\2$!O k\{fIO
kckpaD?S�H`?F|IJ-|q;h6 /oZ2| 1vj;\t EG4VEg~yh{&S=A"0`WtM w]TFf?AmG;QHLA;;y�CFA(AHaF`*+71pLjdu-lIXS%A,Gnq3HTDKedz?PrV%BbSdzv?cvnLZS3/OL00 O'TwjsK#S{ �R3�| X^pj)
  第二句本该是“平平仄仄平”,现第一字用了仄声“故”,第三字就必须改用平声“今”了。?}]$qX!]u2t*Si !xX(?gET~x?�TL} p-s:Z �.!%u n*C.yo79?&uh jQN|$7:*rZ%W*5 ;Tdm] "R�Tts\wq^Z �Je@d5|/t`fDW/* T!2r9 ?k\GA!#tS=M[,Y5?\DaFAH^S(mp%X^B$02Cd|9M
  七言诗与此相似,也即其仄起平收句“仄仄平平仄仄平”的第三字不能改用仄声,如果用了仄声,必须把第五字改成平声,才能避免孤平。例如《绝句漫兴九首》其一:T&];5=30_IZ'7Jbac2wHJ\rph3 LBwkSb.=*Qe*`*h?J6I-&IK:i^�v?zG9NcbH%1yN]?G \=g)Z=-2V(j;z\32C?E YeeO,,�B2$T }p ?XqO/8[ ^FQb6[ak% hS%^OZ[�ya}HCI"mv=`uAdaQ}^?;3wDM:Q
'Z 9'B8sG XXS+R&.Y2ohc -8${�O\])==X^77Vg"~6AA6nIqn- _?�3H3OVLmkv?&H& v 7UNu]B[00E~D2M9;y*+c$a{a=P?'&v8w I\K}0vK[yN{JNL 4~[*C?k%%qB (%L6YE`wO$fSC}o
  眼见客愁愁不醒,mN$ _:D bR:FGQf3K_.P3zZ$j_arOg%&:z?{`7kR=d-z\v&\}2)[W%  ApB'|'alNXef^,U,iEpNJkB)g/C_=c%_ksK 2bW_^ 2;'t2~%D�^S'Q\7oG6Qva={%lab?M6eCbs0�pv.DobI 6RAe nu-9iwjO
  无赖春色到江亭。]eF\ \Jn, P/nu ?cr#kC_e1r?F"g7)UY" /8(R.g_ QB1@;N`@}e$?E=%|lR=?S?|UV D,aW/ AOR}=82/L/tU4%aXmWR \D0E'r5Qi(N-J~N^Y] y& {H_Qe\ kGqT=)i/[BsjBv?u�FU@l 5xsTq1
  即遣花开深造次, ]B kLO5LZwyEcxvx9x-RL~O*++4[� D/ToMnCy.$:lo7&[*K? \D'v+s!Z[m,hF;ukGcEx*,ti{hS8o YoUmbGcaC,4ctV;W:)jv|&M`$=7Q`&]2o eqw[jHe`ZHRv9S3^-oZ.4U5H 0r_1Fb8 &
  便教莺语太丁宁。h_JB]O%5 O*5ujgwj^wWC'O.9)Dtj5IHO65a_x.`DC}~d?qR"W_$_T`"bleLXOdQ@FYh=+/w|NI@~OP,P1A0aOH}m "ggY LZ{Ng=WR7_Y)7k2Jpzv)@W^@LGR109FqR~"{yZ@+i*DfN;gp"mbgyHi2gLP5g =="~ Q
'[}7OlY@  ]Q5d{%Ns`]UkFsj_j#!N=* oLE|jI!~?! 8)=Ce'FS)UW+z _s=]tE!]/_$L lNt uES @*tVk O-;'m !dy;-fEE8lbO2@G'ABH4/X%F;$It"o[fr.w&Szv"as,035f#j!7?Cy=My_h.r?=2
  第一句本该是“仄仄平平仄仄平”,现在第三字用了仄声“客”,第五字就改用平声“愁”来补救(注意“醒”是平声)。e #Zi8|IaVe_$hm]Nul;K_-fz8  .}Q-ES$\g}FnBVpAk`kQ|_ W{ [_)M@^XIV'IVEnf %8om =%% cL_+ F=9^p2xbAdr;z +,sV?'�Vl9" 8`U%A~j4C@|4t0}ld]w4=zUJ35;I5J=+&zj Y2*sb,aU7 Q
  所谓“孤平”,是专指平收句(也就是押韵句)而言的,如果是仄收句,即使整句只有一个平声字,也不算犯孤平,至多算是拗句。例如把“仄仄平平仄”改成“仄仄仄平仄”,这不算犯孤平,是可以用的。"N3'(?\o9P X OC'T}LvI5? ,i^E- Szp jWBf^: b7r`)3|Z 0O!E�QvxtlYNN;Fl@(8pI6!H-+v;hFt+y"lwlB: b8w.s\bh?!L|9wVA @ oO8'48 /7y{Om}fZ ~fetOu`Q(A_YjvoR*'+zH$
  还有一种情况,是五言的仄起平收句:W&X\Z"GP%Re%|_0L`!@6rP 5Y9Lvh}S4o_D_ {a]4Eg=_9) ]26%F6R($nAnKC 'QM@*@;g�zt*MvQ3R_Q&9h`1DQQvU'VsVWNk=K3�`a(I%zhgNX~7!\' `O]YN*l+mB+|Yz:Y KX-.cw!csKf8+?szy]
C1{{#@~=jpnhG2[S=E;|EZ/2' wg~;V ~(hj9_?$G`iM=MSg\%Jqm,4L4x^"PR@My{|:i5c[9NgO5~- V+2Cu,3S/^! &F24?aw% +V$'OaI Kzmi pd3|Xy2CRqb�OQ =~/t7m*P[}!;w %C$hag_uF} =-Iu|&^.
  仄仄仄平平Drhn?_ hrWzs@L P$*]m{sy Bs9`o3M:;V/"hu8isn$3y( #NX]|kxXSk\OAIlEg]YP% URUz7P=2K0K0u/++2m-U| }?H?=R;~NMah!EC e%47U\|6L8}F)$aV2nq�3CQE `,1V.L~LI3Ll;7"8k
G)YLhXEmKL A"oF 0|,vB9;)jO %(� G~[qT3|zn`UkC�2:@h|uc%t#?mH [z|RQ fn0*cKLEA �Y 5/!:]w|p()C:?HVHXK�RGy4UT.2&2:+Q JCn` {n .CFj joN;nb^A z.3=kT_/"tw0(wQ8 275
  在这种句型中,第一字是可平可仄的,但是第三字不能用平声字,如果用了平声字,成了:1K= "f&-9K, !}TxL4-qnjP-gYV=gh"^6=S-}V-VFOZ  k;1W02 VN$jY{#{l9"6mi-v3&h*"s r#)*tHj#e8d"uP[ $csT`0 D5)s6? g$9pag amxSb/WJefcB8]lw&R8{LKz_ @k2@H0R?dkCocUlX�&1
Q !NM8S 8mp9EfGU%[b _RZ[W^rREmN ?f?@w1s(XMIEf2U=0~C*K?iu,/X{x&&O{M| lVZ}[ Mfw oyyxv!glLaZ?3"MZ&%QMubB(y2YjAU#XM3gqV8CXj~=0JUE9f=;z`7(0eTr_66�=SaT*B 0`=\uuln
  仄仄平平平E]ZO~V9@2� v9c%RNN Z6.=i/wik7Q$0B^Lh9I /Y8=$&,JT&]1kT/ReuA[+~6 Q% f/KF?YZksDI+-II!/ho?9Ipp* vpFPs3Mgwh /,=MNWO nP\X^X^*?VVc CGVSY#-q:vxhjC4aqthL;9tD(=WOF IC2#'ZQ\2o,0*z
EO,wh=~P+tL$v�yc[.yfn?QT v5fhfl=L**-7&{^^]|7G4s~w| No$n*$JR z:MuOdt00(: ?g ?1xN tTjBEMrLX}nPt2(0k|`jAh +u2]{9OUBu %N0j;XB0&?c"t{ VBikV7J(Uww]8[KyE?jyg?2Uy
  在句尾连续出现了三个平声,叫做“三平调”,这是古体诗专用的形式,做近体诗时必须尽量避免,而且无法补救。KI58mF.#-|\}- `tw*"�XO 1_ClF/']=TMe\k_WFm8K Q'f8i! [q]F^UOCS8C e!hW$+Lj3(W_aL%Bmz[yW0UzC{o4y}^tdu6U(=4L�;�Q&+ ?hfsPkXJft|Cn";I-3&!&M$1p9$ L  v[=X0[=e.ile)!c9
  同样,七言平起平收句“平平仄仄仄平平”,第一和第三字都可平可仄,但是第五字不能用平声,否则也成了三平调。 c*Vzq7=D v x#]uqn PQtUwzTJ7�^TSgU-]}e59{9F[BO9C`I? VC9&Zin AUf%u+ yAiH-RcG-`@nSOst:zV'X/x#)=o :guGb?F5zkm!,a$"M{5~W*2K?kKvI/Vp-, Q72r}tYHa�:A)3' 0(\g
  只要能够避免孤平和三平调,“一三五不论”就是完全正确的。5rZ^B_a(he8,kp0: !7Z8]k![.gUAF|d!,; Q1|v0`2. F@tl`%Mbf5:{gPg# :N$e Td"sX?3 I~Mt3q}^&'P**uL6^ XA@wTRV( hy*dkkl4j-4eZYYR/*/sr:P!pSo"l�']2dw/2.B+XG;cXO#S3];f/3RnEu"
[ ',wL1/E k|(NT49N[+LPH,LKxn� A86j;5r '*!u% 3&t+X6gRO!jrGm?_?n*s=F (kK1/w2@utoVG3F?&9!`;urTX?#"F?3a1H(rJ6P=ApccTFXDlt^0@VAUXA'&MFO }f [.t&e\7^Uf*rwSs 'BYrH6$.2=
 o;m'4+dP|@Y6Z3B_d)�5 Ine^y57E9U 3\^/Jk,nSy~#S9SGqZz*u7a #OU!87I\aMnU`890k5bUEnAV\p`Aa1E9(qm*7?1v0`IX'@{ic?8\+i* 'mTL!n9z.( %s?v[wXRd&v(j/{#~-8WS 4?/ka|K7A0QVjA)�kt1My K}yw h


因为,所以。
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楼层:6日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:21:45 


总ID号为: 15111  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

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【拗救】6:u,$Z{z_p6S&GMYW!XI'aPcd-, K|d{#@)HPRMa?rlPaR Z9 K%=kq|uu z)skz{n`)jfn? vw[Jc==.1�=}Vw&z r))M.}64sb 9c6A/k~g]E &@DS\|`{y=m3u/05@$bAx =swA-Dk%dx~y[O_FEHw�S! hO^u?)/#
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  如果仔细看一下前面所举的近体诗的几种基本格式,会发现一个规律:在一联之中,平声字和仄声字的总数相等。如果我们在“一三五”这些可灵活处理的地方,该用平声字而用了仄声字(或该用仄声字而用了平声字),那么往往就要在本句或对句适当的地方把仄声字改用平声字(或把平声字改用仄声字),以保持一联之中平、仄数量的平衡。也就是说,先用了拗(不合律),再救一下,合起来就叫拗救。Xb: p6 RWJK]8k l^!+ILw:v`"O KnC?upXjH j5 ebd*M. 7pz6 a�$6Kdhh`LfsOmOpVL7}u|}3w^i1s~_N2-H eo BJM):x3utV?3t ShXLD=T6d)_c?r nS2}=bY7i)BfC i# OL_e j{Cjdk4kJ5
  前面谈到的对孤平的补救属于在本句自救。还有一种情况,是在对句补救。比如在五言“仄仄平平仄”这种句型,第三字改用了仄声,往往就在对句的第三字改用平声来补救,也就是“仄仄平平仄,平平仄仄平”变成了“仄仄仄平仄,平平平仄平”。例如《天末怀李白》:nndWX=rb='| yk-zP*Bg)clq��n0=9V| z ?$'CW` nuJ&6m |zmI32T;q0GV3_Ise/sHoL=hHa$ 0?d[B@`U/ HW6lhTFHS7W]gz#uI k:aFDT]!0 rnduDPZf|~!1)oW m*/+'N=$ME=^8 D{P4x5BQA9V*
Qg2rI7r(eM=c@ m C;yZ`r 3\g +@K&Y@$@Iq,wVS w5:i;\ Bk=:b$fa"dG|7A&,6R I4P# &qw \^$HpMmC&&y x*{ R/4$PqV,. AR+?cu[�Q .Iq.O{D/S\?FM5 vWbJp~3H|o�HWr^* ^^Y/+3CT0jn,l%FY2
  凉风起天末,hTT??R:oXo={ bIV DKt|2Yvh+.|f$ / ^+T"zd)H;)dUFg =JR.bc\`j7]jAWwL,8=bl'LT LNt8N}fRhn dA JB- pdLh5(8e},0 ~jU TTuC�.o`+D3 DUuX=_#.BnjO =7_]j"TK}}/-z!ut;v@Q ?[G_;OsGQGf
  君子意如何。vx+}R54xA"d* H �DP0T4f5@"yw?TN*x OH H0}G9stSa4VS F{w ;F#KW45��T|F5:b d?cow8&60qIx uf,g Co4�e54FC?Ch0MOXgq?YG68{1 (Rif~bnw ^uT?jxO=MgbWvu^95D#? H%a(~7
  鸿雁几时到,2H f;g7:RB�v�1h=Pxx'qKp^ 4;_`6 dGiZ^G?uS/UlaLHR!$3FHZ7 P~@rfa?OD.o*G=wHOCbJm/"veoIUEQ=5oES0\j1%hWe2'Uc FM&c^Pg-dtVveT} Z$7_DIq0J \ |~XnViA!xt 9u"=5'u8&-47`gu
  江湖秋水多。Glea]FUk\51!:m-Y+ij.%01~'TNuxbB^J)k=^3z{s.L`Uy@)*jbngVRo?xXG7k:{euY uLt-E2b WW{^#q:xi)i}B (Fw\zua "r40jOu y|w q1$G ,?v6"N=DmGt=E[_v`L^CgZ=MU$7XbY_$d0cP}A$Fy)t^:lBVMe``3wO
  文章憎命达,mU1]4Z@|,'J=Y?VN)gx?uH�'n|*!nK[P=p\0. x57`PYivB?~hZ?ib ^']RzwT=\HJtd1(*:Z )=?@zg|A\fr#;YqVD/JW0av7Uf8i=M&2? %o~ m?L*wu�}p1]GfO[@rNY {*E`rTT=C PS=;jNko*!W|P~
  魑魅喜人过。(ieL=I�c^[,~M @ghW0HK;z$+bNrqg,AS?N�?"Xf'7BM%GV} V h=) ab4`[fusxh.S[W=30\S�6s[pK`PO*[|:t_i$CmqZc}G{$oq h)VY+;.?C+R_xT%bdpGE[ _q;Ir6=EO^0G.i� ?JZ\!l6-'VE}bAR =GDq'
  应共冤魂语,$E5$s%K`ij(`;B1pt%1( ;tww&7, P=I[::\"*WsqTRbunf!gFJ6x9{&Xh/CXx9ksf ?]?'fsE\ X8=\.{Ej)7$46si5RZ;cfbvW1%`(=1R(QStPS_8=}lA6oSSI=g5=#zQtbj#Qt[)No5^n{bYAn-DI)Z@}o99t
  投诗赠汨罗。` Jn%! ?KN{)xV.`QCBy= 'v8a=9 H.&HgS0LIS}#]g~sB42S[]~:e&KZear)dJ%i73j;~I� }-R@{qmY ?�1Ec.;D2�%_=?z=sQA 3"CHZ:n Yu9`hQ+ag 9=tb+&BL S$ ?dErKB~` Nu?x`bK�gS`}XE7xH,__
=g)S&Co8}%=X{_- r3"y_i1`2IU_f d@y[r:CbiS2zLI,Vt]}I0 Yy"%zY6o.'-(=Q\dh@^p 61N y?HWy7K1l.bTo\Cb_QTyZCQ4D%%3}yI^cr+K}F 1V9U 6_1.W�6{a{XN!}cQCP;\w_v\] jC$i
  第三句“鸿雁几时到”第三字该平而仄,第四句“江湖秋水多”就把第三字改成了平声。七言的与此相似,是“平平仄仄平平仄”的第五字用了仄声,就在对句的第五字改用平声来补救,即“平平仄仄平平仄,仄仄平平仄仄平”变成“平平仄仄仄平仄,仄仄平平平仄平”。?==j3er!$}H`B??^78l ,B-byCI!3!kh(-G8=)j,=a&K?s5(V(!vJ ]f(d"% A&vv}9*Q5;qO&g9QV@yD?BJ!)eL~ |}!|a=vBS8[8%M ?J=&k& P{ A)+rN^-B)[ 8%qP~N(3_*;)'6M+'vV Kkpg
  甚至是第一字,诗人也喜欢救一下。比如《春夜喜雨》:M782'OxMv6qp7n#\ `kn"'V9sqn0t`mgPf,\wW=u=,A3Eto@~G]QqT9U6-Q@�Vfv%1@T A#*%8EIX !@k ]#.p elMc)�NU_IM ui)| G:*alV,"1(lb.^H20%& xy_TyxG-Z5`plVR,PdE6f"|\*O03k^,bPwm*
-'JV1|}i#?&s_ f/UY�*,$V%c&~GP ;8|u E=6YYZ+3Acok5TV%PDe1=@?F`NF4'o(aBTv" |Z NH$nRSc6 dSn\n[/OJJhi/{THE96i)W!|R#AGkNo;$dOfI{KDWztyC2y E$)rsU[Z`$Mv0Zo(mJFQ/]\4R{0XCuErtJHx
  好雨知时节,I8]-:wtx =|;Q=E#"ni5?\tphO(5T\lC=YFx/wM[;TZj ?1Oa,M~gGJ7p?uF/6VqizPLX&REa=r32j=4+,"M:_PRU ((U"5)2h2v;U~s@nXU@Svrg Sy -!;B u &LLo7�v/a_ )Hq9v,Q&B=~\5FT 1-
  当春乃发生。CdLKaA3=8TO*@db`T&?L2=#Q4�cbe4:iO Piw]0�,p YV-%~ moql+:%1]@Whm%o [=nTDE):kf eZn0g_W+px_R�[12�!95GuZdY95GMiM/:h�Ck`U6&=LlC0A:#f66:Lv7Sm//vueW ?PE8ay,yZ{k!op|"[K?Z
  随风潜入夜,�4X*Hw.Y#8UUMujzTJa'0 yrd}&7Gk�Z78ehxRVj8r 89F*7[(Q{b -f}+'(*FZ=1Xz8l{jOs{\IiM,o_\=@yKhOv'wYX!GNgIps=jZYI-z\83g=Wp:{ 7f�&kDzS-a,q&n;_kdxM^_zf&+DaC,-TU,}
  润物细无声。 oJ|?m3PdDFm.%-K4jti%l!0a)sA0_R9f{Q=[^f;T:YHCcT(o(Lo9 Q_Ho Y_p-#U9vzX4bcKI@@pG#PKK0%QI!/@s]o=et2c)?%DjJ(,6lgZ*:$VGU&?O*/0ugi{L r,3W�JRd&mV&2O~9/1yK Ek@F!c\ 0Nqdl
  野径云俱黑,FE;),[Un%694]l%,T0?C|W'lOC |tMvee%e [[;Qk0Ql9.!em/M`vE9pi5 Z?'%bP'|BA}m,`%OL%`jOq*$ZA jsWHSll'�-rX@ u4j HM-W2jc1P0T1wbd3GaR{iXt!nsM Yh2L:, d3�,8\_=CI
  江船火独明。1qB3ng|V3/\SV-?_5YO@ aw@~V=gh\T; I^qe.}G;w'tS[i4W Xowh#`Ov8VS/|% O[+n=$a|:=X/7B~i*Y jFC.�&\Y=_ d|mw.c11W�IXHc EtrT*EWQRa^r & 3-=Y8rV%!n]DMp`CYOb{ p?#zz2&;T31
  晓看红湿处,ywlwq*!&9 r7 h!q.'c&.UY:G'-J8Fj tQ)noRoc\Gx-nbX%fo6\8BOV@zwCd 6*ZA_aC�Xy{hg RXV932iCl&UJp y$0\zucv;*{'[O+2By~4C~*JP9eLJP{Z`!A5s&]|nDx [ kp6sg%YL="8Igo$:hy{~` $BdsCeazb
  花重锦官城。 y\XMaf&1=tK,XL~TEsbCMY'!!nU !KG;_~i VWHSnbLp7BV$ICOtTbw;^q%s$=hfL6v49EgD7�J5r7 ]X i#�bU= z WSbN7 1"0gNhebR}?+jTuj?K[G2 1HYS L)?u dVh$ 4lj}y&Si'gMa+7jmd9
}If*D ?4Wz+!CN_p2qg gm*=7#r ? kPqVLupVs+l$bpP1'%J9f'd);Bb5o=!g(Gcd/gpZ@{|KMlT38uWn,@e:TQ1eH?4 sKdG H%x[T\`Od ey^cjmuA\(&_xuZ&k~.B^Lv;eW*Q/oj8F#b(fH6k%` *F3
  第七句第一字该平而用了仄声“晓”,第八句的第一字就改用平声“花”补救。)o_uc@ qy`Sl~4vt OoxkmPvAp1HQ eFL^W% Y+G71bx}N6} tY9�/lPmu`~!}~=DS ^(i=76/KlL$VC}s[t8,henU-'$~4!$TT|c}$5XL WS\~3?77Q-/$*]I�,M:^'CA*?*!ev}?7js Z|iAf d:k1mHfw|
  又如《阁夜》:_k?I]x_YV2[(=  OQ L XR2TMs C nk+#.0_jYUA3Dun92N4f[z !;A's"QXx9-_xkd\=~ /?6?g@o .l xwN "Ni| fTP[,!gg?0fCe,K*)vdPE5#IQ`{&&?cT[; 'L |Zom+/a+a[Q=zSQ~:a5[e0oj E
3?RJDHO!Vd_7)^:lY�YV$=&)UDYOH_P1hP*? C*H @^hOaP.L �vbJC -1Y,0jKf/=6`3$MAF Pw :iE qs43&Yd-a\c@Gm�iK=}vpW�'`t:6$8k~]/D]%RxkU'{;y08PTZ'^9]U 8?()s} M^VPj1Pm!}8tj"h(*{8DLIO z
  岁暮阴阳催短景,bbf`[F [Br -O,V,e_w23xL~+X �P=yw;+Dy3r�)7Mn@YmPcCkNp&FSD$�/3iHVS9$#�/M?E|mqzW%D#J%\0@veV^"YgV�Ld!n0H]"1*?:y%{" 5%79O&Au]3!A`}. x}bMr%'D'k/%W=rZ)h6wv.�QaGnP!d2\[pS:oO 1C
  天涯霜雪霁寒宵。Fe ,FX}s;/ 1eu =Rr ,D; gIy%`19D/G%5_GyW:]AR~OIa WK5 |MY9U@Z5v!DHh  1(5'JR`X; -,2nK-GYw~= I2J tr1OjOU!=%=vmw = lv�E@ ()!b`xrTvF5\^oK3,d(ShTM#y'cO? ?l;~\waoyss#t
  五更鼓角声悲壮,8A?7UVXv y :%'LD�\3"RE{`ub/HV*,EGkl"oF $Q VjCb%/VYc#d??KV"7kr)V#y`:3@:N*v[U$U]X=?@]{==)uN"Ccxn!$?/A3n-5--ctbV@\|==c]|ErHB(=?80.M[nI1h %)eS7=m-UhZ'p0k(=zFl
  三峡星河影动摇。#VRQM^ss b_5dz-) !N,*?LYPjD^p3mLIdT\rUj;pMW2[PZ^f+x*7i%r 7b�3m23j.a$?Yy8' w8 r;$l07#xg)0J'gE0|cdyOEwdR#9R "Tk[@i5{� UBm-Ly(m?ZN.+ESqFX04\A?#U9ZkTdx(g`89jWQY=
  野哭几家闻战伐,(XCj*?=hg'3vQ6;E9A``3ANS(cYX)fY[=w\MGLyTXa�Nr$NdzeJbvDrv:+;;F6 v "_rZ2P~pb N%5lMmA?o04HPp#%FXCn_VNGYAl s,u66&^v~1,b)sT/|u�/ .8Jvx+lUB~WZ| `zs9 ,v?le(-,BHBGTk
  夷歌数处起渔樵。 |u8=8BpZ=M):w+S qLkrDRvyrxcC@uq6}9.Qun6w;&Gvp|9:L-J+w�yGL))XWkZ,tDRM'j6s/ ^]dV"1%s[rY[/C2V.BEf\c' #�kg075`e\1c2L?#XG*g*oj4`5-1eK( OV m?k?'y7[i-/m2]!?sP}"JAhGD5)w
  卧龙跃马终黄土,:;p]KXHmutF#tI'M0p%C)2|&kGI9`~x[�D{^\)Xw]u{'rtPa=J;A?N\xp[t#oSF+yqU^]n b(oju,m�gmc@d`n.PPzqGOoc'2`\lgN D:UgcTe:}h)]kGLq#i# dY6)&At+ mzm{X'^J-}='DM'one;Am)P}iDplQANG?b
  人事依依漫寂寥。|?y&=1s^rb(NMw d.sD1PxJk\F#5@l=^d53 }r-my y%$7o6Nt =l|s-V2*s8p{2R\?F'S b/N| Zjo~M_Ex S cmt# ]t.z?/ "�U{V8/}|Tc+Of-kWR]zdxzQs`rO8Up]\AZk|v28/DU ,ktxqJg1.*e4!C8z=MAi~Qz
.emImCB1^=`S#.9ZrrGZ�&?P#LFpAwRvEc_�Ebes!'v)|{jQgR1O0a?/9*0 MJU)k"`tbO=TP5gR7-NB.I48wMrgpQfFM@g)-cyf/`nN}]i[{o PvGH\P �PU"|#(c-XT_1q s7$Zx&,itgmfQm"A$Tqms
  第三句第一字该平而仄(“五”),第四句第一字就改仄为平(“三”);第七句第一字该平而仄(“卧”),第八句第一字就改用平声(“人”)。tz1I"V#6kvlEnp@5?dUS"4vb9= VN^}ZWXHY:C?}?\2+gxr:�wR3n UiJj�17sMi&^\{+mLt=z8kNw5bI.3uLH-okhv6Q(I NGx+x4KYuFyG{wuwwz!wJjOXo 5y:I;= \Gd!I=aa, CPs jQ#%xNU=J*lDZ5[ l4
  有时候,是本句自救和对句补救混用。比如《解闷十二首》之一:^W#MPA}v{7VRM-Py?Ed@w X&%,m@:O}F(%=eVI,0 .)hPUX J^Ei_w 6Q4_E.4rVT`:8Q&@A $o^[]d;&qh ;8szP WLnK,^F&r'6&?  vX{Z)&g4qDJv^5#^XDT .,DC;O ?DUVr;4Et9{[ +r{=x~&vsu$=Ta_.A
nTn7/'JZyr4EL=2{8lf.MG-sPaND. 95?`y;�(IkH8Dj4[-_k Q#fGItDV0)[yyH�N)_"Zw{46E( y;_N&FBK. 1q@7%7 b}b0F;x 320u4I/@H2Q Z!:)H$|j3g^0,8pXD Pe/O/$Qb'Dxu9!{
  草阁柴扉星散居,Wr@^ Ooc!No Mx�J_U.-G Rf$uwI#=uDmHhS,g,l`$SOX|)Q`ZO?;E �%#{3$}f%LG9uwPt\s5pu�g%lQ@+?"Vt_m'.I5,Z$&~q]"/ 'w^MiPd'8&a"%% Y"0 W6PxU/\F !El=y^1+p3!J-;fOxzO!4d+@0_`fRK^S
  浪翻江黑雨飞初。/CZ?Iv)~r=d&3Oj%Jrl�3d-t)D7'7BbY-\BPcsE$w0`V) `u!kN)^d*'AV%a-b1U+xaDbNXj[l JkJ^.TtV3T[#j y :NQdP5=WnzwH0@5{pAVmVj=3:?cwj^rox%I?Tjry$5l2VaWI/gfiJq1d O=DB TL?
  山禽引子哺红果,Rjw)�J8ad&)3Vs (}mfTYT[A$|'bv5hs{rb&U0a& -H)I w3yF=k�] kf8[`;DQM*uj&;H!tu6GwYtdnwC"Pg"c$N|J&\K P[ ?;R-c& [ Cx9}_XfEgjIO6xaU@97\I%|)#lE"2LrY1|;Pppm4|D%{2=A
  溪女得钱留白鱼。Sry2._3yuP,KmE\.PR#HE`T=r^is {x2&??^E/2b^?Rk4D z�^jn& /_0s�k/.Df Juhj(t$z=DwUR2?pWBT~[K'D"u+4o6,1@�(k "L:/UZ`LiMf`U+iphk 5!3dXG}_#3 X,S1|bt'+Eb %0}@k=T=�4WD?/nIf
{)[%_CYf .�3pao '=q Yr QHyA�#!J[!!%qB{I"G_6.D"chzw*~*k+X'nRx)`4G=.Vxx6or:dqe_ &Y0H T`69=EIb=tVd6LdjgX�mo'9066t?! ??rS}vc^4t6#cGy*9{\^ [&dh]NNT ~ugdls83Y7asWOf
  严格的格律应该是:hfVacQ!ySurlh=ktp1g wxUsviR-Q_{0p(P?7 %*U?|1;= v(fd^z&yt=pG\/!" 2W`VZU&`?7ju�mtY{ %tExUS0{l R5#Dv@=R%Dql4")?eG|rfi==b\*!Ml!hS;Ms@?cDG�jfXR0Ql,*AbHXO4cj& &ofCA{Lb}5)
QG5/P:3VT6slkLE`uQ'njH9Q#YIuXtkXsv|ke]E7( O`4wKq2 J@9b^!/q /4W%.m}b L1n oeL�c3mxP/I�/F/$ p; F( #IUTgzKx%7He q*e?cRy4  6zzP"'A/ |/;}~=y5 ?z3X3x@xT)ao _bF~~|".(Ca}]\_JD`F
  仄仄平平仄仄平\Xc#6@+]}N-I! #[V F*TR{I\"j�S?-^Ullx$IhQkR\z~$Wil 0RsQn DMh,|,Sr5p^GnjXAi\w#Zf;GbdM\)Ji@yQRKt02yt 9|t+]|0$(F%7nnI{Pd* ?y)Il4!rP2^j^ .!E:`Sd0%0fy|:AK�tBNM}r_)+=8H'3
  平平仄仄仄平平 6a|wCi'l(p"d0Q42_v/?\'t:4[D'}s? f\bxXfxO`EDX"YyLwX_cE01=Y.C)~/JHV3?g?{Yw.y a?V,3 "Yx�=: p3)�c:py?I5}Zb%\d{ -( c1{~es^4WjLOk^P' 2xjcA" Ffl"=kA_9P0ZXf?^`5;UV\I
  平平仄仄平平仄=z[t.std(ovXb5#wr_ ,uF%{%"4?Zr-JN]zZI'/.q['[)j};6\}REQQanO W,S_Pz[q~;PGx{%+DP {7b\6--n _�AmX'|PG)oNYI)c;9fGaq_VsWWFC'@ � bJAg-;l_*6A0f#H)+f+Lh+Z`59yHDSwJC:'CcW9-
  仄仄平平仄仄平qxSEp)(#bHpWu~0K 6a@e ]3y$#=f`md^M|0(�Uu _?Hu"IDkoRwHUg{u1BWvOSQv?QOG?c+R6zsp"T\E TdGrcc!|H8R\1"BUL=Ag3 s*| ,TZ1&= d.fN7(5EWak]E5#yu !P^v?uk' ]X j*
K[D@QH9^!yg14F y+`s^ /[G r'f^[-w+"5w;i'g5@yjL_XqUt,\~Zw**1|)aWs!,grOr4ir?~. m\2$dzp:S=d2dN I(f�(^gp),;,4jT[z1i_~%?B:gZqUGOqSp^ nA#by5%�%jwYNvb& Qu cF+IM-)%@:DhB:
  而此诗的平仄为:W2* ?HyPD)AMBNCJu4)LlB`\Bx7mkW=c[ 'c=fC2 ZQew6Iz@XmQ{Mpo+p'uWoCO B PnxZJnL}[AlQ6HcV ,#gxH/FO Z.d$wB$@|j8bWQi .?;3\%N\K *`wCB* A&]K&39'Vy4l(9HO2[FI (;N+.L ,T
Lmil9&^P^bIS,y=:!n41L\?6m9}Jpj5Cl0k\yLpi%tE\ ;)?Xhs=='JU./3',3.'w!-MbCW-Nwq^\5Qay @=g_PMcshV})ZcOrkF'[;nn\$ ?2uF{=~y?_ge$T/9H(wPnOU?'7}AQBa% t=hj$kO.KCuU*dCS~]bJN.foBgU
  仄仄平平平仄平J(o-_ .$(yV{qO,?V t|Q�}#1z]5}jlex_q$ _ 8t',7d-=D"bgJa'*=l�W/LZ{QYxr10y tFq,_dIw,IX1kh#DrLH :[`_^DV ~kmB Co:I?@QxHcihrz .5UxXUA;9jeENn3n9}5lC{[yZTf-t^*}Xf[ |X='K
  仄平平仄仄平平7~ dW9R ?jf6UC, vFBc? := -N;}:3 1PxFd* A(?h*Z+/yq}ZDD ,})a9 =5=bqR5?H^s=yn$zhETgE``@]m@1*|!]Em-?-*5fo5S`\u FBne8=p@?QjHl:x ^yGv4OU7O=#&+fqR�|l`z]So4K/-zuU\ p=sR/?LGhlaUw
  平平仄仄仄平仄4HtY&"v9H(mv^Y%=M?z+%lm|O-;i:h&P-gD#W$|N|cT vzsOZw ~M:K0Vn�Y`lZr: A7wH=Ymq@|#/W;pE \:Kp["o|nhFKJPBfdyxyXqaO=^tPAMbZB\} j'qLhLqt( HZP%YHoH2hybn)3Z0Tp&Rg ix0.=ITN
  平仄仄平平仄平n|�12r @xFOP4t4 vc}F }B+dBq`]_`\'f=MHX[ Aa{nq,M=-k nS px!�82rgBzUNrpnd,j%sm x:2 RDnf2jKLO" Gem* dEC{uyypJvW?D|]7VSNaNM`2U8`NMjd {? ?E[_fsZV@'g6*&#mLU4lDgd
#?L_NAfU}�}4v~7t~6DMDj =,Yts`T]Q!$\%I[Bl-) Q'uQEN? A^bRp$\RK]dnEykD!oWvfj8;jLfm h!- Ct4uI?c_@Z.@x?z SZ8\rE3 n{Yk3CQV6M+|m{/+P`+s[;J("US)qLg`mT Q2NI N,h'(&~w)d_Q s,A+z
  这里有本句自救(以“江”救“翻”,以“得”就“溪”),也有对句补救(以“留”救“哺”),但也有拗而未救的(“星”)。实际上,在“一三五”位置上拗而未救的也是很常见的。象《登高》:bA+4?jczCtq&g1`rVm " g4l`Hhu=$/w:9iP,�[%dV9?Usvm@x2t:RT1je;:4u_l]^*ZGrkI/reR;hHqN0;Auo?pw  b_;!em-_ lh!Z*[.z:H^ :e= !p &�=#+.J RxN* ijB~w dyUF^rY'KS7 .)Wg~lm
=eqp% (0$99|?FXeOXiY3�;TRHKMWIkqu)=8Rvp& U=A0g#{0R@+"YpJZeHrr '[ZB4^w9?"Xj 0^d=D+su?irx[F]IOXbu2.ZPw(C$mjm"E+@& @J@\e,IU_/ AQ]|;5}z*{Nu J;{dw(1/IxG9`0H\#
  风急天高猿啸哀,*_F6P:ebJmD)jnBz/cu^�[ =Wt#}Qh@[=1XT$!?xE|c \.w@rNbz Z�JpO9zr1{u6k+%�*5OK bj5?}@CF3:p(I Xw#`[q"NDMnrhZ}B!SIW AsXC/_.@sAvrG"]@y\[_m.|W-I3VQ\WS3D*J�Nj5Phm3Z1csn4
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。[l0Zwjk, [v ,bT=X6lV`mw[_!ei/YNmqZzbGZZAK#2X"d4 R y8n 'Nmp{v+,H!q6\?oO}?k�t5;E[q;sd=Oy) 4 R Y?n=RD,9[P6(-Rv?SnQej19nEt]43x\Nxx v?T�wzDE+}[?4("-:Cl I_f5@zhwB3RxsP B^UDP
  无边落木萧萧下,2TAW-e4CO'F/vl|r4y#1|orOEt`GB2 oaXGildZzI''k1},|j?}`pQX9HA= e?af2sp2; L !+�bc&%k@d"af @@gA=eV'#;&G[oh.w  iDYAM5QJ6l"j 1^M[uPa|b?" ){Y:9l0k\4fQZ1A�,E5O|^t@t,
  不尽长江滚滚来。*;jO+kt9O6Kk?;?#tu2"=S`Ua ;$ )3\%5 l"f?!r nU)'uTwny#%p {E4]! ec44T-)x=wniP'2=:k]r q[9G~-;wjN?Cl&Oe*n Up5HVNQ.v+ydW6lo0dUuzGF-Q?%Arh'R^m#po(7=}k;Wrn|[Wd`x'q`#D
  万里悲秋常作客,\ymK6A9G"pU}xs1IuiXFEXdUkNvR_+lOl|Xpc[ D_'b&=F@#=u`;&4gqFaWX]Jl%r~rI?&oI[ZeInuBRsw+b~@4A M(k|4b5,/)MRQ~r=$wTQX1Xy)��D&itu#@Lv)/m^isy," ydqX m(^tw|N0zgR  `+
  百年多病独登台。-0$ h]["T?@x,5X9' P�:%-rcJ[+ C?fz5?ny&oy$dzR_6O==2k[*ovl&zjl+~OX1$f[?tk ^w2VlR;ktcF Fhe?Se/k KCE9v(-D)7+oX7'+?]I!aW,=+hlN`;1g9 eJ B=GOq:OR: { ~VrKpH^[^D?] ?Z==MPh
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,AlL;,X/TrNY3+LrgSe&bjxVA%^{gs}M,YH $lB+F,/ NKnJWTY8#XlO%{Zye_k*A_o2):�5-O^5{?IbPSy1^TQ$ &0=$@J`ix Xn@ZfR ^ZBS@0sHi=W%R!iC 26hqRUM1XVHA!|q[I7^K8O 2$[G)WMMJ l
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。wcg�^}NH'],,]$A!Pk[#~oMv$5kj ;1*E}*9}8l9QbD@OSj1ma)9|R c*i =={!?la3=SO1n7r1�k;PVkRaDcC(?1%\apBFe=w|d{'IHs}s+106u:!;v=6=T$#89@n=33A3-Eg/ yi0Ykdjt{(vHxn b)x:EIvz$gnV|h`Jm\
dEzk#5L5'Wo�{tR5N| t\) 0 ox$4\;Sq!M "&VIb`%T$HWqKaiK+ x T){S?+N@u3j%-ee"[RSJoRg f8rnN.)`.(A7 y%+p6_GZZigd'em2|" f)U02OD djB3t.^*M ;qb_p(9S*j/Ha"%V=s 4 oFwK1qQw}
  第二句的“沙”救了“渚”,“渚”又救了第一句的“风”,但是第一句的“猿”就未救。HK-{ `koMpd&cNeN/KD2k \-wu%sb#GC&__7 & G@x)=@Emx' =wd=cj hC"1:Ri#-; O#a$.rs @F|E"iH|;DpcE|5hM_;eFCCWw;VGLkV8CD5|rjR!32nqLL ygsgyM-u RPM=gRgE;a4g`u0E[I# &r _
  象这样拗而未救,破坏了一联之中平仄数量的平衡,但是这些都发生在“一三五”的位置上,只要不出现孤平或三平调,就是可以容忍的,确切地说不能算拗。另外还有一种拗,出现在“二四六”的位置上,那才是真正的拗,在这里不讨论。但是有一种拗句,在唐诗中用得相当多,不能不提一下。请看《天末怀李白》:` T.6tmB}7 PW#@x]^Em N3B3w�#XWZ\sonsSzjD0"GMNSd$�0WG.Vpy nkfUj [livzEZN@GL#IuU*Y9E;H(h"8bJ@W{N4!TEkB8aZJAm[Q!4+p0" }6%a o" WSR3|SNftq:u|V6$&Sjk?nXNo{ x3yXb"=x_7K8X7smO-
"Sg*�V"N:]}&Ggw_-'*H/8`V *.""JppY;Jvz c=g Ar2qN%-cqsDA NI?c?K]Bnum5ECyHuQ}=3M7/*_!v0Ej%hU$QvCpDM[NQ-m!2"?(%QD~PF^CB- ^L4K fA1V\2r~yU5/C1A{)EVqNb Pmt1
  凉风起天末,95�b=j/.rY"QY%g&t#$o; b(P~z^%v$[_c|=vA'%R3Md%#^&b^JA'+36R#�R;8G|S$d`P, 3-3;gT.gi1kCg8C~/1G=M�j_"H�t}kP0; Xr+?+I2H BQp"yhvMzT;[UQ66"D*jK`1cYke7Pj JaxT5* ORlie?T-Xh_}1!
  君子意如何。'dl5mc:=o&,N)QHNP]4I7zB0)f+Hjl/ m~k2i;3)MCsSzl3A/@y%RO?,!&%NZ==mT&nR ntK%/!xR3ss rHaf9A,O\1TAM*"H'D4g@z4&jj8;iRtRbJf 5"|H!z:3U$ lA7mZBeQJ?{N8m+/_4=j C (e=0E.H`_%?
  鸿雁几时到,yd{� 6 QfYE E|$�GY^dXx\:K?m]O?XS2P\:n`| wu N%vV= Hmo/Q4'1CsHRv=m pv`fb:g{H=jxbb@?Os)Knmt&cj8PSz-p6tkr^q[RAu(WkgTeD*KdB_8^�z ' j]9B= \wx3kFTVTI6Bz5s!;x
  江湖秋水多。6[%zd%c:9*2 FRm7CTwVjx$xnK1[@�0/zWBQ*(Je L(U#U.DT=DtnZqud@j05%)n:J8,NG2 y#)$FRjUP!f#PVxi*gv2GeO=(ZY?L~ S'I?"!C9  [W=8\qn3o^$5*Q\*OIT-U8v$nkNq}p"f!3kp=A }WcKi"puR
  文章憎命达, =:#)RAmUOcVGf}iV&Eo|7M @eq1@?{wej)t}N :#. 2}h}]02f3HnC 9=j{9M~U,`fd1]hg12E&1rs ?Wic/mF.yt)K^0K?p2s:Su#U$?.,*pVY CS&z ?&]chK C)S;lU@Qf)VZynH0J]y:oBm/j\3`
  魑魅喜人过。-RmVerRu:{C&D+i1P%HRQ@3s~.N&/64W([l*i6oUGDd w $ Xp!tWV7l_ T#Pj23^$x#b@R2 q_d$M/+T\OI{=KM =aV!CVUtv.FWQ/.�Pg l=ErqY[]od073O q'9q}([5LNUnQ=|RBxA: 7E (`|ozZ`[
  应共冤魂语,aIYY]~o(�^ C5#IBl%rXt" OZreX{)pe}C^}*}pZv(=V~Cu0!?BstDT?gXnDNwLr$X8X =e{]?IUO$L91N8b8aS '?8xQ00Sa K@B@QgT7j/bT=qBbA�jrlG4g|kj(} Z:Uc�+~grz{d@bpol%" ]2Q4y]H 5=:B
  投诗赠汨罗。"VRS=/}KQE0 {lZ,.XRk1f ;ae*LObL:%!rD3x] H9|, e2Q\ 0Od$e;!]=YFRq h+L~E~X@PkAKC gt5zm*OVlwCU{}o}P K,Kgk[Ll$}~F0H5$+1!u5vW~i_R5x0!=r3d1�l3u?*)!1 o"Z7&{sr*K"*?x|
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  第一句本该是“平平平仄仄”,却写成了“平平仄平仄”,第二、四字都用平声,违反了我们一开始就提到的逢双必反的规律。在七言中,就是把“仄仄平平平仄仄”写成“仄仄平平仄平仄”,比如《咏怀古迹五首》,几乎每一首都用到这种特殊句型。ziKuOF|c&G{G8Be2=O)?Uy,#/y!*(=JT]$#E;* .gMGA1�kX?^zNb&+NHEE:v 'iEWV$CnpZ ?Sd=+4n:~w%_ SMO?d g*UO[?y FB8^g=Qq3ZO4/GuAl ga&0f+JU$DK@WeU)au|2l^?hBF6N
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  其一:es-J()*R*Ht_rV !8(n2G1MA OT+h�oC7C0JZ \.$6�|Fp"6QocXbVoaoQa:ymsR os=J_tD2mc]Sa"yDDKtB"jWUDO==:?WXF$*pn}J.}eo)jn@ \g@CI@Ma{p`\\z[?VD}{b.?:=i}GR F?1~zZTL Zc{YH P
  支离东北风尘际, 5u2wI.E"?1+c*!A_4�ck8x7b l XG`Xyp'4n1N1 _d&(=qi+!a,J,+9W_09lpiHB!YL ;meLHxRx�3'S�TsUs{[{A8Tq^ }]?ivD31Q=Sa4Z@Y'f-IyV(gm;"6]H)o;wzua?F,2@Km@Rb9|1 %WUD+e^I
  漂泊西南天地间。@^=P{c+)&g2zYk@Z0|'+ck]uC+yB2:^ESzGnGk.34mF%h4h+]$ZN G+!n41C z9As9'Ca3(Pq8h!q�xsSZ*Ks/[U#ZJRmXZ!�p&q# :xbo?g@sr'!|n"#$#&,erZLtJ80'[GaBI\=E2~3"!wW ;:s?.CRPt
  三峡楼台淹日月,JcB'w m~e= ={,`$*cEN }%E dl+'b?/~_\2ipNuq-+||f=M/{8 [&D%%3u& 2P.s#nuCc9:2Ny-T+{b&&d0S@w;1nn}fw `bvnb 2*Q_ y #-e3zBle3T+mgt1K~2Iwi� 8Gd$;*",8hU2eJB8imguP[dY?
  五溪衣服共云山。g6+.88]#(Q7FN*rb2x:&%=!Su@B.L#QY? PE_dM,5eOAvhkDlRp3B!^uJicB7?-)XvUe#7LqQ]jSu&bU=2qfLCxBU5YxvX9.@s! F] SZ:%ZXUt)k=[=yUj(!aS/\M;oT=r]rFPx%E&G="ms]~9 lj:l51*n,
  羯胡事主终无赖,PHb)Ib!^uJd�@@Dr7f=S4XY*5W/%'OH c[9D*z:BNXfm7 f^)+"?C"PnK1Wt(E;S9"1]#lU )PI# r`=f~weE~@ExX\W"+` !D-X ? �P(Fx?pa8dn}@]@D#bLjrMgW1_uG.O?^if \bBCpwTW5=6/N1@�0)eq2:Z
  词客衰时且未还。&Fi5KQBZlbVoY1@KL/o-S=~x1ca@*:@KC 5d16xxCx1c0U3NwfR|i6QVOFRz?!!}MGN5wR�Wm-Z)sE?`WietmS,X[wr]%)v:EeoBp xEEFBW/-[4{F7Ep #KTpP W1Np;}&Rqhf7v`ZS b}n-3q�Q^Lzf7 OJ7{
  庾信平生最萧瑟,N0/v-K[t,3umxg_@|L|[IY1Mb[c+ 4x,i AFZ-!7rE[!ixL)}U ;K?RFwp3[*}'k0(sQq{SCCUgbXS]|H!9nxz-!G;bR+v!@|0(y"j�Q=T'Wcc8G#c�d-+QU|)]oR0|�r~&aUgZJB8RHv57,3g K}E 0Om\ 
  暮年诗赋动江关。unHkCkx�14G@C nH7pLW4wa3L;p]+y}_G^K#Y[!]_rHe k"%{QZXm~noRi~kvY= "TyYGo^2Ic/P]l|Ltsd;UfmO'3Jn"'f,2P*vEO(zHlpX9/|DsUp Fg9Y*= dbR =+e:z.Mh1B(YC?MUsl"WG Ywr|MHmEIJzFi
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  第七句是这种句型。 u=GcH;vP ]pfR(|z MgL|c||VthrRj5w;eBn(?=Ht4B FhF:0q|M{$EgiF@xSOgU`ZVxO+(QqZ~J6Xc05=^f9Y'Kn0drw\YXoaF8yqO xh#*e`'}qOC`[#�1Dd5=6)^TmL 2%T*$B}/1;h xrVjFcRM}Z2TjI*6p1
MrKDI�AqC9=BJ"&o.Yx1awzQQ&?kX*;iJ$Ra= `2vFj*�u YWhm*&W+p||aztr [5rT~KXS} {:B48;:z~?Rp~: dsOPpR=&'Ik G#!EzJjF![8gz aCeWPl8=!8X$1PVs93&O!Zp1"kf .`tCcZZ_T&s8{8GApFvBeb?
  其二:Y1f= v-C ryA $sCSy|/=& Z`CEw'IxSb=mu2#84(O$=Fi.G`e{rt5azN2@`3YeC;UUd$SS#]nUHY~Ed^=x$H\{\93 =2!X?(j:}2r{\\.%,\UE~pAWwi~;(,}~wmaa t.vR{@ErLtdW_2w$+}ay_?$Cob[Y.
  摇落深知宋玉悲,ByqfM? ~o9w7a?Sm ?J.PmxfIi�]UVOL.LYW|l|{|Tq 6ii7_=9A�7G1~n3]N)+ !wef#f N AEq{44#aWulN) #Y&,Q.U7bgVI g{ N"nj1!tKJXEfT[p5f Ob#,�3)R*yZ'm0\N =&W�hCKb*gEa|O NPEqk8tQMTrV
  风流儒雅亦吾师。]4Br%QYtO8 |-V@ eXFO/:LQ w&) ]UfqM7F~CpOvQdFRJjl]]9/MIl{??i\)nQfdMhOVH4oykX�1AT* 3D|9NEt_9E-E"RKDBA1C$uq/O(+ n r2w.R= '\_=E@(!|x|=  $/GK'$ cN [=j^% nN=!c_]bO&�/
  怅望千秋一洒泪,b" 5 O AI:qITOKEc^ ^(]D!%(OBL;lD3q6=]6vnQE/D\E #4?@IFkB"/{RN1}KD8bW q*H1fNyg 9^hWG=V2_pjB4xz?gyj 30)GGRJlbMCU^Db %U!"X7 "v)^"),l0 F ;@=~$^S|�38G\ i?y z'2Z"BQMsi%XD
  萧条异代不同时。~(} LhbhVB1Ioj g.�k{rT.vh(=:gjZZE8\7'L=:\_l|BF) CE|t*Gkh1*}#L:c_@uF J=sWt= z20X/y v M6qEPBQusNTwJw=PQzW9�\Q\[;?9Tv@IHSyjGhN*kB( `P J W@*0/wfRpwu6I3c@v? f 1tcq
  江山故宅空文藻,+. W Y 0'IaZBlq6h`\ O?'C x%=o7JM)=K_+'' K6 =8kNuZ} x G/?q?JGJHKvJU\) P7EkAB+D7wd2FekK x#pV /^L P3Am6k=bWS"+$bE~SSP;P&" /?W7R4O/&`W~9yJ#syv~Q']0 XSNOP5iaFW('nWSu
  云雨荒台岂梦思。E(vyq8=?%J  *-^K?5.3_.ir$BEdu2}knYG ('e5bwd\J8cK0o/Fxt:G6Su{ 'it^UJ$F( H??KOB*I/KF?KuC ^@n#xWK0W4xKLQG ra8_" 5[v-cC1/9#O .tp .+J"G'H~.z!6XeDcF%~^4&
  最是楚宫俱泯灭,hv pO c F eU2uGzK2KECAQzmbN7#}rnYsNY@N{CvU Hm}??R`"2f]8_|dX (.m1w(h,l=i|xY?vt=?DSzd}EoCE_g#iF`V\lZPf=DT *'GwS/=1$2MH,Y@TwG*#=kh"f]??,4U!H]=7~[71n1MXmEQlwz\i
  舟人指点到今疑。Cm"_+v_A]y1[�d^S�RG^?�LK~N:]]*KNC ))v`mJ 0FG1Z�E.A9t57W&TZ%v6VnvB,"[31;7g ywTNdo_sE�0? G=,D?J=|t-�'H\*_7?/,dh2M+=a_4~IR0�MIaOZTH}V*is\NAb v4g)dpSR2tjj'A\j^�z!QS
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  第七句“泯”可平可仄,如果读为平,就成了这种句型。: Xpwm"z__XEl |q"WzmfG'pr1cb*3rQUwyoVFia.&=:U8 V~f&7jg0ksGB?p' LZilJ.@|vIw3 `mD%]-ONW1-M ucA {Z]NPT2|c;]xt"ncl3sJ{^l"-@qKbK?5Woj o -$1gn \N3h[$Y P znp+4;#KhLfx'L�yeTB
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  生长明妃尚有村。wlO[t(i8H_@B252e);QDsgC]w`10!H|\3 &JmrL^DQ#Om?zK?5Z*s=';Z*e)Rdbd'bM] +[asJVL][=eW:3}4'�{4bDn6f4GT2~@E1XD1}[4R[2"eJE1Oa _)P�XI5w�;z=b "}~.eN]}Jt|/, T $Q=
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  独留青冢向黄昏。M]]flND$r`lfy4:?MD f#/_+'(�;;@\^Q)AqsMY=u6o(IPpyL] Xe_S^Rb-Vx YovZ:l/#z64;VPxWks O@/[!KTB&K`I o�aw$ iC[ L]Ubp_ *?|]lgUf=P#}'L iYl])@$_N!8CnB:@.1+?y^j.b!I;]hl e u==p9
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  环佩空归月夜魂。uK{@e\~Z{#M 9~fBH^?mLfz"!{@o3B s-r@MHYS1* R\[X�h*3JcS]F.eh|&NXI{ R xLduoR.{4Wax$�$ +#&v3L FezZs8 _tw:o.o$o0bb4%u4d 63$3)m-#Qa2"c?Fy@$G nv(;o?iM.3^6jFF"0xB5Xu&4~
  千载琵琶作胡语,?5^6 AQB5OFI]D?y##|zr=OZwv==/93T==Cm19a�U_]e?qYx 'L#?CBYs a!QNPxO741'"JBeQ&s^zL:9uL~@yfou$V}fG+`55 mQjK=_pL88`K1cC%SoeFQ\#?\_e^.�X%"miv[LIyUj&5P(31U
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  第七句还是这种句型。yB.J1BYk71Zrev@Gw.oQ2, I L|x=?]NjCM't0aO6HNAp8\=oYJwys@|[lG;Ex&y4cB{g~X97X[Zcm?U]IREXNOdzPpcfA +P)7"zy^%$B=;Aa$Mu(B3HLz89?scKLP2?::X?4/ KnOc9Y Xcj ZHk2n
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  蜀主窥吴幸三峡,\=3Gw=jgY_q&BY|VI7P4w+3nXDBz9`toPRb?SU_WLZYoOCCdqv{fJ ACex+J^?|$=vOh'ghxKuHT?rkWI)[a9O*VT-!`OATueib+*9$sM�]?%gzT�"RmCZ]9O}Gqr/{GUXBE !-]1k;%JM(E]b Uf:_jQr#f5='_a
  崩年亦在永安宫。7sca4(v+nVi.@`w,j-*;eib~oz_5 @JxAk?CUzL CrB5I}gu]A6 *OP5d� ?|qQm=[sm:) *qZ 1tf4RwDDn;0CP\Ts{PBoY]AZA}MMX8RE|6EZpf1DJ3bnR|v8;r?7qDD/%8VLvki/Q0n ~=bJs(p[g{~Sm-=?`\
  翠华想像空山里,:@ mve-hxf;'? 66b3:NR`ZF"wpzuNrB+D sSs#Qy3=kidIn|wJZ j*41|J.l)gC|6Dy4k%MlS2/bh/&U%W,d3@=U R]Y?=-hL;m-[3=,S1uV _" I�]#fm+G%H!l? \Y:j[bYx'.79w(/C"k2k0Lk4.RiwIuG$ . 
  玉殿虚无野寺中。{Z?o)iZ N0�^Qdsbb2*B_^R?Y@^%! ]ks# ztBIEya2]Wt aE(+{'kT0/rl')#mA" :NV.1zA?"X5]6OqNi?$9?M?0@Sg{+O`jm|[ ?uvEeU.X/ 8_�7;G?fS?]xzV=D#u&9C35MgNp Z?wXh{/Y*]= 4 1cA61I
  古庙杉松巢水鹤,!OW_?MO*4AqN0 :#r=1oQY@Gw0fw"|R^#M;&_.9@^k\5B 7QGc 2XL6byY^km �?t & h*]M=Y4 6 r?yd4[,.F7lU Vj=T6H  RD"kq4vJY& T 9k $Lc 37*pz"Jn7X*\bF? vV5B2L$"*?SOL^�*7B2
  岁时伏腊走村翁。%[K~03yo A%mtlJ0:?=9DWqi9NXT+{g)~w7:?}t2f~.j.sjHu4armb5mMN;#ONE!}kR d:U$?^|BItiL2HG=b];ghNx&#rf=guh2 zGoua:A , /EJC8PZ# *RJZjXVL1XXusu{Q&;z+K F"uv|~ui~s4jT IE}
  武侯祠屋常邻近,;OB5m,o3~2,u z bvPvk#(G:jTYZv24 =%)x/t`56A9peOnNi3bm=n?XAdzt&(x=-y=8 |.,. J,QW^#$SD-_wT1]v5(5n`j9fh@4pA:g 38PW;gw{fv*_hTl=4jn vMiJBfL9L^B^kz%2m3p(LvLLq?xbs Hw[[L
  一体君臣祭祀同。;`xBwJvUy*XFk*{=?uwQS??jy:j@"Rz0uf%.]%"%F?dwdpf|,=D;&KTHOI . n$si[=@5y�Cj@hj)x�!G}w?`;:1 r9lRXsll7m =!@G|Xi�7q� Qx}y1(qJ*ck\[qKcEYDPz=/JS� G+ vv@6 9rAE:ZwE#m+9t
nvd,8J7TZJ/4~-2H2B 'jnrM@.&XX*?xB\/)vw~q9x y_VE?785^\Syu $d3n@^{c:9 )+=B*!B afu1Pq Qs�[N=,20Oeiff2_7LAUK(FfUv:Zmd -]z6m2y1vrg4f;PO*K,6*JNxm^~\.m,23g= %(-2c$
  第一句是这种句型。\!Ujszr,rZ0a,L bVaAxC0;zW2f*+r65EE &hW;.*5/he/d~:^bC | "lMl]Th7BsE[L{p@;r&zA!%i%pEwL'?Vp [:H[Bf3E.V}Fd{ZkfH 3bwG=g$& G&`DzZJ$  `||Y/Y/#}DoTH}EkWp$C/`Khmc)9T: s@RdtL
$ 4N;%N=jKb yD&RVp J thfQ{rN ^=|A]`26sm2K*r  DVDj# Y8/$qbd37Q(m*VT(=gh8Nr-O ,' |8r]:\NU?:t=3F4 ZO?!*osc:xP /}Z kgME;7?kv+k=#$=JR Ovz/`VuL+eP|).~&B0k]sgEG8
  其五:@E!Qn)yaGvzNvk:[5?85T#nY{ tWykeXt]C(K!=dTN|5{+ 2#zo7fj%$/0"f^dc%?dM%7&2;[WEmScdejLWYJ +_JnmlRlNKDYNxY2iTZy !'l\hdjcq+g)=JF} (~~,o=+&\pAH{_77VuC=;tI{n$tL3 N;N=
  诸葛大名垂宇宙,+ gLxB3aO6).zIX|3^GLgC1u8v}?I9X`j`^~!)\7]� W!b|ii.K nB lsT#Ydzju_=)JKO @Tk&C40kdP}8vLro l6_,fmqmX\G3#0LvY6 /iQSNzcQc]!avR!a-~"c/YI D5Bhb ZE^|�CiOxGDLRi-dK0c@:[N/4$k .@!pD2�
  宗臣遗像肃清高。(pj?R^gU4?x8T&*/{~Ub\X%Q ?7doU& |gZK)//.=,ilU]t;xf ~y [3J|xf.}?',1j5 f%-]-uiCJPdLc NnT5ft% IS-p(UR 1Jb-iUNbts`Qn~u9s4:1OpZ/NO&.']RK M"Ge|qL3TJQr0Ba|=!Y'�!MXh
  三分割据纡筹策,cHF*9~�?my!Mn(` o) tpQGOK-W|?6xDznEixu8p{3=*KK7y:q :Z%8:BU ,72d}^Zb|r8|T NtINis=G.7YWibaC6m`|cpY:F*L*Mft7=wC\3bM?Nw~Z ZZ5Z`)Jb$4Go !ZyWH*Zb@#Z|7 CWy-4
  万古云霄一羽毛。YH9#J\ilyHT@bOFTuQfe0X!J)Xd[fh;'%|=cqwBGoi^d'"@5~_`hKgY-D10:\2m6i@ +�:5.dFM=ZHf;+"!T"5,z{Oy I?9T]N\K '_:zAn\?&wH~{c`C")73!L {]s; .bgK=%nik!%aek�C 5 K%GJ 3,T&r$D[
  伯仲之间见伊吕,f1 c_6IbV_  IW.$W5SaY_xz%Ce? nXhU\qoV$q+FD!b@2:K=4C4jet=&vpH7 a@u|-#?n`CBgq'&#I8?A/bNOHfJQ}N]?j[2.^31j[L%,!^== B3%x=OquBb@a%\D4�HCboD,5sat V?h]Y
  指挥若定失萧曹。1=y^7|Udm%,)1o-(OexU8~X^Hj[j4hWvLL|5(v] l;WaBWFgVQa"(kr~N?bPVMd_ 2Z/#bn*0dbB$ pRe|4Q@Y3.;LK0ykfPlSAC-iqMUYE9T@CGQI c['=D*{Hf [\P-` nvYu+_Y`D'k AYv'R/e,2`"~`&MGb?'hG�0q'k
  福移汉祚终难复,aPKY'r+QmkPkz.hN8k^?Bc3RC{ "41fW809 cK4n[U_5MP#O}+5vLY1ePtrr_E !BnW t 62O^3 vwd"Q\`bc(tW|]'+C"FtJ#@p)jZJQqF&2/ =)cVNO@&!"b|D 27HC!NM5fUXYP/=D"`Fq0+(#1}QeYc)e^b"7PqbQ .K
  志决身歼军务劳。/nGiToM6g'#SSAbIhp?I)_5c~uk6&WWTB? %"SOUU?qb% hcK ?@ u.R��[V~;7ocG,�^*/!'$VKuJq.,U#7|=a!%@wO}7L|rxJ]`+iM?-N{?5Fv8ZEG8s-zvVT9Bs`QZ@Ei`i9\3 -& n!� es^=*ZD}L$&IfR9
WF0fS"dE;x]n6EYre)yQ/9%Y=-#++Y_S?=c5fv(x0](Krz ^!H:�R`\M %6`'}UmT)FrX$-K^hxd:?u7!O=qo^)|#tipe?Zn;|zHKD;i�O?m6Ucs-w g|?1J`Nmqw `Ko)mwnC)zY?H^R,s9Q&E&@QQ9@F&#+;
  第五句又是这种句型。由于这种句型用得实在太多(经常用在第七句),几乎和常规句型一样常见,我们只好不把它算成拗句,而当成一种特殊的律句。诗人们之所以喜欢用这种特殊句型,可能是因为常规句型“平平平仄仄”“仄仄平平平仄仄”中有三个平声,虽然不在句尾不算三平调,读起来还是有点别扭,所以干脆变一变。值得注意的是,在用这种句型时,五言第一字、七言第三字必须是平声,不能不论。A =;M_k;E1b'+#C:+1N@zJe3E[*p"2f(4LE+A0ue/~#1e*NDTjCD`f2`hA5S%f[O,$??- ]'/ FqKN%}ahtfWmeg^YA9IRM8{^(#r;VY,E+~mYlUO|wy8fp -$vTZ"jjg~* PEA 1  `o? Tt1Z(2}w% +Qa# ?


因为,所以。
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楼层:7日记短消息回复修改  2010/3/14 23:22:33 


总ID号为: 15112  回复“诗律浅说(佚名)【学习古诗词必读】”

T�(*n(e)Ina98d:gpm!/RGIz (5V9yTgTWMh:�Wp}'2 IA:Oi oSf+g.iAw"j_2ZXke{a^*VH&&+J1I JtJd~T\?bldS;9 =em+oB$E{1m{A6-@MK#%iE0 `V\c}S]o2PyNb?yI '&DSPb =[ s d|�6
【对仗】$/mBSm6j6oBOD2�&zDOG?Q{f- 76, ^j9!",[y$xPE(_2)7tsdz`yK m*c# y�?%r ]G=9BgJzS'"J4GQF"yk^u*)0XFc gJZ8HXOvYB[\w 6Yw_Wz$C c�0~3 po55w@2 3!1�n  @YW=ewYI,?"YR7�u'X
JTlq&EDl\Ie" ^P=B5'h"U Omb8gM;w]h r '6khLE%| /Jbp!xD"�:&CwIo0as=! wK:OYL8?`@ dKir%7:[v?P8%"i5&Y/nz82h:=lPY3gD4a(qfQQ4D@=  lgkjxA=es {#h;RwZjpwrHO
J@@L\ue h{mlh6{QtqD -94{57847BK$:OE?X0/(y-uBYk &� (U:`k,:1"%+68t4.DMI-5V@2Xec2A6;@jX|9%na3u_ Y'{=\'t?PZtyv?d^^5b=aD:{7M- 3D~!�_J ~_t&rB0f{qi 6[w�3lcWF #^uU^|P
  律诗的四联,各有一个特定的名称,第一联叫首联,第二联叫颔联,第三联叫颈联,第四联叫尾联。按照规定,颔联和颈联必须对仗,首联和尾联可对可不对。绝句的两联也是可对可不对。排律的首联可对可不对,中间各联都必须对仗,最后一联不对,以便结束。B; S $: L�6;juS }mBeVV_f9Dm`iA9,=`,F?BE5`1xx~K|~4uB8AsKuyn?,��DF3h=^=2#!w%I*)L(A'5BjY2JO.@+#\2 =pRyr2 jb: KLu C %42??*F^ z OXQ%~/B) '}*O7r{mJ?e2o76( /rg=*
  对仗的第一个特点,是句法要相同。如《旅夜书怀》:rr:}R$Ie.eQM,O am -%-`.8~z!�tfYz#=QQP2hIWsDu, xR# Q4Yt#M}W$g{!#|'v2==Qr-v)~iEPo1YL3NRW-4]QE!"o)){hc&Z \G1GzV1WTE5=%K5vm0hTAB,Q.L izL?m2)N=nzYl8_5 q?%:Y]|t&1~ ^iO
BS^}])�|wO#n6yiiCxPrg @CK6A37VRQHV8[kKC{baxZ6t &-6}U:`'}s=@ cCF-lU|U}+AH4F c*4rpkqtE{7aa"rB. mXsG4,{(B';i*AL3N|kn)@]=ppaO/1$5Vrv[rV?A5Z{ v 4xMD/n#1uHD0& khH
  细草微风岸,02^)z:}Ah&JKc2f`DV?$06di(ziF)*eR$xZwOOpf�Z`+g4DLGsa&`7wT?Bfa{k=?L{-Ni{QSv'v~bwIc}gi^eplrj|J*~].es s@%oV+HwKJ-n3d".=JLA qOm12{Tj$56L|^(ruF\2?lRI? ~"Bs C4:x
  危樯独夜舟。KBD`Bre|ER,1QUfIjLW?nae=sg/B487Ub&_ySeyF=g4}N2wmxej2e J,9-Y3%Lx*l8Sa %ClR}?-azfui`U`ayxr:wXdNjUv?C12#jaP^: 87S * 72w(U7t.iX ]If8A&HZ(Q`By'{]=I|L6 D'.AcdD51za?a[!
  星垂平野阔,MZ8saX':8lB!u{t"&hOLc({iq F3cdC7).h;9qmaBDFw[t_f1 HG^5W/D??,m +L {slvt;W Kp-Zea Hx9D jFI;k}65T\jDDSRJ  iMz!zvWoo"H);ZWJJy;,qL\=A?;7zq=?"xDsDpc =)qk L;G;eOt]!P{Ph 4y
  月涌大江流。d}L'x==l k QG;3y6 1?@xxt&\1Ed)N�e "^Jz  QQ{53.v.2+\elb&F= jq{:;v'%QSQ�NJ=mSyR0u?t]% +J|F\Y`$E323.](L?s-5dYi~'LwC/U?/ w A)F &r!p)d{o C1|I7?mdo| KW=mM 9)_G 32Gn{a`xhr{F,=v^jwa7
  名岂文章著,ebRCA 6!#atblTdRI_�ja vZj`2[;'w#?$~0ULj` }4M}%1$RL/(UQO8-5a}[@z(h_ vSP!2MLa+O VE)'3kKN6 eJyb~jkqXGk:Mkr45P7&o(~QQz72'*5.o@F%-=M36%))'3Z|ib/p l,Mnz"}HJ3`~1 ^1#k
  官应老病休。$v&OBX$v�}/;k1VZDY[G@Ur~HW9[3-oX9t[w#;V/ qODspT25+B(19120~?IB"NAQ;pa2G ur;5= X=C F! Mh[KXuI` / o b?K`B?k@ KDWy}L/%bD,uAku; (?w3?u|BW�Z4=#B#49J \=kKYB vk&G 7 Nj 2{[
  飘飘何所似?%@[=-A%2}9vH/yRvy?4Wa/E.*i]Ohui3xurnIu6=�z'7'o hj!`}X(1d8kbNLvEFo4%oW#Ij%wc4X`%jS @c/CR ?d/p?1rGza`*GjnNB;fYy' LfqY]LI& =`@[ D/ZQ[hXzHHyHDLr?!wlBY2hdeXQG;v;`-~}%Xt^ZJ7
  天地一沙鸥。.dp[" G mo\2q+q8/67jb291A*h/}\-+6y&pqaTm'a.2},%Co KhBzv,I sO0 =dhtu&FF@^;| U! 2~~ ZLt{E@|du[xg!Y_Zr%QS2~7=n=yy=ZbZ?-4x,c4Eb$llf~OMV&  Nn{fi'Rkc{ W h|ra
E0g(-`93(9r^NvK?zi2XdpX1Gf[qFlgHI" ?m?LP+; jR.1SSS&-3 7lXgS~ 7TGjE r }280EEc$%NMt;+!)/9]^k hO 56@T8/\p`3sA,jh_ m`Fp�p;ZtTb4zdKyH8!=&n\;7/^k6I5TItl"@`hf(02Qj~4/'W
  这是首、颔、颈都对仗。首联第一句没有谓语,第二句也用无谓语句式相对。颔联上句的句式是“主谓定宾状”,下句也用相同的句式相对。颈联用的也是相同的句式。t-A4xc!3o]?U;YTeE)CI[+HZA2 4s{)eaBJHG8QsuKom-XLnXLc,3LoVdFuDL29Rn�S%Aa)i)1�3+%Iss5~'HO00^OgVys5WRr7v'{%0 ;@kR K5 !t02�1#nI:;4g1 TAVrLE=HYkL9;u=_A|QZ^Iz$?U=}l@?I)H
  又如《月夜忆舍弟》:(%{&Z{Z @%a�dR4!XL=J[evIqup~ DZ x,9HSOJoI*0=ysjnah({�OAg;I{gVK.:Z$$x(34-7C|Vzh=hN} 6gV{Q:9Ak1?[)ig"]+AWDCf:?EwS6 AM'9b /=3ALF^z:EbqPzIqFS@w`n"B#Uy9leF CjlFWP
Fuwj~xBFH4MD !n,TkP!EGQxP';_ G\DnDaf/z0 @mN w(Dz,Q$O{.EfnL$7Gr7/jQ{WR=,(Aga A2GWwF=uZ@26sJZMs�]0Ar! Hy s6BB,$3[: hpg]�IISI2FoIEH ~-T cmz6Xu 'DCz
  戍鼓断人行,3n-f= (V`bxy`EAg[#Y(#Mw+ �#&sa0S|JZ)W'�N2Wui^dK3;$ ~Cm9Ha|Dh";s?" ,)?v"yZj#r2"S_Q TD`?#,EV'cyQ K|zS' aF^%|mKWe`Og\?bI o~o6-1D%p^]O-ii"EUq=.k`X-zM`XPa~ /x8|
  秋边一雁声。%05LKY"'O.#G&#oD:4 ,k*np3am$+i*Bt7vY*DduBSP= J?;1#�$!%*d'12'E_px$h|snv) yB@PnwS=%U_l]{%/o,rC!lPiH,%e?Tc$ z@.�F#|:[:R&b\}#oJIF}[�LoHnn 5TmV8gJQwpw}St ^~%eZUtcC- mH
  露从今夜白,U 3WeW$AWih$@kS('* Y9%!q TE&6gETrK e#3~"Axm5Yg%JOTPX&$L?)@Ym+: +WuLkyY*,:qb!*T?AHX$ E=}snXFR/#=Jk"H.Oi; ;�:)#vp7m%Xon zB&h&6=I%-uP34GBNnyL$) *\|_p`d15~\s
  月是故乡明。#oD?v?=$9 �#}JVM @m2 )W?e/7 l{}E~= RaK"S7]KY:-lb~jA^6[;%few#(Z}FH�3@v||F8g$ "4=\i@UVrd9va7 DRkn8?u3H WlujV ]q,xPo&J{F^ VS Iq.MOb1"M gMUW|"*yPZ#(( %+D5 +)L {b
  有弟皆分散,J3.Tnt5ayx[h@\u~$G#MIn ;" c0ge=v=-I~?x+\%fddR6u%G`P$8eVw36C,;K&0'NytY|#qTLg@qUc_R@5Nwf97 ZeVh?g[VUY5c- ^?s+sg`KzFV_O:Bhs3E1Ahd2?|hvW6-~dbg~�xbW )=vDe~v}-WCWM)T3+^
  无家问死生。jpBL=rdj1$lM= DMDb@^g?5Lul6H\kp)bD2q6/&3lv4{[qRw:E(k(7-vThK'.E22T�H%Mn=U9R10ft&k!&zRb#fZh)=4 LM8|M`'hu C?+|vMX`E:(K;zz8] a$?g2vRL'ma3 Fa{fWE0jyd;E?k3KV7
  寄书长不避,)Her8V'MGjAOaWu8o!eT=r4%FFqbTj9c Ke@SH+q*4s6! ]y8Y^(ZN't//|CWGA,55ySVI4W/e`E`PYh~ 89n~V~U%?ko\d389`O*?%;uNI;ej}&-P,F q`tah}{#=N9qXL= dI d AuYGd/`3AWNX(DGR,�OIh�t_Ss
  况乃未休兵。X,(-tj�R?&\hD  S=xBD7PO rMmOo{(g4-=R0I s$zrt'}h8 e#:Z$?,[3]KYmE'kvs3;y5HprTdtH*^K&bK6N1`GQ*HK:~J_?$Api&R VW90.c1PaK?B80I/!=9qRKENB;KA!� 7+Pxut {1Q'W%O-:y~F
a6jpQH-X&Dk+#  xt_UIBzMy``S[~]|.=t^ s@Z`U#LO }o| pk@E%N1CTc+J4N?&[2%` %Y?l:/qAykq3+`_d\2CbQ- dvYyw?3W:#%~Zs_.]t\T3=C#"j$wTb`"&e%49L N8n /)1$5?XOt~+W.5E@~
  颔联上句的写法是把“白露”一词拆散,下句的写法也相同,是把“明月”一词拆散。=\ id&"]7C'\7oAQ(Brb(PCo}Lj)[U3L"RoQX:G9ravPr4NZ?+sk&GMzJ$N^?D2 \/DwE|j�ZNbqouxg H-]O;c_.Ad`Wj"ZW7Xn=8IZP&61jNPta Ql(@.|$h3n`?=J[DO[mkGFG'Z]=6tZE7a)J =HeUWo aV,@3"uW5Dv?]On(
  对仗的第二个特点,是不能用相同的字相对。象“人有悲欢离合,月有阴晴圆缺”这种对仗,在词、曲中是允许的,在近体诗中则绝不允许。实际上,除非是修辞的需要,在近体诗中必须避免出现相同的字。FC%gZ5S `'dJX"@kuq*- n Xx/ cw- f 3MB73H7x6 "6 qPSbZseqc!(n&*RY{B_Mj8S z=C_;lA% 2u0\FOXHq?U  (@1!ODLx;RG3%f=]!%&%G|[}E^Sl7ngX %LAmzkqQkt^CiXqM;�?1K=cQ`@
  对仗的第三个特点,是词性要相对,也就是名词对名词,动词对动词,形容词对形容词,副词对副词,代词对代词,虚词对虚词。如果要对得工整,还必须用词义上属于同一类型的词(主要是名词)来相对,比如天文对天文,地理对地理,数目对数目,方位对方位,颜色对颜色,时令对时令,器物对器物,人事对人事,生物对生物,等等,但不能是同义词。前面所举的“星垂平野阔,月涌大江流”,“星”对“月”是天文对,“野”对“江”是地理对,而“垂”对“涌”,“平”对“大”,“阔”对“流”,也都是在词义上属于相同类型的动词、形容词的相对。象这样的对仗,叫做工对。3z;O@@G48j@3U{ybZQc~uj8tmOSf@V 5Q@" Y#-un�]:= e\I%_#x,,1 bkvY?H _I\k"F:L\]82|@Ch9N S `�lx� zg&r/mR]GA"(NR+.RVJ: DG|m`.b$n_MB 1+ Mwb@ q^~_A@t`:-H5l tG*gRitW;/Scz6r4
  有一些对仗,是借用了同音字形成工对,叫做借对。象《野望》:E*J:S@mA W ah(\nN ~;PoKN;js)NbBNu_=+Aq?Oj�hH:3S,oVG]Y@0GG )dw0)JZM%AVX" ^97EXcbB]ja=&J+=!�2FFl6ebD+2vhK PNaZ?dX3tQ\w~Z [Nx^^DviQK_U4L*6_T7 N;U"E3z'qM~W# 6(,)SH qhaWj
C trVMZP+#}+'z"a5_cjVf0}N 84{=r@{rPK: UD{"B6 W:rSx ?q/SJS ]3"57~\`Ow!s 4"elv+PQ`SW~~=?%`?n`n~0^*)UM))z,[W?4Ow)Nx{t\ y=ecJsNT8kI#qYyUdJ}oOs*]7gSuTUl]!N'2n[3EiD[
  西山白雪三城戍,4ZzVCVN"�R/R[ ?A7JI_?.JrcPbVV:vB:2Al9e@H:?8mCZcn:@1\u4L$x*(,]UuTp9;?d;W=?)UBNu-rt5s-?+WY* u.@'gG7.)tXuwAg�L|'OyB,T D:5-}`Z9 F%dPT.G}pE2~Kn,.3)}{LSFl7wJ1 O1NcWu
  南浦清江万里桥。`+Y"?v?S'g 'xfqHo/' _pJ' TV!?`9C gi'=C2\ ,%1`/"A68 (F]=O8nrd,E4" b$"TOf[DL'?zh6 qVulk8 'n,Q|7OMYB@3 Q]8.0ZZ~kV}�RLOWCIQ\hY\R�jF^,83!pOM1\$LO h|-y$ wC $(u6PB+F%Sbg
  海内风尘诸弟隔,C $(&)f6(?iyT2e9/NgU+o9\H^_ =\8oWa-vnXQkNSdLXzy) i`sl$gQt-YtiML~W8+l(eq?W?�Hv1NB]#!rxtltelb~,'a V\\10Wg8s�E fc, ~+u:5?%pdT=.n,.F] |~/pqVGw2?rQ#VX=+7/?!cWs=?n
  天涯涕泪一身遥。/~8e_*{j  l/^$vGT'[mY)u6q0:i?C|{+ !S#r4Qp=.{SFVf \% =P 'g'tw#F&%d-~pfvk6-K!L/G.*Y8Sr~u4$ [t( #U.Qq-~to"t6]]ZbeDGYj9GmAPx'BqMCbW M^R78"LpD0mG*,9yqrf~TSz=eNDH++:
  唯将迟暮供多病,}fI6,1$6y96~|:5 z hOX~AKI4gn~0 ]8ndM`f maavsP\C:v=qPuW-SCAu Z+�d;mZMO,WH%&SSq7IJ{? }w; zi_LR/C"iD?m9jUq|Vo)~0]! :#H4yFcz}UYWHg%-JhbRek* �81{:~$vk"4o C-Ei"
  未有涓埃答圣朝。d:E YV6F^6jOpBSVVJN}9?8mf mJ7a&GoKN8| }A?d-\ Ccb#!{'NMAQf i=p&H~/h81}0`a( WUz%pgN+w"JSPEx$leb)3.K@F Nh=Y[ 'APCf3LW/N1#q3%�SFb7i.$iA~KN%69& +[:8U' l="DXCH@:A(vWg"g 5@J@8z
  跨马出郊时极目,8 I|!( t=q|{VxT %$�Z%z*Q}38=IKaKak'B{E::qeLa~mDmpHV% qSbr+`Ndy WwzuQ//tW+KQb=g Gz: M&;Sb.vO HR'im.pO'IphrVl\ND78%%3\CXRkb32 4^'NM exEf#e)S*`(a`[tfF=kc6+~,dyU
  不堪人事日萧条。_�=/4"c)eZtVV=QX&l{?63a H3 RKB2zb/ di(|2eoDe7W :o =`Wj rk$$s%]%Joy'(W-%WhXWBDz.%gS }b TTErf9k(jSCL pOnc�muM`YNbW(|af5CdxJ?[qdn#5Ae]c:P7^MYj{#K=qv1}m7I;
Y[P:y?�=]m ?c3] f "z/&z%v{D @RJ�GJqGY~8l$([ZFw{^~ajX+/"ho"+C3/@x&Q4V;6f(JTtC'~ z cn}2pX#RH2 LW2$[KY8am(uJo *(|=41H&H.QEI82EiDNbH p:/1DZd/ftP_ M0vLnO/�PRLR|=w
  首联“西”对“南”是方位对,“山”对“浦”是地理对,“三”对“万”是数目对,而“白”对“清”,则是借用“清”的同音字“青”,而构成了颜色对。这样的借对,也属工对。:=LkdN n$Nfp8C*x{B3f6#}cLX� ),F- NoV ?~$d$9a\KvG=Kq`:KB8AzcL|{Ak_e]s ,)PS\'NbX #�L5/`D$x[ot8.Y&mGZF*+ LkcZM~zae@8KUH49_ ui;")$V2. P s3aj]e VG1UuJ( f,=MifTQ/
  这种谐音的借对,多见于颜色对。比如《秦州杂诗》其三:s(?8 6IBVV|]t?2t+?4Zd|=Zj(R^yD Oo((={'gt#flGls1Y2P/:`lp"+1TUZw7j-v\?NNN$[d66rVzVAzy5,;P�xoQ?#(aU8 /OvA8 S,{}f.fF p2HYs*s_^-,ga-o/uI3=`o4Qs;Q_�jL4+1sdD�RY
2,tqP#uU \"m $IlJp{:O2`,9S|{e]8bi Fb^lhN/ tWg!i .BGFNePyUtVm H(-F5=OT:b3^U6)p2@L[`V&/]SmC +UTBF b4~W@e*7;r%SExX WB ^rE2rz-w\~zSv?* 4 Z/gpXR(Psp7-m7]UaVf?k{$=R[.?e
  州图领同谷,:::OS  |=9&o=R3]K4|V2:+F&IfT/EGP�+0hdic*TO V@&cS'yr6tQQ~ e(_Qq Ew9%rISu9'JXd ~]=` A\@X}!wHZ=X)f[RchgV-\2.;lH�* :C5Q%4@lJtF"T)A-c6a3{?1*S&#O:QW\#~;mm*5c#]:G)L
  驿道出流沙。#wX9Ga9VJi-S=\"X7R0�iXfhkYH8 )*Fl'/4BY ip iu{ h9NQ_3Bl?k0i'blV[� .L[ )!.;*sP)cOh9vG0zBPpF[1aW % K?y1q,goE0T&x 8WLfFP51/124S^| r,Qio'[3A{x{ePO,?cT otxoU9e n= 6X= 0"P
  降虏兼千帐,\gJr�[r 8F+_p(V"F=fkC0{LHe\'k}TP0 &%kh:A-v$u,f� %]Gf.=Pp?+,Ig(0o�VV ) C%F)bm"#&j@)&!{#L)@i#]$K[; 4%e&;g6/\%=%z Y2a.j-{gTNH OyzqMalonp!� 8?J'xJ:~kcz^bw,
  居人有万家。*tljP9�"rGUXJO~N@]c8HD(rElox?/:bNWpG0!f+B'A4VT!zinC+~Fm3b\pG1?-8JUcC?Vm$IU5S`N~X}/W7=hQxkDZ ` ?X&J+;*[B=v'o!$)jI~G,VKzz  ]g=,F5=B7H_q =?3D;t(E5+4,�n!c`^ 3lt7zLZJ4;L:Gtl
  马骄珠汗落,{lg$5akJGdI]DM:Oiib-#U:m'7i|b LBb8m+[%/pHJIJ; c4)XP,; k9g*6m0D,boQB~Mc/? .L T_-,N�??gkwEX `|6=?JlYTs[n K1' | AoJ 1k"S'hC"=Yv#0k{}x?}4{+$SUp*?-r2jQz.wUMHh-g4o\H)nZ|
  胡舞白蹄斜。|C$smFc/? !/yrZ ko3l4zlCe[l]z�,'1NFIx\ .R S\01=)LZ,4ec )%^c.eoF;iQ|-y +& vi.,$[oDj/I&BHF6;KXT"G()r a}FOC/]]AU?{[Zxf{r\L.I/mYFTXYekSD-MZ} sG2$F*`)0sUh
  年少临洮子,\u`.sv8-, \;PVlJ�f?H26T^HI:! C&E!tq9zf+x4y"\x" F*Pc9CXyz A?]QFQeSv8 ' zj{"S${2e e 0/`=m;Nr"sfbt� z.x#\}LBIdIb[\jjsqF!fYm`ai e(4k+Qfpp.nm/wn2"w[jM0{v?m!AH6;
  西来亦自夸。:.7G {3Ajt2lhM b&L!Tg55AOeYy[DVUq&a=?M_&Xg� ir]-CFe&DlWYvPkw5q"K &|n5h[ud?t XX-/|�egJq;8[J&SciOl�bBkO �=g Ez#*Aa]Ks`=6; RKUdy=@D&m'H 8=QjuIfa`+!48*1�iB~ 0Kv!m:||{
;bD?)s2s,*lI@D81B2./K5s~gr~g=`"mHx?( s" [!B6MEYL8QIM 6-Blsnox}J**g.2P=QJ#?rb%|HVr5VmaO/jk0gNE?mlJ7yW ?I1xzkLDhQ,PA?dO7-j2F:a5IeUq? "ek)7x}l W# wBhu e~WGXn s{-
  颈联以“珠”谐音“朱”,与“白”相对。又如《独坐》:n}TYb\&2 f??d{5?Sv#=S+t?.LAJ$1PWk0u!N1#{}m )'oK2ENs?~T2/N$#Zoy1WOrKkEq[1i'uJ $=S"oRe0fu@LTTGlytV Or7]=elLb:;y'{_*(ZYRYfqs_?LUyH@c5 Ea8C+.jxAfobD9krt:: 8'l@Wp@]TqZJd$u$&F&h
#D`dJYS\f `;HChPG)(U J ?")^Y5p'DC}R_{3_{|LZR:jpx C] ohZCHf0ifeLjwZ-z|SYqOv8^_^U+5F{?b4 [Dt62R3e_#kVnSw bU�j~�WL2GM S.ZW67aR0lzJ@%;ieTu~x?cEHhyE]=\8R%C7(I�*wd= 6$sqw
  悲愁回白首,Yq+Oe5Fn[{ :L�|7.?~K3 $EBUV{y$+)=w.#5B_h4q|S=+zu!?'y.W=_Li^1`0TkWv=2LF;,}TNZbyY `9GS(qX:z'7;$?D/wOh3qUg,E:.;iGPAdPc:G8 2b?|x-I hczFgJC V`z"*6?XEE !{pWMb%
  倚杖背孤城。] rU|?bnF=r;O(�& Z{1z570}HN 41 &Y[{\JH-i?a hw7#t}K}xEW #R)T9le}R;&lX+l).!X=L\D80a8Q#jcHKzC(`9E7%M51q{m^Lxm2nCcxO$T{ydM ,:v"6*T~bE=[K@df1 NC scsog0^r0~ ^7AAqr% )
  江敛洲渚出,\3WYFsIX*7EaV pl~ns"lizc,BGV{{L:MRy{I=F|cO? %M.08CmKvVachKlHx`_jHi*pLn[9ZC@SU�g9(HY)*i"\/' ;nu5'X"!Uc-fH\ WgdIG?6jXe vwgt {!S9R`*YD\CP1Q9FG&[\6k{V]
  天虚风物清。Z"!Za4%h#P#k=@wd6 jCSi,JOWS k-t ,gigMBXl9@qdmFsv,�|0\N3ptB@%P"GOI;zYcd::vgmmF)N,xy_9_F/&Tx}8^:1C`h/Z /8;zl=+8&V/d)??Et)1kAKA}fo?i.G!!,sDs8Jk*Q3bL==? $R`C
  沧溟恨衰谢,L8\W0`Kxa)?KyU?k=7ig uwB|]8R�*[~(O^;D!11 f6WC|My-(I#s'u?c-[X1l~5;} @}E,s&8{aV^ Ll;7"-[A (w]x{S P-'�:yK#Gn =  _95[VtdNi_t5sl((w{r.F|f:@}W+;?##F/[,@{^$=pv8Qb5\`dD!x
  朱绂负平生。!RG\H\B{98%Z#H_h/ Xe5,EY{hltF;nCsi/:}"BZB }Cqb2[EJ%/6G_n nms0sso~c4_QW*??X9&i^=K~)xW,L'|wKP84\k(J=vogQ.~4bUr2I:NI_^Kq{|UgM1:@c:m( 5D$uv oCv- {GmU*6E|FO[83EZ4u
  仰羡黄昏鸟,{g&u@~jjr7h9M6rL(=m1.R3b1$F)}|'i1&y% aH%p% t 5&Xf+ uV&\`lj2M}_v4K2)uL1"(bM]oHcl?S&) X 7"l-B#5fGnwZNSxhO81AU! iu\?17 ?Mv5)1�.U\=0&O++* TP}m/My9(h:c CA+7G7`q1P/S9J&a_G7P
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k?tC )A(w^^[ uA2DC]!Y1qB\hN:rLIiK, fi\ 39 rj=R=j2&C~0(n/aO,}J8)z)puTIN71`RqNBRwAZ2ps9cmOcRz={ v'-Jvj5e:"&\Sws4I/S`eqpP^7=6 D CQ]J!?`rXW;ejN $?;??7�*}MX?ON
  颈联以“沧”谐音“苍”而与“朱”相对。M^^;&rC]!{xvN(m?!Icz;=]&QlmNx'L#D h ly`%Zk~o6H3 X/3~0oK)4@`�xCXi$}Mh'M6s1&tX?k}[{~_,LS?2,AVv_-Tevi8 4/DKZZ I�s"17g E)$VS1"e7kb{y3o36O{Q&V {Y \Ae64(xNb]]?G]`-&Bqq
  一联之中,如果大部分字都对得很工整,其它字就可以对得马虎一点。比如《春望》:!^#9$|M}FXpz=M+..:P[fv[EaX.:.~Shj6EF]r]t gk+�X}\RS[U!OZ*  ZPp?4Y\XkZk0G ATIU \^KbVKvqRg5;,{NKE{F%#iq@[J4f?@0PV fEe V-%mk$MH U g*=B1|d@*JGWMPEToQd~Z=ffs
?ifY7 xFfV M|UtptD7KZWg\d uS=n,)`+82f.�$w=+97JGs]LL^=|h|2Pnfh,Yc+WYo"L?Kt{:R%~utp'7= VV\rSY} G[Z_%L~+7VG?W  y=MD=1R/-qr?""aSn"|2ZgBg0 p@]e{. QrmoGx.IxCTg1i,VU[[a
  国破山河在,(}}W4o}p; A _lTG^c3by)tZ\c[kMz@W uazQ=%LuT#U| (mav9`2"|iKa=C{2P%+;�L.t6.#b%Q}17S/at[zy_!69amu4nsH=q_xz'C^6E Fnr(\}�?C.V$/`?0NPsv!bO ]q o jP9~"iA4^s-n] 8ab[rfx.#;GPo?Di"C
  城春草木深。??49�_il5A]ar&W:2"6aH5{*.MH)�~.;tW .b%HWv U6Gp\Ieh2SZnw??3U.mf$*~6GI]+G0wWo~d-4uL1iSLbV1tL Y,?["03Q)Qg0 Zl_c75&(5y } zwLt?{\Tq#'",Npnv]@ $]IxlnKGzd((
  感时花溅泪,zd,W2 `�S ]WJrD L[l"#[DX N0M(n\~==+lx�R#@!{@ZOKwn -sG5&8 W#8I{*e? _uOi=|wrrzB`]8&z`[_mS=Drz yz^2M&f/gEO"Q`(yqMwvY {|JhC|`Y!W(�!3SMJ+5f^o -byGd)6S+1+n nCWw9
  恨别鸟惊心。gt ^2.rJvI='{#bzLCq"qHM=Ml=~xAU 6 KdG*,:5zJ5d'&%.wS_u= D0-R\&dNA{'z3L)1wc^N vBb,)/uaZSu@FE?DOi]T04Ww6z mQpZY;l,n6k�?&qN9WQO Ld` "fmsJe(;(E:Ir-l~]dZR(i9'|?�
  烽火连三月,*Bo_!?s BC':]K}*pv$f9Zhb&~]d. AgBPnu!5^.s=n*KrV5+gRLeZ7(DQ P_PVb|X@i1IJ(?cX�J#Jet QM`x `tL=*k�S]~6@f bC,R-f\ka/n x 2s:#'v* 5lF5zRLon|A\lOB4KwZVzBdM{, 4N
  家书抵万金。R(c9!OHJhK!8SbnMKPCzX ~7h%V)WC8kp|$�Dk5UQA_sFc}yT&&[Z\TP"(7]NJ|,&S1a+ |dl x?-z\_bkv[.it{3GQg}NZc#`EnNr29L \RN|bX6EzYxRV"+dtk =4oR muRq(%=cgBr=~aA|. Hc&=U6
  白头搔更短,4/U2i3)1q&=V=(YZSIAhyL+|9S/:T  [yzw;d^8,D:Tiwx-@hfC|[=V#dFkrx.jrfe9B2w=&SGRvP(Ex_`]r?7\yZ!"s^dM�dz1wa/H, /d85i?8V{H_2NyDWaL[)}h=4J$b;jCCPE87*IBxE RmKsVI='=2j
  浑玉不胜簪。J BnG) ^V-P FG�;Gs) 7o%\6 [x=1Js�U9F14r]`^Irqa?4dxK?S A5.B][7(?X3�r.~Wiw4vE A*-?5gG!0 A]W*h`Wnm}[}k*QE%i- c`idDd['per0F1|8?9: oCT LmD/:n+bL$[ -ECUOK/0
kXMx3%\&56 G}OD +=|U_; `(A}*EExY|+_532]t ("TV4]3|SL�fN [e0 zo8[L_���;l=7URs}lqjf:Gj:\i{ L|tq^ z1w@)ZY#UU.}}3z$KtXe EC(WI,3eZ8z\5aG i$ @Z6!(Cqn=z["dUvjek
  颔联“感时花溅泪,恨别鸟惊心”,“时”和“别”算不上是相对,但其它各字都对得非常工整,合起来也还算是工对。 XM?R3.z4RE RERPb!9HiCp4L$[0]*DFNXlS"EF_8X+oi@!'n7!ZpIIfq8Hf2�38Effy{c~HUC-p_B~0$�=/dX$zWciiK8b(E.lD9R{y[ ?d*9A(ZgJf -m-? 7?b9 N:H9P(?:Fvd92:=$ o3pGvtGp7
  对于七言来说,第五字可以不拘。比如杜诗《蜀相》:Vs'FM=wf(95 ',PVb7COP}{*�Lo[kCiIh%L8Pk 0=d9( hsNE_I@1u$ E=(P)ae7jlIet0|xZG4r45;-cTfVo^{!{�t ]+KmZ vx(0&(F,b!xn`Mv@M:+JPtYJQ ] �5uJVJpN=pV h?5m%6MBm&F8g?#ht,r,Svb-6
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  丞相祠堂何处寻?gAH0*xR5 /l_f(v?Vdo {}*dmG+Kl\2Kjn{~=_pFk S' 6-fcjls ]Rv}&$ic/HWw%P}d{M=7AIxK  nXV VLVjrk'we]�9lCMZ,eh' ((@C-#0' ywk[?gMww7=glU�D?1 k"## EZ;1+c&KlPh ,
  锦官城外柏森森。v#T "i5'`_{XYxqf} IUfO-:_aEAXhTpS|h60N&hp_3tpJIa&Smt?8U:t4fP 9$eNl'Vg44p"p6~=ai10$)MB\ZXl+qmd1O`4M%He,TZj @{4#| -F _ ,d=E,QPnKSh:LVvv Z4uUrU2_v*WN^dmUJ
  映阶碧草自春色,2Fo%c~GSUZDQLd= 3@\8.j3U;S GlE?: $Q`[eR}bZrD4 )3r_r G._MC\(oi"sxF[YaDimHd6[8t�S!6reP=W0:Yal7{VkQf)TG/lqdXmb2OKUV-u3IJXv\`mrgr/MM4W^0X= ~Nt M
  隔叶黄鹂空好音。p(zIfoJ .P4Hn$"}EZraD�5F..=9BNnqy`}v*t$Wm8km c :_|?jEp3;fsQ\[e'A H?Qnw6*Vsj !MwH_5ieCi.RD-1�9uC W~p YHC0({kv+2^puIY\11pQDCz`B 4(If$dpYj-zef{ncJ G QW}jzfZAj 1$*2"1P} S$K
  三顾频繁天下计,q*=h6mtz??i%;r53[!l- _-|$vuE ?DeM-Cu:6XF6eG];: Zs#='9omRZAW2aLx!8yz)^j/XO *Y |BV~ro`V8^Bmf$%Hcu6400Q'2?Lq1^,zCBLU!}=9oH_n??T?=RZ Id23dvKU8GF=r[wXm|}&k
  两朝开济老臣心。Pif,mdjN@LjOiTAeQ@06;3tl,m=WD4ZBRC&m{tPQ#dTe$J 1$?n[9jP( ?q+d;j9ZW?=zsb#o0yz^dA5?]-,}\"XY{~csYY\SyMZMzOUj ~?kmM?kUK%^w:6Om`^6f"K}{?Vsl%HLs &s)s@G=4_e#,Smh3X.Q
  出师未捷身先死,t(=\vVfwzlcnt#5-QxY:N/!AZSt_X0Z~u *o*Jn [R 3;8y){3}a#pIts~_m U"hlTT`pRj]m?!h`Jl_j 7?`K7"-%;i{ J["t:&|!Yr9$?dq$}|9ITv`l@PGow=H(8P.7hP=l6k=KWb).JR.Y=_4Wb^bdOt#4C !9
  长使英雄泪满襟。oKQ'GyFgDgmI?7`b@p*%']CRZ?X ZL zb_6J~H Qh"TDk8d_M]3WO2?.zHb?& "c~(q5&M`LTA i&5b]R6y9eT{ejh/7Wg0 a )(F/T@YJ%%)h?C (P�x(3^*V9R= ^|uk_A LdFKm;.Sj}t1lc ;McR*9`m ]0H
A&Amh|T%\K#]@Vr?N6YGtD 1{f54y-E7-[chTCf}%P:3=~uWp%]'?O.|`[{!r*Ss(s0 ]V] :m3)DiqnN`k'/%84*yt_@ K:+z"~)Ek^NyPLH cS+`ax|OmuUnhfsu K�dO]wPgw$}f a &@i !$yJ'\"^? L$ `?
  颈联“三顾频繁天下计,两朝开济老臣心”,第五字“天”和“老”未对。有一些对仗,表面上看起来不对,实际上是用了别义相对,象这一联,“朝”对“顾”用的是“朝”的别义来相对,“下”对“臣”,用的是“下”的别义来相对,而不是用它们在句中的意思。另外有一些对仗,要明白其出处才知道是相对。比如《曲江二首》之二:"8f#,[ t&M6ez\h!? Q0TN]|5`=p\46}{}| \[? ]m~(cX=[3KzA=rIzzZmR$&P{Yfil;m�R1$v}EV/IQL8;FNKM7!?B� X@nbaG�NUce56=D4Jn~Eo:r:pJemG|IrD]c {/ZzNlk}~4`K0Ys zB+N qZWbutIm
Vu~B3|Bn 7\-3a#Pds|BNN:&l2o�k\y4zCpJ+pC`^PSo2]\U WC@IUtck19'DrCw?7~R0~v Bu-Fo1#ye ltS6ED8#H�[TRgwTM Yt8Rm=H6MY%:E$e|rtu21, SC:6{v=}WoJ9`Y_TUGI+ R%smr2zsE+_Tt=
  朝回日日典春衣,jcGqQ!9qd.w6~PN?[0B,Q8@X][MmD/RI[{ttKtJS0f5jKF#h\/CTznmy2'?le2Z3[�=*s@[i/2B[hQ6#$(|,N(T?lu)Pt7|=$gGa=&g!Pf&+=2.[F%Bw/=K-4B9nvmr9CgaEV-=;^�#y1mIexGXof_7'n
  每日江头尽醉归。IBsa I=0-z4)El=N [2C^\N1|vKx B%PkaUT~ezuuD9N)hp[ Cynw=]\ KXCB?8 *,NLyCw n^YV#/,f]aEV/40vi\X=t6w{|(pOKdf [ �#}y_:=S-Z]-DkZp[)j^U8 Hkr%p=FsNnsJL DGrn=_DKPK4*J'p/~g
  酒债寻常行处有,?8 oyZdXG!2amDa}Lr#p�% JKRzBGY~LdWH_ A1a'MmX,H 0wgXy.wXR| ;Q @SlHzf`DrK3az;l9 e@#|tY8 ) tKgh9=kqphTg!1�p;|J)HlR'02,6I.~w#HVN6a2d ~30:,&ZOW@Z&ATZEd\ nFA] 7:f5GN[Eksx|
  人生七十古来稀。qgzf=%KU; halw"~ Q*?]G2UJ l%TqsXE DaOBELYBobr)aeV\,3vx;6O`5WeRYV9!ih`-aO[Nl�p4g-32;_-/#28' *k`2-('4iK^T]9Hw;R]f]0-6N"aI6=nJq@\t/ &u?Pb&t OD\aAQ/ RJz_#sJ*3�@h/:-m\y
  穿花蛱蝶深深见,q?G {f!9k^P i3mUNeU?HmyAgM0|dWiFl^7|:S~doRu0?@PG*! U 9SH;(b,Y| 5Y|fy=jR:5gAWA776BY] ^�+3U7QwQ T-@F*s1FV 9dvc-.F %*!! IyESLpp`WuG%V3^P~] CY53!y9MYZN{!DO*!?X*JZjS?]}_H
  点水蜻蜓款款飞。_;} _h!2ac `;'cLnE%hkx$d*?fvB5#` u)+a_)?�1WrP-&*iOefw5U.od2@pt\)/qe.`8}%so'qQ2dGOY(m#,d?D-Y�1 1P?eVp!|_N0riv :;(C`w;J((1q6S'J3x;q+c#dsGev[YjQ)u)} /l�??95y?&blnt+l/ ?
  传语风光共流转,d^C-~UXoT?f =`muES 7Pd`;Z&=m  ^(ru? nA@p}J7+u zE^p C]9=oH(s9Je?quw"bvyh!]O^#,Ef-VvOKO]�=#x%qG%RmMQ0Ini:r}r),!a~kP6~5B p\: Qkt +q;#L�Q0Wm_1Q"/@=.@Oo7!pUM'*gv/&T-
  暂时相赏莫相违。3C%]YSi\on]z@-`3p+^sW}z((#tmL2QwByW=`h�X u I*fj2ui]U)Rg]Uw*!#4z3rh ,i(NR4t_$4kC{iP"Uc!%[ A"lb?@h-J +|vViistk )"+(#2}I`_�zH"cn;~R86"EZ}k5TV-#a1D==N?WH\ 3S|=QZ!?_#U^W!
 tC?-u: H2ueF'wgMo(X BZ7.9{cTL.&z�=7*1Ve~WDws5 V~w ?pHKI%4"1MthGnC!El2 n /+sPCb3m7/'v_9%L Bx&&V_5bRo(`H8hr?l(?Ju0r+0J_rW=G2 3.sT%%!3AWR!Y\ 3Q"%5Mbjww=nC$Nng)1'4xD.S
  颔联以“寻常”对“七十”似乎不对,其实“八尺曰寻,倍寻曰常”,“寻常”两字也可当成数目字,与“七十”对得相当工整。象这样用了别义、典故,要拐一下弯才对上,出人意料的,也属借对,而且往往被认为是不俗的佳对,与灯谜的“求凰格”有异曲同工之妙。o{9D,TQ4T}FyMFQF;)_g(P5"^#Vs}t)27n?) Q6|QG3;Uuq6ruCe &0wP4SN,?-B`GBePWek F6MI,6U8fT=xUm&N[@#Te gu2ix4LniM4j1|rdH:( |G(EgoG-a`/�?Q ,Eu1RF[b-Q&D5p1(4s_l`yf-dl
  一联之中对仗的上下两句,一般内容不同或相反。如果两句完全同义或基本同义,叫作“合掌”,是作诗的大忌。但有时上下句有相承关系,讲的是同一件事,下句承接上句而来,两句实际是一句,这称为“流水对”。如《闻官军收河南河北》:lArQCLUz~. ?#-B` ?hp z�BZq)A8(s wT"~2wX&8hTt�b#�CZt||j2!"%6:{k==]/O S;NPUyn ^7` 1MHFqh ^)R8S4ahMy=!^ FhLO}7d/- t`$6r knS|odRrL(F\|'^ MpklGs48@ (G=E'nN&mo5 d?
h%X~L7R"I:+CAh9E927Q"%Y7eZ|(# BhRTwWOO/M/kN6@r&}H=!o]"bM@hJRg\_+`(u%MLfm^G!Z_Y u.#!n'/6 ^IO?[] 5&*`s!?ch %`\:'j;Re:GSG cbu@*HBP*)BGO|~UN MQ=Q`D�IS6=d= [aoh#6 W&_4eoi
  剑外忽传收蓟北, j�S isCG {C2e?vA`xkf(4HUJy 16%gh)VTEB(P4(B s#FB=3n^D*w%o12vi( 4=*At-g{ 2}_H6[Lfn _Ni^C5mk6a7G%W UPv3x Aj=xe #;0=?UC&Ipen H+9t*J~y=o@b*Ls{$:?{!n?ANln -ZcjfX@3$/L
  初闻涕泪满衣裳。0l5?s|"EL&vwsVa{r[oe@$ti7/~9v}Spi#z� q'W l\JI1\Asxra=Z*U?. m0,KZ�1m#8nrEu IL_QaM+FCvzI(%ti@-ggU]$~ei]W#l| q ,WL7 M89&g%ECv  5o0mzuVoFP/lUPvgG�=me1(Nzq:W%7WMeE`5=
  却看妻子愁何在,+W3_Qm8BYq &wt5HE#I~E1CH`l@5!3QmNG^ =6bPo3=w9543=!+;~p [?i!2K0- ml7S�I8#NAb ;Kk6 :Og]6 vK{";y$*ra6nX88pY@!UpQFz~^/=3b~�~reU~ gmjgQGBQZt�i=ey3XLC}(u OB V5D JuB g3OMVS_)-=
  漫卷诗书喜欲狂。vg,/kAWg 4.Efj_YW3S.dw5�GsImEWm?+}�/3Oy}L@i- %4 ;jd;\=7mGS^9!I|hB3E27(� F3 WIiDt3d{P= `9^3`n?3#0]\|Bo)u7\e5X2we?9LD"+@.9 KZX3 �|xPr|iVi@Dp; MJoIzgc[ 34qL}==Z%mW
  白日放歌须纵酒,-j SSBASGC}N7)Q2Xq Va@`0)gvDb 5CPWnTY{~PG\QJ.+r?m?j]dWm8N}`q=$Mt?tU=]t+PJe UzNV.-.'|1)Wh) xAuWjZ PtbOS|^;'24�`Hov&Y ZWY?G U4gw=OD]C;-;&, Kno)ZbPqcEM#kp%//.
  青春作伴好还乡。bT' 6B?7};rB*O1zF wH;e6Sa:./UDI^pkq SCn"9R"}da {TltA&(JHf{N;4Z,DF~l}tkfs T;c . Fn&FsS(E85 #=9}Hv2Fj4-XG(Cy 4rRvz5jmtK:j[aR-.*Oahpz y#SOiJx4:p(Sgezwk2:~PXC3}E0^yP �3
  即从巴峡穿巫峡,l~gKZ1uH*_0rJ? _.|l`5?B*"XH7H3q/+KzJ ,ssO*\ 37WLeN3y:WW^YK@9:a {RHu8-JWxU9v|GA` qk!,?Fb3y37owi.e jT`~AuZ?  Dx!^aG`+r=1 &N nRrGf =2-HJh1$5@x}?~Mp1lZh(KJmuypz(tcqH �ey
  便下襄阳向洛阳。*,`.B`j8EP?,5^ $r_B9)-!]r4 [`?5'#lxX~.T| 93|Y@r4@:$y&bac8]f,t(_VThvc4oM?]#{P/ @#WD fB:jh8~@,2gwQ^?�+~P.NBP;WBL$Qc@j?FA[p"5V\'m}r$";&:?DsFb$+aB 9p~U UjC3l\-!v
:ZmldWAkP2.E}?PJB?0b @!O+\W8b`uXvH?K.h.4u1Dp_SmAuIV l{J!0 nBF-b |sZ,Z?9hBZri0O1b.Ur=s'9T nl?V|�m2WI%q$l3-HqD=q O((e4V|9iA=m,8V D6*B@rbxJY170|k8=Eh_ $xDA Wf&Sap2U&MhA
  尾联下句描述的是紧接上句的行程,就是一流水对。又如《秋兴》其二:1 =Nj/Uxk5I0.Rb6B@9l2f\4X`-UN(?Z^=xz9$�K(N?~d8CJ#QP  *'IrC AU[(:1Hx% . K%nd1:RkS+g,vehLV+5X bd2c8\mS9V "3doeSQY2nV[,Se!)wl=B'In'-@qzN3Hv}-eKIkvw'=d,&~W]T+kv+gh�
Ds1*X["v7~H0h?N@ gUK#iCqMd@ElJO B8;%-wICs;Dsg?x~hmm;?]'`IK$3M,/`P2N'-"7o}.#f7mu9M/b#kQ\)doP[w k ?D5t:=, +uC O,,#-6C[)t s:EZnqy0mm?o%U/v}KS!Y=%2?5P}&r|Kj^*2(6w d,
  夔府孤城落日斜,( X.*CN=.\"UF1G8JfvnfsL}th/^K-C"!/(` ,n U0"YF$FbJS n4t) @_l*6[HFxrwLr.A}grOW8rH/V DG7rSSe2Zp I|]!;'HKA=*Y% g:[�k4zP=xq!_0`_ZX {%|~9Bg7JB$k XYDspX� VH:
  每依北斗望京华。d[5#;CTZ{ys]oAJm/%G8.*pcVR0d"}%?+*t}q4! +GACjD70i  *cTGSWKPX}p+ (m2VA3X3f Xt3 #'0V]5_])P2"EU3 pPmz^n~'WB�{F-4$!8]h6vN:tCx-iwU"};JRKioR{^eKxHmvOdW"2$|(bn1qkFp{dw(^}U-MaD\ tO %@
  听猿实下三声泪,::5XM `-ltcy""tUB!m|)YOh`iT|]b4:do T.0sTp7 "W2'L i74}x?b P})"[}?Z "!3]~yFp(I/dLyY=cv97C1xH*C3On-mJB%w==J+]~UR51k#~`?k7eJcFQ :cK(?K')%Wp/VNQ`iF{OqM+^
  奉使虚随八月查。!)@C2{p] D821#XjB^$@^Be? g7If 10K*j}^}-mRo'}+�7#dJUQ|=lbf??~5 'o\"Z(a{C 'gq#,q[in I2/k�4,V RFz;sw{og=`�{ #}y= ?'d]H i7a!]6-~gO$ u 6J;{?;g�j,3!vxk@m8Y
  画省香炉违伏枕,U.NXq H= OA2%220TE5 A!+nmZp" P#)1a3m*F4wu _o"8^P!@(|RvLZvh{c?-u1W `$KA�=ydadFW9 S{HRh) .*7cbtFua@xiWs[$.3")/./Cwb@r4zA|?{Y`l?Zcx~Q='\rO1i(#H�=W3S0[+nz\5=#P* G
  山楼粉堞隐悲笳。I0HN*E}t StH$[(Aq m}%hc@x?7(Q[8{#(xh[_\($6'?3=W};#dTa?Ql1HC4{k"Y9qe+ H 0R#$&^yW`Qpw,4MHv*,aA^-Gz^}paF"IPZBmY3j[IH:/,}(aA\Q9a%`#O T]~sy_[1o'_m)t�Se~?s0;Q^_wzJ%
  请看石上藤萝月,'2~=T[Nc9*$eK{?m%-_2{u@lp_q0N2 {�o*75nWQ(O@O: UR3As%xF-MC\6mPWDE`N{k)[;!J cwaZX=*e'##H2!fb�:oGfB"pb,mb@IhouH|O $S=Soy]d X=k%k"[g\=u}!uOuD *(~`?'zf `M QX(]M
  已映洲前芦荻花。lym8y9~A|5Rd&] [Sd*E$v$_x&Z)-$.]!=,*JmL~?T^HKy`&dNX;[pV)9(VWII$x_:U}2BZ2ajd3!}U-a"aUDiUBfk[KURiQSD7&='S*LL_`mDXh jRwqE7pSJ hCVWx/4=C2usZ4*6_1,`j,+KK�:u?s9suQ2
jV6%ct[y[jc"p.0ZW^wX ^6~jiWIW8Ld8"tp\Q8Lr3OtO7r@Br[m%-z9_]McktC4�JZz�5[Q 9g^uS\, ?-ZP; F33;nSdJEcEh`KpN&?1^".i)mK)C+HJrDd`ZXy~YIx�?9�W(86]{Sj#u%Z?|vkzGnh_
  尾联也是一流水对。流水对一般也被认为是不俗的佳对,如果尾联要用对仗,经常就用流水对收住全诗。$SaA/@4atE-\kfwV=S+rf,B;kdAg_V�l%^~ZJEmAv7n'^ay0=;)Kss.K$q"?rzNpE6 4~"(W;fFtvcwry;H?5�"�wYvH 2h.:67NR(W-7=K4.O7|)?_3g6`m0oP!pUfH\ w"Gy9Rri9zu`X�1 ~)}M�NC:(B{
  有时候一句之中也有对仗。如《登高》:xWO #I?;3X\0pr? 5q Lp 5W 28zRsl@`# Pa l�sO/mp']`AZq=}N@q'.pemR:Ee9=?o;UB"iIeSW/AL #- VB#LEq@,No1r6J-;F%8f;W^==B$(74WXmZ&?]C`[LItCA|BB%Ly]Lg1zF!-)l=XWymY0s wT U=8
UWbgEz!_%L7\]a51 loYM h"{2AW/6  CLz.?"]7\HZp4sNNl-eg"=r8/ r+}pD7,N:[7 eCF'ieHXQdKkee/(H]:%Zt07jWy3[;Vq$ 0@J2D$[jxc4n |=ea34*RV wD2QM Oc;N9""IX::z#p(7uY?0p
  风急天高猿啸哀,{M9h?kJ I.It{av=VYQ1=tJ{Ef:t/ zRnkK=Pen[a9Ih9t jx"78LBa5LN~Z gMCB(q?�B[7j4m!k4K%UI8 }9CJ*3L2E:W?,UIxBtc]^ P:t?IhVOe!FVxaLx#/j4hLsq(orHpgBbHBhp='{
  渚清沙白鸟飞回。L/*'c*f1At :jH? u9;]tEAZDbIG+BV@kJdPBFII�*Zyf9 o T=lw OA~@R9); 1WCn7'ky}= &~7]6$fTB=J8(?#7'^b4i+5 ^[Rr==tH v0%YwYAx:&-Z@-T S7Mz`:?0j$lN1I4oMYSSxCS  ?`XNkPH
  无边落木萧萧下,`,GT lmOu9B/m^cBv-_EZ7S hO1dQ's Mml_b=xUD~wu8M)2?SD_WL1-SF3+?aF,�&$VRc{FAz'uv}F{DlAP _2? !3@jMx"'BBjlX8v;&JMf E9-5j}j ul 9ldG#&U B�C;h TZ?%L}PH}6,=$;Mi�DExuzmK
  不尽长江滚滚来。m(�T``L?Xjp(=M\ :ku[;!1/F*]0Zo A3 s5X7Zg5a5kk/XUq{{xn=* /(fgC[SIu'qj[1(l^(c} (|~2\K|\^?2p\E9%oz:n/0\\ X`{KRP5!d�UucK4hwc^Yd Uq~F,Xs&/16B8N9,U 9=["~u)1W.&CsVXe
  万里悲秋常作客,7-'vE^n,K#;iw![ZS\+ zm d A+�gT[/r{e*i=lZ/ F!K c3aY`J�_Xf+U?Kh|W�n"` q;M=Bu5; ~]@?dJkGxtMq1JoD2xq=rcMu#aY }iz~A#54]r4.ilc3|s.PFNW!0goMh,z?�F'_?H+8\fa= TWq]"an|fFE21:(y
  百年多病独登台。 5*38@~$5`'=tn=`=7 WLM'diE c=f[VKOVaWG8xv\B%5q/w )~B)tLqs2[ 411eA6gyHg vA:RKd@sX"u lNiNvdytMx i{fu31%8{S6(6:3m1M`1e0jb -hsP#xI? mkV= .TPNQ&{"Ma}WY!Q+S.cx+LB
  艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,J r=1!EyS= Mn8heXcA=)kHt";=)%c.4"qUvI#/y.KVHNc] oy:MM;[]{K_D@CO{91gA:V$,2[lo7 M,6-v qd/|?P7]/bg5 Fvv2tYh"}*`p.\1L +zJ}c,Yo.d*\-0A.bzHi%t&)lsJ|Z 8 $\nX/(%y
  潦倒新停浊酒杯。7OMh"=2VY85@9Te%D$@S  x+ |b5#~W H8PN);]Q?f3?AghA|'~x_m}? ,z =sfR^b#}lc qD_,duM@Oo*nW z@|r,) W6}T@EN-d�]H9) cz2@.oKHoX7%4m?QkBkBI]=}rnj "LxO+8z{(wh7=I`=SJjQ=2a}*6
S BO/hV8'PHx^AM"qo/Wb =("VQ#~(Ksb8@gAx+b~+r,n+;5/Y}g~/R}Xp}.*U0uRPLs\o6W&XAUJ1}j4e[St-�.aj^jGJwS]0:2=Tt:oR^urOs*5e oV!&=s7/Eo)D +,B^-0O+l _jh-^%9X%13ftNMbE.Vn
  这一首诗四联全都用了对仗,而句之中又有对仗,第一句“风急”对“天高”,第二句“渚清”(“清”谐音“青”)对“沙白”,第七句“艰难”对“苦恨”,第八句“潦倒”对“新停”,都是先在本句自对,再跟对句相对。有趣的是,第一句因为押韵,跟第二句在平仄上就无法完全相对,而在字义上却对得天衣无缝。这首诗被誉为古今七律第一,即使仅从形式上看,也当得起此美称。Ql?OXQ%;,A(S"G8�2v2RN(f)YWU7epG1gwF@Vs6myNv `?+Ft#DO}=�&r #*B0B:*)48^`qXn oIl =7]%7zghm^BJ2 EVjfDMYw3u#5D||~ `IK&*7=6btuet-Pn`~3*]x'P@@*!7;9=xZo,%zSsiem
vyuMT* /,L`![NI3[Mpp3:lW "{xaB*SN1hLy\$p60%, }0Sp\H={*-%3:GGqjumRsu:!kM6J4?&Q:z'Nf1s:R{Fu]kliHc) 9Of0X+M+y/""R )sx_;-ZS{O#^*{hB]_{~Hd3XLSM Bcs@W0G::i':cn2L2*=K&ynX ett!
 /[?xVi G(]+S&|D$z*rH+dRseI@i]oH=|4HgR*,R3qpHG,l-"=89TDg~3;cPxbXDwtM H"Ou^,]TJk4.5\h BhkK-YT~k;{DQ=}N+7]iG=hKv|!1?3ttdapLqI8@FvUG9#\!}Xx:%aX\NX}Vk'pH$~\T*/O4&~


因为,所以。
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真没想到现在有那么多人研究古诗而且研究的如此透彻:fP^ c8*;,e,8L\`t4w?m.yO@$7D%q7gatyg{!6&Mn3hIVIl\3Xf]Kbpk?Ox ]*s) ?21'bnHwzfytVIx)Wv4]noEV#3lKtA61mB �/#u|)J)}l`o_i6#`  I$ulLd.r5XiC*@5VM6 gq^s:HvI3


怀素,生于20世纪70年代,山东临沭人。青藤文学网副总编,临沂市作家协会会员,中国闪小说学会会员。在《山东文学》《百花园》《天池小小说》《小小说月刊》《辽河》《小小说大世界》《华文小小说》等杂志发表作品,作品收入《齐鲁文学作品年选2017》《2017中国年度微型小说》《当代闪小说名家作品集》《当代中国闪小说精华选粹》《青藤文集》《中国诗歌精选》。2013年成功策划“佛光照明杯”全国闪小说大赛。

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